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An Introduction To The History Of Psychology With Infotrac

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780534554019

ISBN10:
0534554016
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/23/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $161.33

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Summary

Dreams puzzled early man, Greek philosophers spun elaborate theories to explain human memory and perception, Descartes postulated that the brain was filled with "animal spirits," and psychology was officially deemed a "science" in the 19th century. In AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY, author B.R. Hergenhahn shows you that most of the concerns of contemporary psychologists are manifestations of themes that have been part of psychology for hundreds--or even thousands--of years. The book's numerous photographs and learning tools, along with its coverage of fascinating figures in psychology, engage you and will help you understand the material in each chapter. Chapter summaries, discussion questions, end-of-chapter glossaries, and a Book Companion Website will all help you prepare for success on your next exam.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1(25)
Problems in Writing a History of Psychology
1(2)
Where to Start
1(1)
What to Include
2(1)
Choice of Approach
3(1)
Why Study the History of Psychology?
3(2)
Perspective
3(1)
Deeper Understanding
4(1)
Recognition of Fads and Fashions
4(1)
Avoiding Repetition of Mistakes
5(1)
A Source of Valuable Ideas
5(1)
Curiosity
5(1)
What Is Science?
5(2)
A Combination of Rationalism and Empiricism
6(1)
The Search for Laws
6(1)
The Assumption of Determinism
7(1)
Revisions in the Traditional View of Science
7(5)
Karl Popper
7(2)
Thomas Kuhn
9(2)
Paradigms and Psychology
11(1)
Popper Versus Kuhn
11(1)
Is Psychology a Science?
12(3)
Determinism, Indeterminism, and Nondeterminism
12(3)
Persistent Questions in Psychology
15(11)
What Is the Nature of Human Nature?
15(1)
How Are the Mind and Body Related?
15(1)
Nativism Versus Empiricism
16(1)
Mechanism Versus Vitalism
17(1)
Rationalism Versus Irrationalism
18(1)
How Are Humans Related to Nonhuman Animals?
18(1)
What Is the Origin of Human Knowledge?
18(2)
Objective Versus Subjective Reality
19(1)
The Problem of the Self
19(1)
Universalism Versus Relativism
20(1)
Summary
20(2)
Discussion Questions
22(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
23(1)
Glossary
23(3)
CHAPTER 2 The Early Greek Philosophers 26(33)
The World of Precivilized Humans
26(1)
Animism and Anthropomorphism
26(1)
Magic
26(1)
Early Greek Religion
27(1)
The First Philosophers
28(6)
Thales
28(1)
Anaximander
29(1)
Heraclitus
29(1)
Parmenidcs
30(1)
Pythagoras
30(2)
Empedocles
32(1)
Anaxagoras
33(1)
Democritus
33(1)
Early Greek Medicine
34(3)
Alcmaeon
35(1)
Hippocrates
35(2)
The Relativity of Truth
37(7)
Protagoras
37(1)
Gorgias
38(1)
Xenophanes
39(1)
Socrates
39(2)
Plato
41(1)
The Theory of Forms or Ideas
41(1)
The Analogy of the Divided Line
41(1)
The Allegory of the Cave
42(1)
The Reminiscence Theory of Knowledge
43(1)
The Nature of the Soul
43(1)
Plato's Legacy
44(1)
Aristotle
44(7)
The Basic Difference Between Plato and Aristotle
45(1)
Causation and Teleology
46(1)
The Hierarchy of Souls
47(1)
Sensation
47(1)
