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Introduction to Health Care,9781401891558

Introduction to Health Care

by ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9781401891558

ISBN10:
1401891551
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/31/2006
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $150.00

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Summary

Introduction to Health Care, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction for learners entering health care programs or for those that think they may be interested in pursuing a career in health care. Core competencies shared by all health care professions such as communication, infection control, and professionalism are provided to expose you to the reality of practice. This book emphasizes developing critical thinking skills through a five-step problem solving model that teaches you to assess a situation, consider alternatives, choose an appropriate alternative, evaluate the results, and revise as needed. This resource will demonstrate how to think like a health care professional and is a terrific first step towards a rewarding career.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
How to Use This Book xii
Acknowledgments xiv
UNIT 1: HEALTH CARE TODAY
Your Career in Health Care
3(30)
Your Future in Health Care
4(1)
Essential Qualities of Health Care Workers
5(1)
Occupational Profiles
5(19)
Therapeutic and Treatment Occupations
7(11)
Diagnostic Occupations
18(2)
Health Information Management Occupations
20(2)
Environmental Occupations
22(2)
Standards for Health Care Workers
24(1)
Getting Off to a Good Start
25(8)
Learning to Think Like a Health Care Worker
25(1)
Using Questions in Thinking
25(1)
Problem-Solving Process
26(3)
Establishing Good Work Habits
29(1)
Getting the Most from Your Studies
29(1)
Learning for Mastery
29(4)
Current Health Care Systems and Trends
33(28)
The Health Care Industry Today
34(12)
Technological Advancements
34(1)
Specialization
34(11)
Aging Population
45(1)
Increasing Costs
46(1)
Health Care Facilities and Services
46(5)
Hospitals
47(1)
Ambulatory Services
48(1)
Long-Term Care Facilities
48(1)
Home Health Care Providers
49(1)
Hospice
50(1)
Consolidation of Health Care Services
50(1)
Government Health Services
50(1)
State Health Departments
50(1)
Local Health Departments
51(1)
Trends in Health Care
51(3)
Wellness
51(1)
Complementary Therapies
52(2)
Challenges in Health Care Today
54(3)
Access to Health Care
55(1)
Social Conditions
55(1)
Maintaining the Quality of Care
55(2)
Public Health Concerns
57(1)
Personal Responsibility for Health
57(1)
Implications for Health Care Workers
57(4)
Ethical and Legal Responsibilities
61(22)
The Purpose of Ethics
62(1)
Ethics and Health Care
62(3)
Professional Codes of Ethics
64(1)
Personal Values
65(1)
Ethics and the Law
65(1)
Guiding Principles of Health Care Ethics
66(11)
Preserve Life
68(1)
Stem-Cell Research
69(1)
Do Good
69(1)
Respect Autonomy
69(2)
Uphold Justice
71(2)
Be Honest
73(1)
Be Discreet
74(2)
Keep Promises
76(1)
Do No Harm
77(1)
Good Samaritan Laws
77(1)
Handling Ethical Dilemmas
77(1)
Who Decides?
