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Introduction to the Human Body

by
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780470598924

ISBN10:
0470598921
Format:
Nonspecific Binding
Pub. Date:
12/22/2011
Publisher(s):
Wiley
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Summary

The 9th edition of Tortora's Introduction to the Human Body 8e provides basic content, focused design, and relevant connections about the essentials of anatomy and physiology.  All chapters are focused on the essential structure and functions of the human body needed for a basic understanding of homeostasis.  The concise narrative is paired with outstanding illustrations, many newly revised for this edition, that help keep readers fully engaged with the topic at hand.  Dynamic animations of key physiological processes as well as interactive anatomy reviews are fully integrated when the content is introduced in WileyPLUS. The new edition also features fully updated Clinical Connections that provide relevance to help understand what happens when homeostasis is disrupted, and providing insights into the content and knowledge to come in their allied health curriculum. The popular feature - Focus on Wellness - is completely updated with new content and topics.  A pedagogical design is reflected in both printed text and WileyPLUS and clear learning objectives along with checkpoint questions for practice and review bookend each focused section of content within a chapter. 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY 1

1.1 Anatomy and Physiology Defined 2

1.2 Levels of Organization and Body Systems 2

1.3 Life Processes 7

1.4 Homeostasis: Maintaining Limits 7

1.5 Aging and Homeostasis 10

1.6 Anatomical Terms 10

1.7 Body Cavities 16

CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY 25

2.1 Introduction to Chemistry 26

2.2 Chemical Compounds and Life Processes 33

CHAPTER 3 CELLS 48

3.1 A Generalized View of the Cell 49

3.2 The Plasma Membrane 50

3.3 Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 51

3.4 Cytoplasm 56

3.5 Nucleus 62

3.6 Gene Action: Protein Synthesis 64

3.7 Somatic Cell Division 65

3.8 Cellular Diversity 69

3.9 Aging and Cells 69

CHAPTER 4 TISSUES 78

4.1 Types of Tissues 79

4.2 Epithelial Tissue 79

4.3 Connective Tissue 88

4.4 Membranes 96

4.5 Muscular Tissue 98

4.6 Nervous Tissue 98

4.7 Tissue Repair: Restoring Homeostasis 98

4.8 Aging and Tissues 100

CHAPTER 5 THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 106

5.1 Skin 107

5.2 Accessory Structures of the Skin 110

5.3 Functions of the Skin 114

5.4 Aging and the Integumentary System 115

CHAPTER 6 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM 124

6.1 Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System 125

6.2 Types of Bones 125

6.3 Structure of Bone 125

6.4 Bone Formation 129

6.5 Exercise and Bone Tissue 134

6.6 Divisions of the Skeletal System 135

6.7 Skull and Hyoid Bone 137

6.8 Vertebral Column 146

6.9 Thorax 153

6.10 Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle 154

6.11 Upper Limb 155

6.12 Pelvic (Hip) Girdle 159

6.13 Lower Limb 160

6.14 Comparison of Female and Male Skeletons 167

6.15 Aging and the Skeletal System 167

CHAPTER 7 JOINTS 177

7.1 Classification of Joints 178

7.2 Fibrous Joints 178

7.3 Cartilaginous Joints 180

7.4 Synovial Joints 180

7.5 Types of Movements at Synovial Joints 182

7.6 Types of Synovial Joints 186

7.7 Aging and Joints 191

CHAPTER 8 THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM 197

8.1 Overview of Muscular Tissue 198

8.2 Skeletal Muscle Tissue 198

8.3 Contraction and Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle 202

8.4 Metabolism of Skeletal Muscle Tissue 207

8.5 Control of Muscle Tension 209

8.6 Exercise and Skeletal Muscle Tissue 211

8.7 Cardiac Muscle Tissue 211

8.8 Smooth Muscle Tissue 212

8.9 Aging and Muscular Tissue 213

8.10 How Skeletal Muscles Produce Movement 214

8.11 Principal Skeletal Muscles 215

CHAPTER 9 NERVOUS TISSUE 252

9.1 Overview of the Nervous System 253

9.2 Histology of Nervous Tissue 255

9.3 Action Potentials 259

9.4 Synaptic Transmission 262

CHAPTER 10 CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, SPINAL NERVES, AND CRANIAL NERVES 271