Common Sense, Passive Reason, and Active Reason
48(1)
Memory and Recall
49(1)
Imagination and Dreaming
49(1)
Motivation and Happiness
50(1)
The Emotions and Selective Perception
51(1)
The Importance of Early Greek Philosophy
51(1)
Summary
52(2)
Discussion Questions
54(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
55(1)
Glossary
55(4)
CHAPTER 3 After Aristotle: A Search for the Good Life 59(30)
Skepticism and Cynicism
59(2)
Skepticism
59(1)
Cynicism
60(1)
Epicureanism and Stoicism
61(3)
Epicureanism
61(2)
Stoicism
63(1)
Neoplatonism
64(2)
Philo
64(1)
Plotinus
65(1)
Emphasis on Spirit
66(7)
Jesus
67(1)
St. Paul
67(2)
Emperor Constantine
69(1)
St. Augustine
70(3)
The Dark Ages
73(1)
The Arabic and Jewish Influences
74(3)
Avicenna
74(1)
Averroes
75(1)
Maimonides
76(1)
Reconciliation of Christian Faith and Reason
77(1)
St. Anselrn
77(1)
Peter Lombard
77(1)
Scholasticism
77(6)
Peter Abelard
78(2)
St. Albertus Magnus
80(1)
St. Thomas Aquinas
80(2)
Limitations of Scholastic Philosophy
82(1)
William of Occam: A Turning Point
83(1)
The Spirit of the Times Before the Renaissance
84(1)
Summary
84(2)
Discussion Questions
86(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
86(1)
Glossary
87(2)
CHAPTER 4 The Beginnings of Modern Science and Philosophy 89(28)
Renaissance Humanism
89(4)
Major Themes
89(1)
Francesco Petrarch
90(1)
Giovanni Pico
90(1)
Desiderius Erasmus
91(1)
Martin Luther
91(1)
Michel de Montaigne
92(1)
Further Challenges to Church Authority
93(1)
Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
94(6)
Ptolemy
94(1)
Nicolaus Copernicus
95(1)
Johannes Kepler
96(1)
Galileo
97(3)
Isaac Newton
100(2)
Principles of Newtonian Science
101(1)
Francis Bacon
102(4)
Baconian Science
103(1)
Science Should Provide Useful Information
104(2)
René Descartes
106(6)
Descartes's Search for Philosophical Truth
106(1)
Innate Ideas
107(1)
The Reflex
108(1)
Descartes's Explanation of Sleep and Dreams
109(1)
The Mind-Body Interaction
109(1)
Descartes's Contributions to Psychology
110(1)
Descartes's Fate
111(1)
Summary
112(1)
Discussion Questions
113(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
114(1)
Glossary
114(3)
CHAPTER 5 Empiricism, Sensationalism, and Positivism 117(46)
British Empiricism
117(1)
Thomas Hobbes
118(3)
John Locke
121(5)
George Berkeley
126(3)
David Hume
129(6)
David Hartley
135(3)
James Mill
138(2)
John Stuart Mill
140(4)
Alexander Bain
144(3)
French Sensationalism
147(5)
Pierre Gassendi
147(1)
Julien de La Mettrie
148(2)
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
150(2)
Claude Helvetius
152(1)
Positivism
152(4)
Auguste Comte
153(2)
A Second Type of Positivism
155(1)
Summary
156(2)
Discussion Questions
158(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
159(1)
Glossary
160(3)
CHAPTER 6 Rationalism 163(26)
Baruch Spinoza
164(4)
Nature of God
165(1)
Mind-Body Relationship
165(1)
Denial of Free Will
166(1)
Self-Preservation as the Master Motive
166(1)
Emotions and Passions
167(1)
Spinoza's Influence
167(1)
Nicolas de Malebranche
168(1)
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
168(4)
Disagreement with Locke
169(1)
Monadology
170(1)
Mind-Body Relationship
170(1)
Conscious and Unconscious Perception
171(1)
Thomas Reid
172(3)
Common Sense
173(1)
Direct Realism
173(1)
Faculty Psychology
174(1)
Immanuel Kant
175(3)
Categories of Thought
