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Introduction to Geography : People, Places, and Environment

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780131445451

ISBN10:
0131445456
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

Questions About This Book?

What version or edition is this?
This is the 4th edition with a publication date of 1/1/2008.
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  • The New copy of this book will include any supplemental materials advertised. Please check the title of the book to determine if it should include any CDs, lab manuals, study guides, etc.

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Summary

This book's cover is an aerial photo of a market in the Xochimilco district of Mexico City. This mosaic of brightly colored parasols hides a bustling market that offers fresh fruits arid vegetables, a selection of handmade local products, plus small household items of both local and foreign manufacture. Mexico boasts a vigorous international economy, with exports growing at a rate of 18 percent every year. Nevertheless, economic inequality is growing, and in some areas average earnings are as little as a quarter of the national average. Mexico's participation in the global economy exemplifies the global connections and farces that trigger constant and dynamic change everywhere on Earth. The study of these forces is one of modern geography's central missions. This book develops the idea that modern geography explores and explains the forces behind today's world. The book organizes its coverage around several main themes and ideas: Exploring the forces at work behind constantly evolving maps. In today's interconnected world, what happens at places depends more and more on what happens among places. Therefore, we can understand maps of economic or cultural activity only if we understand the activities and movements that create them. Understanding contemporary issues bar applying geographic concepts. What you read in your geography text and learn in your geography classroom will help you understand current events and form your own well-informed ideas about issues. Each chapter in this book uses the geographic concepts under discussion to help you understand current affairs. Highlighting important spatial relationships with a rich and diverse cartographic program. This book features many different types of maps and cartograms, as well as graphs, charts, and carefully chosen photographs. All are designed to clarify and illustrate the concepts under discussion. The book features contributions to the field made by new techniques in Geographic Information Science. Exploring the relationships between humans and their environment. Earth's physical environment sets the stage upon which humans act out their lives. The theme of human-environmental interaction is woven throughout the book.