10.1 Spinal Cord Structure 272

10.2 Spinal Nerves 275

10.3 Spinal Cord Functions 276

10.4 Brain 277

10.5 Cranial Nerves 292

10.6 Aging and the Nervous System 294

CHAPTER 11 AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM 301

11.1 Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 302

11.2 Structure of the Autonomic Nervous System 302

11.3 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 307

CHAPTER 12 SOMATIC SENSES AND SPECIAL SENSES 314

12.1 Overview of Sensations 315

12.2 Somatic Senses 317

12.3 Special Senses 320

12.4 Olfaction: Sense of Smell 320

12.5 Gustation: Sense of Taste 321

12.6 Vision 323

12.7 Hearing and Equilibrium 331

CHAPTER 13 THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM 346

13.1 Introduction 347

13.2 Hormone Action 348

13.3 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 350

13.4 Thyroid Gland 355

13.5 Parathyroid Glands 357

13.6 Pancreatic Islets 358

13.7 Adrenal Glands 360

13.8 Ovaries and Testes 363

13.9 Pineal Gland 364

13.10 Other Hormones 365

13.11 The Stress Response 366

13.12 Aging and the Endocrine System 367

CHAPTER 14 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD 377

14.1 Functions of Blood 378

14.2 Components of Whole Blood 378

14.3 Hemostasis 386

14.4 Blood Groups and Blood Types 389

CHAPTER 15 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: HEART 397

15.1 Structure and Organization of the Heart 398

15.2 Blood Flow and Blood Supply of the Heart 404

15.3 Conduction System of the Heart 406

15.4 Electrocardiogram 407

15.5 The Cardiac Cycle 408

15.6 Cardiac Output 409

15.7 Exercise and the Heart 412

CHAPTER 16 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: BLOOD VESSELS AND CIRCULATION 420

16.1 Blood Vessel Structure and Function 421

16.2 Blood Flow Through Blood Vessels 425

16.3 Circulatory Routes 428

16.4 Checking Circulation 446

16.5 Aging and the Cardiovascular System 447

CHAPTER 17 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY 454

17.1 Lymphatic System 456

17.2 Innate Immunity 459

17.3 Adaptive Immunity 463

17.4 Aging and the Immune System 473

CHAPTER 18 THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 482

18.1 Organs of the Respiratory System 483

18.2 Pulmonary Ventilation 490

18.3 Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide 494

18.4 Transport of Respiratory Gases 497

18.5 Control of Respiration 499

18.6 Exercise and the Respiratory System 502

18.7 Aging and the Respiratory System 503

CHAPTER 19 THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 511

19.1 Overview of the Digestive System 512

19.2 Layers of the GI Tract and the Omentum 512

19.3 Mouth 515

19.4 Pharynx and Esophagus 518

19.5 Stomach 520

19.6 Pancreas 523

19.7 Liver and Gallbladder 524

19.8 Small Intestine 526

19.9 Large Intestine 532

19.10 Phases of Digestion 534

19.11 Aging and the Digestive System 536

CHAPTER 20 NUTRITION AND METABOLISM 545

20.1 Nutrients 546

20.2 Metabolism 551

20.3 Metabolism and Body Heat 557

CHAPTER 21 THE URINARY SYSTEM 566

21.1 Overview of the Urinary System 567

21.2 Structure of the Kidneys 568

21.3 Functions of the Nephron 572

21.4 Transportation, Storage, and Elimination of Urine 578

21.5 Aging and the Urinary System 581

CHAPTER 22 FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND ACID–BASE BALANCE 588

22.1 Fluid Compartments and Fluid Balance 589

22.2 Electrolytes in Body Fluids 593

22.3 Acid–Base Balance 595

22.4 Aging and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid–Base Balance 598

CHAPTER 23 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS 602

23.1 Male Reproductive System 603

23.2 Female Reproductive System 611

23.3 The Female Reproductive Cycle 617

23.4 Birth Control Methods and Abortion 621

23.5 Aging and the Reproductive Systems 624

CHAPTER 24 DEVELOPMENT AND INHERITANCE 634

24.1 Embryonic Period 635

24.2 Fetal Period 644

24.3 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy 647

24.4 Exercise and Pregnancy 648

24.5 Labor and Delivery 648

24.6 Lactation 649

24.7 Inheritance 651

Answers A-1 Glossary G-1 Credits C-1

Index I-1



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