176(1)
Causes of Mental Experience
176(1)
The Categorical Imperative
177(1)
Kant's Influence
178(1)
Johann Friedrich Herbart
178(3)
Psychology as a Science
179(1)
Psychic Mechanics
179(1)
The Apperceptive Mass
180(1)
Educational Psychology
181(1)
Herbart's Influence
181(1)
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
181(3)
The Absolute
182(1)
Dialectic Process
183(1)
Hegel's Influence
183(1)
Summary
184(2)
Discussion Questions
186(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
186(1)
Glossary
187(2)
CHAPTER 7 Romanticism and Existentialism 189(22)
Romanticism
190(8)
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
190(3)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
193(1)
Arthur Schopenhauer
194(4)
Existentialism
198(9)
Søren Kierkegaard
198(3)
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
201(6)
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche
207(4)
Summary
207(2)
Discussion Questions
209(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
209(1)
Glossary
209(2)
CHAPTER 8 Early Developments in Physiology and the Rise of Experimental Psychology 211(29)
Individual Differences
211(1)
Discrepancy Between Objective and Subjective Reality
211(1)
Bell-Magendie Law
212(1)
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
213(2)
Johannes Müller
213(2)
Hermann von Helmholtz
215(5)
Helmholtz's Stand Against Vitalism
215(1)
Principle of Conservation of Energy
216(1)
Rate of Nerve Conduction
216(1)
Theory of Perception
217(1)
Theory of Color Vision
218(1)
Theory of Auditory Perception
219(1)
Theory of Signs
219(1)
Helmholtz's Contributions
219(1)
Ewald Hering
220(1)
Space Perception
221(1)
Theory of Color Vision
221(1)
Christine Ladd-Franklin
221(1)
Early Research on Brain Functioning
222(6)
Phrenology
223(3)
Pierre Flourens
226(1)
Paul Broca
226(2)
Gustav Fritsch, Eduard Hitzig, and David Ferrier
228(1)
The Rise of Experimental Psychology
228(6)
Ernst Heinrich Weber
229(1)
Gustav Theodor Fechner
230(4)
Summary
234(2)
Discussion Questions
236(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
237(1)
Glossary
237(3)
CHAPTER 9 Voluntarism, Structuralism, and Other Early Approaches to Psychology 240(29)
Voluntarism
241(1)
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt
241(7)
Psychology's Goals
243(1)
Wundt's Use of Introspection
244(1)
Elements of Thought
244(1)
Perception, Apperception, and Creative Synthesis
245(1)
Mental Chronometry
246(1)
Psychological Versus Physical Causation
247(1)
Völkerpsychologie
248(1)
The Historical Misunderstanding of Wundt
248(1)
Edward Bradford Titchener
249(6)
Psychology's Goals
252(1)
Titchener's Use of Introspection
252(1)
Mental Elements
252(1)
Law of Combination
253(1)
Neurological Correlates of Mental Events
253(1)
Context Theory of Meaning
254(1)
The Decline of Structuralism
254(1)
Other Early Approaches to Psychology
255(9)
Franz Clemens Brentano
255(1)
Carl Stumpf
256(2)
Edmund Husserl
258(1)
Oswald Kulpe
259(2)
Hans Vaihinger
261(2)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
263(1)
Summary
264(2)
Discussion Questions
266(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
267(1)
Glossary
267(2)
CHAPTER 10 The Darwinian Influence and the Rise of Mental Testing 269(38)
Evolutionary Theory Before Darwin
269(4)
Jean Lamarck
269(1)
Herbert Spencer
270(3)
Charles Darwin
273(4)