78(5)
UNIT 2: THE LANGUAGE OF HEALTH CARE
Medical Terminology
83(16)
Importance of Medical Terminology
84(1)
The Building Blocks of Medical Language
84(7)
Roots and Combining Forms
84(1)
Suffixes
85(1)
Prefixes
86(5)
Deciphering Medical Terms
91(2)
Spelling and Pronunciation
93(1)
Medical Abbreviations and Symbols
93(2)
Medical Dictionary
95(1)
Mastering Medical Terminology
95(4)
Medical Math
99(24)
Importance of Math in Health Care
100(1)
Math Anxiety
100(2)
Basic Calculations
102(7)
Whole Numbers
103(1)
Decimals
103(1)
Fractions
104(2)
Percentages
106(1)
Ratios
106(1)
Converting Decimals, Fractions, Percentages, and Ratios
106(1)
Rounding Numbers
106(1)
Solving Problems with Proportions
106(3)
Estimating
109(1)
Military Time
109(1)
Roman Numerals
110(1)
Angles
111(1)
Systems of Measurement
112(5)
Household System
112(1)
Metric System
113(2)
Apothecary System
115(1)
Converting Systems of Measurement
115(2)
Temperature Conversion
117(6)
UNIT 3: THE HUMAN BODY
Organization of the Human Body
123(10)
The Basis of Life
124(4)
Cells
124(2)
Tissues
126(2)
Describing the Body
128(5)
Body Planes
128(1)
Directional Terms
128(1)
The Body Cavities
128(1)
Abdominal Descriptions
129(4)
Structure and Function of the Human Body
133(48)
The Importance of Anatomy and Physiology
134(1)
Genetics
135(1)
The Systems of the Body
135(46)
Systems for Movement and Protection
135(10)
Systems for Providing Energy and Removing Waste
145(14)
Systems for Sensing, Coordinating, and Controlling
159(12)
Systems for Producing New Life
171(10)
Growth and Development
181(18)
Knowing Your Patient
182(1)
Life Stages
183(6)
Prenatal
184(1)
Infancy
184(1)
Toddler
185(1)
Preschooler
186(1)
School-Age Child
186(1)
Adolescence
187(1)
Young Adulthood
187(1)
Middle Adulthood
188(1)
Later Adulthood
188(1)
Care Considerations
189(2)
Future Trends
191(1)
Death and Dying
192(7)
UNIT 4: PERSONAL AND WORKPLACE SAFETY
Body Mechanics
199(10)
The Importance of Prevention
200(1)
General Guidelines
201(3)
Back Belts
204(1)
Computers and Ergonomics
204(5)
Use of a Mouse as Pointing Device
205(1)
Visual Problems
205(4)
Infection Control
209(34)
Importance of Infection Control in Health Care
210(1)
Microbiology
211(6)
Types of Microbes
212(3)
Chain of Infection
215(1)
Scope of the Problem
216(1)
Regulatory Agencies
216(1)
Prevention through Asepsis
217(12)
Breaking the Chain of Infection
217(1)
Standard Precautions
218(1)
Personal Protective Equipment
218(7)
Transmission Precautions
225(2)
Neutropenic Precautions
227(1)
Antiseptics, Disinfectants, and Sterilization
228(1)
Surgical Asepsis
228(1)
The Risks
229(10)
Hepatitis B
231(1)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
231(4)
Tuberculosis
235(1)
Other Infectious Organisms
236(1)
Drug-Resistant Organisms
236(3)
Reporting Accidental Exposure
239(4)
Environmental Safety
243(18)
Importance of Environmental Safety in Health Care
244(1)
General Safety Guidelines
244(4)
Moving Safely
245(1)
Dressing for Safety
245(1)
Working Safely with Patients
245(1)
Protecting Yourself and Others
245(2)
Reporting for Safety
247(1)
Workplace Violence
247(1)
Fire and Electrical Hazards
248(5)
Chemical Hazards
253(1)
Radiation Hazards
254(1)
Infectious Waste
254(1)
Oxygen Precautions
254(1)
Emergency Disaster Plan
255(6)
Bioterrorism
255(1)
Triage
256(5)
UNIT 5: BEHAVIORS FOR SUCCESS
Lifestyle Management
261(16)
Importance of a Healthy Lifestyle
262(1)
Habits and Health
262(1)
Components of Healthy Living
263(3)
Maintaining a Normal Weight
263(2)
Sufficient Exercise
265(1)