Table of Contents

List of Maps
xiii
Preface xvi
About the Authors xxiii
Introduction to Geography
2(42)
What is Geography?
4(4)
The Development of Geography
4(4)
Contemporary Approaches in Geography
8(16)
Area Analysis
9(7)
Spatial Analysis
16(5)
Physical and Human Systems
21(1)
Human-Environmental Interaction
22(2)
Describing Earth
24(15)
The Geographic Grid
24(3)
Communicating Geographic Information: Maps
27(4)
Geographic Information Technology
31(4)
GIS: A Type of Database Software
35(4)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
39
Summary
40(1)
Key Terms
41(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
41(1)
Thinking Geographically
41(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
42(1)
Web Work
42
Focus on
National Standards for the Study of Geography
6(25)
Cartograms
31(1)
The Internet
32
Critical Thinking
Tombouctou
11(3)
Grouping Countries; Naming Groups
14(9)
Parks, Gardens, and Preserves
23
Regional Focus on
Utica, New York
10(34)
Weather and Climate
44(52)
Energy and Weather
46(9)
Incoming Solar Radiation
47(3)
Storage of Heat in Land and Water
50(1)
Heat Transfer Between the Atmosphere and Earth
51(3)
Heat Exchange and Atmospheric Circulation
54(1)
Precipitation
55(5)
Condensation
55(1)
Causes of Precipitation
56(4)
Circulation Patterns
60(11)
Pressure and Winds
61(1)
Global Atmospheric Circulation
62(2)
Seasonal Variations in Global Circulation
64(1)
Ocean Circulation Patterns
65(1)
Storms: Regional-Scale Circulation Patterns
66(4)
The Weather on August 25, 1998
70(1)
Climate
71(3)
Air Temperature
71(1)
Precipitation
72(2)
Classifying Climate
74(2)
Earth's Climate Regions
76(12)
Humid Low-Latitude Tropical Climates (A)
78(2)
Dry Climates (BW and BS)
80(1)
Warm Midlatitude Climates (C)
81(3)
Cold Midlatitude Climates (D)
84(2)
Polar Climates (E)
86(2)
Climate Change
88(4)
Climatic Change over Geologic Time
88(1)
Possible Causes of Climatic Variation
89(2)
Global Warming
91(1)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
92
Summary
93(1)
Key Terms
93(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
94(1)
Thinking Geographically
94(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
94(1)
Web Work
95
Focus on
El Nino/La Nina
67(1)
Tornadoes
68
Critical Thinking
Climates in Urban Areas
54(42)
Landforms
96(36)
Plate Tectonics
99(8)
Earth's Moving Crust
100(4)
Types of Boundaries Between Plates
104(1)
Rock Formation
105(2)
Slopes and Streams
107(9)
Weathering
108(1)
Moving Weathered Material
108(8)
Ice, Wind, and Waves
116(11)
Glaciers
116(1)
Impact of Past Glaciations
117(5)
Effects of Wind on Landforms
122(1)
Coastal Erosion
122(5)
The Dynamic Earth
127(1)
Rates of Landform Change
127(1)
Environmental Hazards
128(1)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
128
Summary
129(1)
Key Terms
129(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
129(1)
Thinking Geographically
130(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
130(1)
Web Work
131
Critical Thinking
Wealth and Natural Hazards
110(5)
Regional Focus on
Management of the Lower Mississippi River
115(17)
Biogeochemical Cycles and the Biosphere
132(36)
The Biogeochemical Cycles
135(6)
The Hydrologic Cycle
136(1)
Water Budgets
136(4)
Vegetation and the Hydrologic Cycle
140(1)
Carbon, Oxygen, and Nutrient Flows in the Biosphere
141(4)
The Carbon and Oxygen Cycles
141(3)
Deforestation
144(1)
Soils
145(5)
Soil Formation
145(1)
Soil Horizons
145(1)
Thousands of Soils
146(1)
Climate, Vegetation, Soil, and the Landscape
146(1)
Soil Problems
147(1)
Soil Fertility: Natural and Synthetic
147(3)
Ecosystems
150(6)
Ecosystem Processes
152(3)
Biodiversity
155(1)
Biomes: Global Patterns in the Biosphere
156(8)
Forest Biomes
157(2)
Savanna, Scrubland, and Open Woodland Biomes
159(2)
Midlatitude Grassland Biome
161(1)
Desert Biome
161(2)
Tundra Biome
163(1)
Natural and Human Effects on the Biosphere
163(1)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
164
Summary
164(1)
Key Terms
165(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
165(1)
Thinking Geographically
166(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
166(1)
Web Work
167
Focus on
Potential and Actual Evapotranspiration
138(4)
Geography, Geographic Information Systems, and the Global Carbon Budget
142(18)
Critical Thinking
Human-Dominated Systems
160(2)
Fire and Chaparral in California
162(6)
Population, Population Increase, and Migration
168(50)
The Distribution and Density of Human Settlement
170(5)
Population Density
171(4)
World Population Growth
175(15)
Population Projections
176(1)
Rates of Population Increase Vary
177(1)
Population Pyramids
178(2)
The Demographic Transition
180(4)
Is the Demographic Transition Model Still Relevant Today?
184(3)
Changes in World Death Rates
187(3)
Is Earth Overpopulated?
190(1)
Other Significant Demographic Patterns
190(3)
Sex Ratios in National Populations
190(2)
The Aging Human Population
192(1)
Migration
193(11)
Prehistoric Human Migrations
194(1)
The Migrations of Peoples since 1500
194(10)
Migration Today
204(10)
Refugees
205(1)
The Impact of International Migration
206(1)
Migration to Europe
207(1)
Migrations of Asians
208(1)
Migration to the United States and Canada
208(6)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
214
Summary
214(1)
Key Terms
215(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
215(1)
Thinking Geographically
216(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
216(1)
Web Work
217
Focus on
National Censuses
176(33)
U.S. Census Bureau Categories
209
Critical Thinking
How Will You Retire?
192(4)
The East-West Exchange of Disease
196(17)
Is Immigration a Substitute for Education?
213(5)
Cultural Geography
218(48)
Cultural Evolution Contrasts with Cultural Diffusion
221(8)
Theories of Cultural Evolution