The Journey of the Beagle
274(1)
Back in England
274(1)
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
275(1)
Darwin's Influence
276(1)
Sir Francis Galton
277(4)
The Measurement of Intelligence
278(1)
The Word-Association Test
279(1)
Mental Imagery
280(1)
Anthropometry
280(1)
The Concept of Correlation
281(1)
Galton's Contributions to Psychology
281(1)
Intelligence Testing After Galton
281(8)
James McKeen Caren
281(2)
Alfred Binet
283(5)
Charles Spearman and the Concept of General Intelligence
288(1)
Cyril Burt
288(1)
The Binet-Simon Scale in the United States
289(7)
Henry Herbert Goddard
289(2)
Lewis Madison Terman
291(4)
Leta Stetter Hollingworth
295(1)
Intelligence Testing in the Army
296(2)
Robert M. Yerkes
296(2)
The Deterioration of National Intelligence
298(9)
Summary
300(3)
Discussion Questions
303(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
303(1)
Glossary
304(3)
CHAPTER 11 Functionalism 307(45)
Early U.S. Psychology
307(2)
Stage One: Moral and Mental Philosophy (1640-1776)
307(1)
Stage Two: Intellectual Philosophy (1776-1886)
308(1)
Stage Three: The U.S. Renaissance (1886-1896)
308(1)
Stage Four: U.S. Functionalism (1896 to Present)
308(1)
Characteristics of Functionalistic Psychology
309(1)
William James
309(9)
James's Crisis
311(1)
Opposition to Wundt's Approach to Psychology
312(1)
Stream of Consciousness
313(1)
Habits and Instincts
314(2)
The Self 315 Emotions
316(1)
Free Will
316(1)
Pragmatism
317(1)
James's Contributions to Psychology
318(1)
Hugo Münsterberg
318(6)
Miinsterberg's Applied Psychology
320(1)
Miinsterberg's Fate
321(1)
Mary Whiton Calkins
321(3)
Granville Stanley Hall
324(3)
President of Clark University
325(1)
Recapitulation Theory
326(1)
Francis Cecil Sumner
327(5)
Psychology at Clark University
331(1)
Functionalism at the University of Chicago
332(12)
John Dewey
332(1)
James Rowland Angell
333(2)
Harvey Carr
335(1)
Functionalism at Columbia University
336(1)
James McKeen Cattell
336(1)
Robert Sessions Woodworth
337(1)
Edward Lee Thorndike
338(6)
The Fate of Functionalism
344(8)
Summary
345(2)
Discussion Questions
347(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
348(1)
Glossary
349(3)
CHAPTER 12 Behaviorism 352(35)
The Background of Behaviorism
352(1)
Russian Objective Psychology
353(10)
Ivan M. Sechenov
353(2)
Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov
355(6)
Vladimir M. Bechterev
361(2)
John B. Watson and Behaviorism
363(14)
Watson's Objective Psychology
369(8)
Watson's Influence
377(1)
William McDougall: Another Type of Behaviorism
377(5)
McDougall's Definition of Psychology
378(1)
Purposive Behavior
379(1)
The Importance of Instincts
379(1)
The Battle of Behaviorism
380(2)
Summary
382(2)
Discussion Questions
384(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
385(1)
Glossary
385(2)
CHAPTER 13 Neobehaviorism 387(31)
Positivism
387(1)
Logical Positivism
387(1)
Operationism
388(1)
Physicalism
389(1)
Neobehaviorism
389(1)
Edward Chace Tolman
390(6)
Purposive Behaviorism
391(1)
Tolman's Use of Rats
392(1)
The Use of Intervening Variables
393(1)
Tolman's Position on Reinforcement
394(1)
Learning Versus Performance
394(1)
Tolman's Influence
395(1)
Clark Leonard Hull
396(4)
Hull's Hypothetico-Deductive Theory
398(1)
Reinforcement
399(1)
Reaction Potential
399(1)
Hull's Theory in General
399(1)
Hull's Influence