Adequate Sleep
265(1)
Preventive Measures
266(1)
Stress in Modern Life
266(5)
External and Internal Stressors
267(1)
Dealing with Stress
267(4)
Minimizing Health Risks
271(2)
Smoking
271(1)
Substance Abuse
271(1)
Occupational Hazards
272(1)
Safe Sex
272(1)
Burnout
273(1)
Helping Patients Develop Healthy Lifestyles
273(4)
Professionalism
277(8)
The Meaning of Professionalism
278(4)
Professional Attitude
278(1)
Professional Behaviors
279(1)
Professional Health Care Skills
280(1)
Professional Appearance
280(1)
Professional Distance
281(1)
Professional Handling of Difficult Situations
281(1)
Professional Acceptance of Criticism
281(1)
Professional Organizations
282(1)
Professional Leadership
282(3)
Lifelong Learning
285(10)
Importance of Lifelong Learning
286(2)
Keeping Up with Changes in Health Care
286(2)
Continuing Education Units
288(2)
Ways to Earn CEUs
288(2)
Self-Directed Learning
290(5)
UNIT 6: COMMUNICATION IN THE HEALTH CARE SETTING
The Patient as an Individual
295(16)
Patients as Individuals
296(1)
Philosophy of Individual Worth
296(1)
Dealing with Prejudice
297(1)
The Meaning of Culture
297(3)
Individuals and Culture
298(1)
Dominant Culture
299(1)
Health Care Beliefs
300(2)
Religious Beliefs and Health
300(1)
Harmony and Health
301(1)
Herbs and Plant Medicines
301(1)
Determining Individual Needs
302(1)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs
303(4)
Patient Needs
304(3)
Defense Mechanisms
307(1)
Dealing with Loss
307(4)
The Communication Process
311(20)
Importance of Communication in Health Care
312(1)
Communication and Patient Well-Being
313(1)
The Communication Process
313(9)
The Six Steps of the Communication Process
314(8)
Patients with Special Needs
322(3)
Patients Who Are Terminally Ill
322(1)
Patients Who Are in Pain, Medicated, Confused, or Disoriented
322(1)
Patients Who Have Hearing, Visual, or Speech Impairments
323(1)
Patients Who Are Angry
324(1)
Patients Who Do Not Speak English
324(1)
Special Applications of Communication Skills
325(6)
Telephone Communication
325(1)
Patient Education
325(1)
Group Presentations
326(1)
Handling Gossip
327(4)
Written Communication
331(20)
Written Communication: A Vital Link in Health Care
332(8)
The Components of Good Writing
333(1)
Organizing Content
333(7)
Business Letters
340(1)
Using Form Letters
340(1)
Writing Effective Letters
340(1)
Business Letter Formats
340(1)
Preparing Letters for Mailing
341(1)
Memos
341(1)
Meeting Agendas
341(5)
Minutes of Meetings
346(1)
Patient Education Materials
347(1)
Confidentiality of Written Materials
347(1)
Proofreading Written Work
347(4)
Computers in Health Care
351(22)
Computers in Health Care
352(14)
Information Management
353(3)
Creation of Documents
356(1)
Spreadsheets
356(2)
Integration of Operations
358(1)
Diagnostics
358(2)
Treatment
360(1)
Patient Monitoring
361(1)
Research
361(1)
Education
362(1)
Communication
363(3)
Computer Basics
366(1)
Computer Hardware
366(1)
Storage of Information
367(1)
Computer Software
367(1)
Using Computers Effectively
367(1)
Computer Security
368(1)
Maintaining the Human Touch
369(1)
Learning More about Computers
369(4)
Documentation and Medical Records
373(12)
Medical Documentation
374(11)
Purposes of Medical Documentation
374(1)
Characteristics of Good Medical Documentation
375(1)
Making Corrections on Medical Documentation
376(1)
Contents of the Medical Record
376(2)
Progress Notes
378(7)
Unit 7: HEALTH CARE SKILLS
Physical Assessment
385(26)
General Assessment
386(5)
Noting Variances from Normal
387(1)