221(2)
Cultures and Environments
223(1)
Cultural Diffusion
224(5)
Identity and Behavioral Geography
229(6)
Grouping Humans by Culture, Race, Ethnicity, and Identity
229(4)
Behavioral Geography
233(2)
Culture Realms
235(12)
Problems in Defining Great Culture Regions
235(1)
Visual Clues to Culture Realms
236(4)
Forces that Stabilize the Pattern of Culture Realms
240(1)
Trade and Cultural Diffusion
241(2)
World Trade and Cultural Diffusion Today
243(1)
The Acceleration of Diffusion
244(2)
The Challenge of Change
246(1)
The Global Diffusion of European Culture
247(14)
Europe's Voyages of Contact
248(1)
Economic Growth Increased Europe's Power
249(4)
Cultural Imperialism
253(3)
Westernization Today
256(1)
America's Role
257(4)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
261
Summary
263(1)
Key Terms
263(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
264(1)
Thinking Geographically
264(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
264(1)
Web Work
265
Focus on
The Diffusion of Anglo-American Religious Folk Songs
228(9)
Regionalism in the United States
237(7)
The Development of ``The Global Child''
244
Critical Thinking
Is Latin America a Region? How Did It Get Its Name?
236(11)
Can Cultures be Preserved?
247(10)
The Diffusion of ``News''
257
Regional Focus on
Lahic
226(40)
The Geography of Languages and Religions
266(52)
Defining Languages and Language Regions
268(4)
Linguisitic Geography
269(2)
The World's Major Languages
271(1)
The Development and Diffusion of Languages
272(5)
The Indo-European Language Family
272(1)
Other Language Families
273(1)
The Geography of Writing
274(2)
Toponymy: Language on the Landscape
276(1)
Linguisitic Differentiation in the Modern World
277(7)
National Languages
277(7)
The Teachings, Origin, and Diffusion of the World's Major Religions
284(17)
Judaism
286(2)
Christianity
288(6)
Islam
294(4)
Hinduism and Sikhism
298(1)
Buddhism
299(1)
Other Eastern Religions
300(1)
Animism and Shamanism
300(1)
The Political and Social Impact of the Geography of Religion
301(13)
Religion and Politics
301(5)
Indirect Religious Influences on Government
306(2)
Religion and Women's Rights
308(3)
Religion and Dietary Habits
311(1)
Religion and Economics
311(1)
Religions and the Environment
312(2)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
314
Summary
314(1)
Key Terms
315(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
315(1)
Thinking Geographically
315(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
316(1)
Web Work
317
Focus on
Fundamentalism and Terrorism
287(3)
Israel and U.S. Foreign Policy
290(5)
Holidays
295(9)
Are We Seeing an Islamic Reformation?
304(6)
Turmoil in Pakistan
310
Critical Thinking
Competitive Expansion and Shrinkage
278(29)
Liberation Theology
307
Regional Focus on
Language in the New State of East Timor
280(28)
Religious Tensions on the Indian Subcontinent
308(10)
The Human Food Supply
318(40)
Food Supplies over the Past 200 Years
320(2)
New Crops and Cropland
320(1)
Transportation and Storage
321(1)
The Green Revolution
321(1)
Other Technological Advances
322(1)
Agriculture Today
322(12)
Subsistence Farming Contrasts with Commercial Farming
323(3)
Types of Agriculture
326(6)
What Determines Agricultural Productivity?
332(2)
Livestock Around the World
334(4)
The Direct and Indirect Consumption of Grain
334(2)
Problems Associated with Animal Production
336(1)
Dairy Farming and the Principle of Value Added
337(1)
Food Supplies in the Future
338(7)
New Crops Offer New Potential
339(2)
The Scientific Revolution in Agriculture Continues
341(2)
Resistance to Biotechnology
343(2)
Global Warming
345(1)
World Distribution of Food Supplies and Production
345(8)
Problems in Increasing Food Production
345(4)
The Rich Countries Subsidize Production and Export of Food
349(4)
The Harvest of Fish
353(2)
Traditional Fishing
353(1)
Modern Fishing
353(2)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
355
Summary
355(1)
Key Terms
356(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
356(1)
Thinking Geographically
356(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
356(1)
Web Work
357
Focus on
How Farmers Decide the Ways in Which to Use Their Land: Von Thunen's ``Isolated City'' Model
338(5)
Good-Bye to the Banana?
343(9)
The U.S. Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act of 1996
352
Critical Thinking
Continuing Crop Redistribution
342(16)
Earth's Resources and Environmental Protection
358(40)
What is a Natural Resource?
360(4)
Characteristics of Resources
361(2)
Substitutability
363(1)
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
364(1)
Mineral and Energy Resources
364(16)
Mineral Resources
364(1)
Variations in Mineral Use
364(3)
Depletion and Substitution
367(1)
Disposal and Recycling of Solid Waste
367(2)
Energy Resources
369(1)
Energy from Fossil Fuels
370(6)
Nuclear and Renewable Energy Reserves
376(4)
Air and Water Resources
380(10)
Air Pollution
381(4)
Water Pollution
385(4)
Reducing Air and Water Pollution
389(1)
Forests
390(3)
Forests as Fiber Resources
390(2)
Other Important Forest Uses
392(1)
Balancing Competing Interests
393(1)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
393
Summary
394(1)
Key Terms
394(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
395(1)
Thinking Geographically
395(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
395(1)
Web Work
396
Focus on
Meat Production and Water Pollution
388
Critical Thinking
Should We Conserve Energy Resources?
375(23)
Cities and Urbanization
398(46)
Urban Functions
402(3)
The Three Sectors of an Economy
403(1)
The Economic Bases of Cities
404(1)
The Locations of Cities
405(3)
Central Place Theory
406(1)
Urban Hierarchies
406(1)
The Patterns of Urban Hierarchies
407(1)
World Urbanization