400(1)
Edwin Ray Guthrie
400(4)
The One Law of Learning
401(1)
One-Trial Learning
401(1)
Why Practice Improves Performance
402(1)
The Nature of Reinforcement
402(1)
Forgetting
402(1)
Breaking Habits
403(1)
Punishment
403(1)
Drives and Intentions
403(1)
The Formalization of Guthrie's Theory
403(1)
B.F. Skinner
404(7)
Skinner's Positivism
406(1)
Functional Analysis of Behavior
406(1)
Operant Behavior
407(1)
The Nature of Reinforcement
408(1)
The Importance of the Environment
408(1)
The Positive Control of Behavior
409(1)
Skinner's Attitude Toward Theory
409(1)
Applications of Skinnerian Principles
410(1)
Behaviorism Today
411(2)
Summary
413(1)
Discussion Questions
414(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
415(1)
Glossary
415(3)
CHAPTER 14 Gestalt Psychology 418(28)
Antecedents of Gestalt Psychology
418(2)
Immanuel Kant
418(1)
Ernst Mach
419(1)
Christian von Ehrenfels
419(1)
William James
419(1)
Act Psychology
420(1)
Developments in Physics
420(1)
The Founding of Gestalt Psychology
420(4)
Max Wertheimer
420(1)
Kurt Koffka
421(1)
Wolfgang Kohler
422(2)
Isomorphism and the Law of Pragnanz
424(3)
Application of Field Theory
425(1)
Psychophysical Isomorphism
425(1)
Opposition to the Constancy Hypothesis
426(1)
Analysis: Top Down, Not Bottom Up
426(1)
The Law of Pragnanz
427(1)
Perceptual Constancies
427(1)
Perceptual Gestalten
428(2)
The Figure-Ground Relationship
428(1)
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization
429(1)
Subjective and Objective Reality
430(1)
The Gestalt Explanation of Learning
431(3)
Cognitive Trial and Error
431(1)
Insightful Learning
431(2)
Transposition
433(1)
Productive Thinking
434(2)
Memory
436(1)
Memory Processes, Traces, and Systems
436(1)
Lewin's Field Theory
437(3)
Aristotelian Versus Galilean Conception of Science
437(1)
Life Space
438(1)
Motivation
439(1)
Conflict
439(1)
Group Dynamics
440(1)
The Impact of Gestalt Psychology
440(1)
Summary
441(1)
Discussion Questions
442(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
443(1)
Glossary
443(3)
CHAPTER 15 Early Diagnosis, Explanation, and Treatment of Mental Illness 446(27)
What Is Mental Illness?
446(1)
Early Explanations of Mental Illness
447(1)
Biological Explanations
447(1)
Psychological Explanations
447(1)
Supernatural Explanations
447(1)
Early Approaches to the Treatment of Mental Illness
448(6)
The Psychological Approach
449(1)
The Supernatural Approach
449(1)
The Biological Approach
450(2)
The Return of the Supernatural Approach
452(2)
Gradual Improvement in the Treatment of Mental Illness
454(7)
Philippe Pinel
455(2)
Benjamin Rush
457(1)
Dorothea Lynde Dix
457(1)
Emil Kraepelin
458(1)
Lightner Witmer
459(2)
The Tension Between the Psychological and Medical Models of Mental Illness
461(1)
The Use of Hypnotism
462(6)
Franz Anton Mesmer
462(2)
Marquis de Puysegur
464(1)
John Elliotson, James Esdaile, and James Braid
465(1)
The Nancy School
465(1)
Charcot's Proposed Explanation of Hypnosis anc Hysteria
466(2)
Summary
468(1)
Discussion Questions
469(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
470(1)
Glossary
471(2)
CHAPTER 16 Psychoanalysis 473(34)
Antecedents of the Development of Psychoanalysis
473(2)
Sigmund Freud
475(6)
The Cocaine Episode
477(1)
Early Influences on the Development of Psychoanalysis
477(1)
Josef Breuer and the Case of Anna O.