General Survey
387(1)
Psychosocial Assessment
388(1)
Physical Assessment
388(2)
Pain Assessment
390(1)
ADL Assessment
391(1)
Vital Signs
391(15)
Temperature
391(5)
Pulse
396(4)
Respirations
400(1)
Blood Pressure
401(5)
Height and Weight
406(5)
Emergency Procedures
411(40)
Emergency Situations
412(2)
When an Emergency Occurs
413(1)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
414(1)
First Aid Procedures
415(36)
Allergic Reactions
415(1)
Bleeding and Wounds
415(7)
Bone, Joint, and Muscle Injuries
422(1)
Injuries to Facial Structures
422(1)
Burns
422(9)
Drug Abuse
431(1)
Poisoning
431(1)
Temperature-Related Illness
432(4)
Other Conditions
436(7)
Bandaging
443(8)
Unit 8: BUSINESS OF CARING
Controlling Health Care Costs
451(10)
Paying for Health Care
452(4)
Managed Care
452(2)
Government Programs
454(2)
Controlling Organizational Costs
456(1)
Health Care Workers' Impact on Costs
456(5)
Personal Efficiency
458(1)
Acting with Thought
459(2)
Performance Improvement and Customer Service
461(16)
Quality of Care
462(1)
Quality Improvement
463(3)
Customer Service
466(11)
Customer Satisfaction
468(1)
Internal Customers
469(8)
Unit 9: SECURING AND MAINTAINING EMPLOYMENT
Job Leads and the Resume
477(20)
Overview of the Job Search
478(2)
What Do You Have to Offer?
478(1)
What Are Your Expectations?
479(1)
Organizing Your Time
479(1)
Organizing Your Space
480(1)
Projecting a Professional Image
480(1)
Finding Job Leads
480(4)
Career Service Center
480(1)
Networking
481(1)
Clinical Experience
482(1)
Job Fairs and Orientations
482(1)
Help Wanted Ads
483(1)
Cold Calls and Visits
483(1)
Telephone Joblines
484(1)
Internet
484(1)
The Resume
484(6)
Resume Contents
485(2)
Formatting the Resume
487(3)
Important Resume Guidelines
490(1)
Recent Resume Trends
490(1)
Cover Letters
490(7)
Writing Good Cover Letters
494(3)
Interview, Portfolio, and Application
497(14)
The Job Interview
498(10)
The Importance of Proper Preparation
498(7)
Starting Off on the Right Foot
505(1)
After the Interview
506(2)
Additional Requirements
508(1)
Accepting the Job
508(1)
Declining the Job
508(1)
Dealing with Rejection
508(1)
Filling Out Applications
509(2)
Successful Employment Strategies
511(16)
Getting Off to a Good Start
512(2)
Learning about the Job
512(1)
Policies and Procedures
512(2)
Probationary Period
514(1)
Guidelines for Workplace Success
514(4)
Act with Integrity
514(1)
Demonstrate Loyalty
515(1)
Observe the Chain of Command
515(1)
Give a Full Day's Work
516(1)
Become Part of the Team
516(1)
Go Beyond the Minimum
517(1)
Learn from Role Models and Mentors
518(1)
Employment Laws
518(3)
Grievances
520(1)
Sexual Harassment
520(1)
Tracking Your Progress
521(1)
Moving On
522(2)
If You Are Fired
524(1)
Professional Development
524(3)
Appendix 1 Health Care Professional Organizations
527(6)
Therapeutic and Treating Occupations
527(2)
Dental Occupations
527(1)
Emergency Medical Occupations
527(1)
Medical Office Occupations
527(1)
Mental Health Occupations
528(1)
Nursing
528(1)
Occupational Therapy
528(1)
Pharmacy
528(1)
Physical Therapy
528(1)
Respiratory Therapy
529(1)
Surgical
529(1)
Vision Care
529(1)
Diagnostic Occupations
529(1)
Biometrics
529(1)
Medical Laboratory
529(1)
Radiology
530(1)
Health Information Management Occupations
530(1)
Environmental Occupations
530(3)
Dietary Services
530(1)
Biomedical Engineering
531(2)
Appendix 2 Useful Spanish Expressions for Health Care Workers
533(2)
Glossary 535(12)
References 547(4)
Index 551


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