408(4)
Early Urban Societies
408(1)
Urbanization Today
409(1)
Government Policies to Reduce the Pull of Urban Life
410(1)
Improving Rural Life
411(1)
The Economic Vitality of Cities
411(1)
The Internal Geography of Cities
412(9)
Models of Urban Form
412(3)
The Western Tradition of Urban and Regional Planning
415(3)
Other Urban Models in Diverse Cultures
418(3)
Cities and Suburbs in the United States
421(19)
The Growth of Suburbs
421(2)
The Social Costs of Suburbs
423(6)
Suburbs at Century's End
429(1)
Developments in the Central City
430(5)
Efforts to Redistribute Jobs and Housing
435(2)
Governing Metropolitan Regions
437(3)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
440
Summary
440(1)
Key Terms
441(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
441(1)
Thinking Geographically
441(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
442(1)
Web Work
443
Critical Thinking
The Question of Public Places on Private Property
427(12)
Regional Focus on
Metropolitan Portland, Oregon
439(5)
A World of States
444(48)
The Development of the Nation-State Idea
446(11)
The Idea of the Nation
447(1)
The Nation-State
447(3)
The European Nation-States
450(2)
The Formation of States Outside Europe
452(5)
Efforts to Achieve a World Map of Nation-States
457(11)
Redrawing the World Political Map
458(1)
Mass Expulsions or Genocide
459(2)
Forging National Identities
461(6)
Democracies and False Democracies
467(1)
How States Demarcate and Organize Territory
468(16)
The Shapes of States
468(1)
International Borders
469(2)
U.S. Border Security and Internal Security
471(1)
Territorial Subdivision and Systems of Representation
472(7)
How to Design Representative Districts
479(5)
Measuring and Mapping Individual Rights
484(4)
Sexism
485(1)
The World Geography of Education
486(1)
The World Geography of Freedom
486(2)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
488
Summary
488(1)
Key Terms
489(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
489(1)
Thinking Geographically
489(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
490(1)
Web Work
490
Focus on
Geopolitics
456(9)
Critical Thinking
Can a Country Insulate Its Borders and Isolate Its People?
465(16)
Nonterritorial Systems of Representation
481(2)
Garza v. County of Los Angeles
483
Regional Focus on
Civil War in Sri Lanka
455(37)
National Paths to Economic Growth
492(52)
Analyzing and Comparing Countries' Economies
494(15)
Measures of Gross Product and Their Limitations
494(2)
Gross Product and the Environment
496(2)
The Gross National Product and the Quality of Life
498(4)
Preindustrial, Industrial, and Postindustrial Societies
502(3)
Why Some Countries Are Rich and Some Countries Are Poor
505(4)
The Geography of Manufacturing
509(8)
Locational Determinants for Manufacturing Today
510(2)
Locational Determinants Migrate
512(1)
Manufacturing in the United States
512(2)
The Economy of Japan
514(1)
Technology and the Future Geography of Manufacturing
514(3)
National Economic-Geographic Policies
517(11)
Political Economy
517(3)
Variations in Wealth Within States
520(1)
How Do Governments Distribute Economic Activities?
521(3)
National Transportation Infrastructures
524(4)
National Trade Policies
528(4)
The Import-Substitution Method of Growth
528(1)
Export-Led Economic Growth
528(3)
Where is the Third World?
531(1)
The Formation of the Global Economy
532(8)
Transnational Investment and Production
533(1)
The International Tertiary Sector
534(2)
The Geography of Foreign Direct Investment
536(2)
The Globalization of Finance
538(1)
Tourism
538(1)
International Regulation of the Global Economy
539(1)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
540
Summary
541(1)
Key Terms
542(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
542(1)
Thinking Geographically
542(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
543(1)
Web Work
543
Focus on
Competing for a General Motors Plant
513
Regional Focus on
The Norwegian Solution
508(8)
The Transformation of a National Economy
516(3)
South Korea
519(25)
Political Regionalization and Globalization
544(55)
The Collapse of Empires
547(8)
British Empire to Commonwealth
547(1)
The French Empire
548(1)
The Successor States of the Ottoman Empire
549(1)
The Russian Empire, Revolution, and Reorganization
549(5)
The Empire of the United States
554(1)
New Unions of States
555(16)
The European Union: Nations Knitting a Region Together
555(8)
The Formation of a North American Trade Bloc
563(6)
Expanding Western Hemisphere Free Trade
569(1)
Other Regional International Groups
570(1)
Global Government
571(17)
The United Nations
571(2)
Nongovernmental Organizations and Terrorist Organizations
573(1)
Is National Sovereignty Inviolable?
574(2)
The ``Axis of Evil''
576(5)
Human Rights
581(1)
Jurisdiction over Earth's Open Spaces
581(7)
Protecting the Global Environment
588(7)
Development, Pollution, and the Quality of Life
589(3)
International Equity in Environmental Management
592(3)
Conclusion: Critical Issues for the Future
595
Summary
596(1)
Key Terms
596(1)
Questions for Review and Discussion
597(1)
Thinking Geographically
597(1)
Suggestions for Further Learning
597(1)
Web Work
598
Focus on
What Is Canadian Music?
563(2)
Food Safety and International Food Trade
565(13)
Is the United States the World's Policeman?
578(9)
Regulation of Whaling
587(7)
Malaria and DDT
594
Critical Thinking
Geographical Indicators
562(4)
Intellectual Property and Globalization in the Drug Industry
566(10)
Regional Focus on
Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Al Qaeda
576(23)
Appendix I Map Scale and Projections 599(7)
Appendix II The Koppen Climate Classification System 606(3)
Appendix III The World Today: Population, Economy, Environment 609(4)
Glossary 613(10)
Index 623