477(2)
Freud's Visit with Charcot
479(2)
The Birth of Free Association
481(1)
Studies on Hysteria
481(2)
Project for a Scientific Psychology
482(1)
The Seduction Theory
482(1)
Freud's Self-Analysis
483(2)
Analysis of Dreams
483(1)
The Oedipus Complex
484(1)
The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
485(1)
Freud's Trip to the United States
486(1)
A Review of the Basic Components of Freud's Theory of Personality
487(5)
The Id, Ego, and Superego
487(2)
Anxiety and the Ego Defense Mechanisms
489(1)
Psychosexual Stages of Development
490(2)
Freud's View of Human Nature
492(2)
Freud's Fate
494(1)
Revisions of the Freudian Legend
495(4)
The Reality of Repressed Memories
495(4)
Evaluation of Freud's Theory
499(2)
Criticisms
499(1)
Contributions
500(1)
Summary
501(2)
Discussion Questions
503(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
504(1)
Glossary
505(2)
CHAPTER 17 Early Alternatives to Psychoanalysis 507(16)
Anna Freud
507(3)
Anna Freud's and Melanie Klein's Conflicting Views on Child Analysis
508(1)
Ego Psychology
508(2)
Carl Jung
510(3)
Libido
510(1)
The Ego
510(1)
The Personal Unconscious
511(1)
The Collective Unconscious and the Archetypes
511(1)
The Attitudes
512(1)
Causality, Teleology, and Synchronicity
512(1)
Dreams
512(1)
The Importance of Middle Age
513(1)
Criticisms and Contributions
513(1)
Alfred Adler
513(3)
Organ Inferiority and Compensation
514(1)
Feelings of Inferiority
514(1)
Worldviews, Fictional Goals, and Lifestyles
515(1)
The Creative Self
515(1)
Karen Horney
516(3)
General Disagreement with Freudian Theory
517(1)
Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety
517(1)
Adjustments to Basic Anxiety
517(1)
Feminine Psychology
518(1)
Summary
519(1)
Discussion Questions
520(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
521(1)
Glossary
521(2)
CHAPTER 18 Humanistic (Third-Force) Psychology 523(33)
The Mind, the Body, and the Spirit
523(1)
Antecedents of Third-Force Psychology
524(1)
Phenomenology
525(1)
Existential Psychology
526(10)
Martin Heidegger
526(2)
Ludwig Binswangcr
528(1)
Rollo May
529(3)
George Kelly
532(4)
Humanistic Psychology
536(10)
Abraham Maslow
536(6)
Carl Rogers
542(4)
Comparison of Existential and Humanistic Psychology
546(3)
Evaluation
547(1)
Criticisms
547(1)
Contributions
548(1)
Summary
549(3)
Discussion Questions
552(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
552(1)
Glossary
553(3)
CHAPTER 19 Psychobiology 556(15)
Karl S. Lashley
556(2)
Mass Action and Equipotentiality
557(1)
In Search of the Engram
557(1)
Donald O. Hebb
558(2)
Cell Assemblies and Phase Sequences
559(1)
Roger W. Sperry
560(2)
The Split-Brain Preparation
560(2)
Behavioral Genetics
562(6)
Ethology
562(1)
Sociobiology
563(1)
Noam Chomsky's Influence
564(1)
The Misbehavior of Organisms
565(1)
Genetic Influences on Intelligence and Personality
566(2)
Summary
568(1)
Discussion Questions
569(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
569(1)
Glossary
570(1)
CHAPTER 20 Cognitive Psychology 571(18)
Developments Before 1950
571(2)
Developments During the 1950's
573(1)
Developments After the 1950's
574(2)
Artificial Intelligence
576(3)
The Turing Test
576(1)
Weak Versus Strong Artificial Intelligence
576(1)
Searle's Argument Against Strong Artificial Intelligence
576(2)
Are Humans Machines?
578(1)
Information-Processing Psychology
579(2)
The Return of Faculty Psychology
580(1)
The Return of the Mind-Body Problem
580(1)
New Connectionism
581(4)
Antecedents
581(1)
Neural Networks
582(2)
Back-Propagation Systems
584(1)
Summary
585(1)
Discussion Questions
586(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
587(1)
Glossary
587(2)
CHAPTER 21 Contemporary Psychology 589(19)
The Diversity of Contemporary Psychology
589(3)
Divisions of the American Psychological Association
589(3)
The Tension Between Pure, Scientific and Applied Psychology
592(6)
Controversy Concerning the Training of Clinical Psychologists
596(1)
Psychology's Two Cultures
597(1)
Psychology's Status as a Science
598(2)
Postmodernism
600(3)
Is There Anything New in Psychology?
603(2)
Summary
605(1)
Discussion Questions
606(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
607(1)
Glossary
607(1)
Appendix: significant Individuals and Events in the History of Psychology 608(7)
References 615(36)
Credits 651(2)
Name Index 653(8)
Subject Index 661


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