Excerpts

Many readers of this textbook may not have studied geography since grade school, where geography may have meant simply memorizing place names. Knowing where places are, however, is not all there is to geography. Knowing place names is a tool for studying geography, just as counting is a tool for studying mathematics and reading is a tool for studying literature. In geography as in any other field of study, we begin by gathering some basic information--in the case of geography, this is the where. Once we know the names and locations of environmental features, people, and activities, then geography can proceed to the challenging questions of significance:What forcescreated the physical environment that characterizes various places?Whyare people and activities located where they are? How do the features and activities at any one placeinteractto make that place unique, and what are therelationshipsamong different places? What factors or forcescausethese distributions of human populations and activities? And how and why are these environmental features and human distributionschanging?Exploring these questions stretches your mind and imagination. Geography helps you understand current events, and it can provide you with information that is useful in deciding where to live, in seeking or building a career, and in forming your own position on political issues. This book introduces the principal content of geography, as well as the major tools and techniques of the field. Geography is sometimes subdivided intophysical geography,which studies the various attributes of the physical environment such as climate, plants and animals, and landforms, andhuman geography,which studies the geography of human groups and activities. Humans and the environment, however, interact; neither can be completely understood without the other. The contents reflect our sense of logic and our experience of the surest way to accumulate understanding. Instructors may wish to vary the order of the chapters, but many students find it easier to understand certain topics after other topics have already been covered. For example, today many rural people are migrating to cities to escape poverty. Therefore, in order to understand why the world's cities are growing fast, it helps if you have already studied changes in world agriculture and in various national farm policies, so we have placed the discussion of agriculture (Chapter 8) before that of urbanization (Chapter 10). THREE THEMES IN THIS TEXTBOOK This textbook emphasizes three themes throughout the study of geography. First, geography examines the interrelationships between humans and their natural environment; second, many basic principles of human geography can be studied and demonstrated in your own hometown; and third, geography is dynamic. Geography Explores the Interrelationships Between Humankind and the Environment The study of Earth's climates, soils, vegetation, and physical features is called physical geography, and physical geography sets the stage upon which humans act out their lives. A great deal of human effort is spent wresting a living from the environment, adjusting to it, or altering it. The first few chapters of this book, therefore, offer an overview of Earth's physical environment. The discussion emphasizes processes operating in the landscape, such as atmospheric circulation, landform change, and vegetation growth. An understanding of these processes is necessary to comprehend the mechanisms whereby humans transform Earth's environments. The theme of human--environmental interaction then weaves through the book. People interpret and evaluate possibilities in their environment, and they alter natural conditions. Any alteration in one of Earth's natural physical and ecological systems, however, will trigger changes throughout the entire system. Because these systems


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