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An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice

by ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205293810

ISBN10:
0205293816
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $62.00

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Summary

This is one of the leading texts in the introductory human services market. It is comprehensive enough to be used for either one- or two-semester courses in introductory human services. The text is known for its engaging style and for the many current examples of human service practitioners at work. A strong multicultural and social systems approach also distinguishes it from other texts. It offers a historical context of the field of human services, insights into the overall social welfare field, and concrete descriptions of how primary intervention strategies are put into daily practice in human service agencies. It also provides a well-rounded look at the many options offered in the field of human services, and aims to prepare entry level human service workers for future careers.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
SECTION ONE The Context of Human Service Work
What Are Human Services? What Do Human Service Workers Do?
1(29)
About This Chapter
2(1)
Human Service Networks
2(11)
Helpers Have Varied Backgrounds and Job Titles
8(2)
Helpers Have Different Agency Affiliations and Orientations
10(3)
Finding the Appropriate Human Services Program
13(2)
Barriers That Prevent People from Getting Help
15(6)
A Paradox
21(1)
Choosing Our Work Role
22(4)
Our Attributes
23(1)
Our Lifestyles
23(1)
Our Personal Ideologies
24(1)
Agencies in the Local Community
24(1)
Interview with Stephanie Lake, Program Coordinator, Drug and Alcohol Education Project
25(1)
Conclusion
26(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
The Changing Nature of the Helping Process
30(56)
About This Chapter
31(1)
Society Shapes Helping Behavior
32(1)
Helping in Western Culture
32(17)
Change as a Cyclical Path
33(2)
Blaming the Victim versus Blaming the Social System
35(1)
Means-Tested versus Universal Programs
36(1)
Programs to Provide Money
37(2)
The War on Poverty
39(1)
The Welfare Rights Movement
39(1)
Culture of Poverty versus Opportunity Theory
40(6)
Welfare Reform and Racism
46(1)
The War against Women
47(2)
Cycles of Helping
49(14)
Cycles in Welfare Reform
49(6)
Interview with Judi Chamberlin, Mental Patients' Liberation Front
55(4)
Recent Developments in Treating Mental Illness
59(2)
Cycles in Juvenile Justice
61(2)
Behavior Defined as a Social Problem
63(1)
Defining Problems
64(10)
The Drug Scare
64(2)
How the Media Demonize and Rehabilitate People
66(1)
AIDS
66(1)
Welfare
67(2)
Preventive Health Care
69(1)
Defining Family Violence
70(4)
The History of Human Service Work
74(9)
The COSs and the Settlement House Movement
75(2)
Social Work Schools
77(1)
Current Trends in Social Work
78(1)
The Roots of the Human Service Field
79(2)
New Disciplines
81(1)
Declassification and Deprofessionalization
82(1)
Breaking Down Boundaries
82(1)
Conclusion
83(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
83(1)
Summary
84(2)
Strategies of Intervention
86(28)
About This Chapter
87(1)
The Concept of Multicausality
88(9)
The Strategies of Intervention
97(3)
Interview with Ruth Bork, Coordinator, Disabilities Resource Center
98(2)
Direct-Service Strategies
100(2)
Caregiving
100(1)
Case Managing/Counseling
101(1)
Teaching/Training/Coaching and Behavior Changing
101(1)
Direct-Service and Systems-Change Strategies
102(2)
Group Facilitating
102(1)
Outreaching
102(1)
Mobilizing and Advocating
103(1)
Consulting and Assisting a Specialist
103(1)
Systems-Change Strategies
104(1)
Planning
104(1)
Administering
104(1)
Collecting and Managing Data
104(1)
Evaluating/Researching
105(1)
Activities and Tasks Used to Implement Each Strategy
105(4)
Gathering Data
106(1)
String and Sharing Information
107(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
107(1)
Building Relationships
107(1)
Designing and Implementing Action Plans
108(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Our Work
109(1)
Putting Together the Interventions and the Activities
109(3)
Putting Theory into Practice
112(1)
Summary
112(2)
Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge
114(34)
About This Chapter
115(1)
The Professional Helping Relationship
116(3)
The Structure of the Professional Helping Relationship
117(2)
The Content of the Professional Helping Relationship
119(1)
The Pyramid Model
119(3)
Attitudes and Values Form the Base of the Pyramid
121(1)
Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge: An Overview
122(6)
Interview with John Torrente, Outreach Counselor at Sanctuary House, a Shelter for Teenagers
124(4)
Attitudes and Values of the Human Service Worker
128(9)
Patience
128(1)
Empathy
128(3)
Self-Awareness
131(2)
Capacity to Deal with Ambiguity and Take Risks
133(1)
Capacity to Ask for Help and Offer Feedback
134(1)
Belief in the Capacity to Change
134(1)
Open-Mindedness, Skepticism, and Rejection of Stereotypes
135(1)
Humor and a Light Touch
136(1)
Skills of the Human Service Worker
137(6)
Data Gathering
137(3)
Information Storing and Sharing
140(1)
Relationship Building
141(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
141(1)
Constructing Action Plans
142(1)
Implementing Action Plans
142(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating
142(1)
Basic Knowledge of the Human Service Worker
143(2)
Human Growth and Development
143(1)
Impact of Society and Culture on Behavior
143(1)
The Dynamics of Groups and Organizations
144(1)
Social and Political Forces That Affect Helping
144(1)
Social Problems, Populations, and Resources
145(1)
Research and Evaluation
145(1)
Conclusion
145(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
146(1)
Summary
146(2)
Values and Ethical Dilemmas
148(38)
About This Chapter
149(1)
Can Workers Be Completely Unbiased?
150(3)
Interview with Florence Miller, Advocate at WINGS, an Agency That Helps Women Who Are Addicted
151(2)
Dilemmas Surrounding the Value of Self-Determination
153(8)
Self-Determination and Child Abuse
155(3)
Self-Determination When Treatment Is Mandated
158(2)
Self-Determination Is Manipulated
160(1)
Some Current Ethical Conflicts
161(8)
Conflicts Surrounding AIDS
161(1)
Conflicts Surrounding the Right to Die
162(1)
Conflicts Surrounding the Right to Die
162(2)
Conflicts Surrounding Reproductive Choice
164(5)
Conflicting Views on the Nature of Human Nature
169(3)
The Belief That People Need to Be Civilized
170(1)
The Belief That People Are Basically Rational
170(1)
The Belief That People Are Corrupted by Society
171(1)
The Belief That People Need to Be Connected to Each Other
171(1)
Conflicts Caused by Bureaucratic Demands
172(4)
Guidelines for Dealing with Conflicts in a Bureaucracy
173(1)
The Client as Our Employer
174(1)
Social Class Differences between Workers and Clients
175(1)
Conflicts Due to the Variation in National Values in the United States
176(4)
Age and Aging
177(1)
Sexual Orientation
177(1)
Interview with Buffy Dunker, Self-Employed Activist and Therapist
177(3)
Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on Homosexual Men
180(1)
Finding Your Way through the Maze of Ethical Conflicts
181(1)
Conclusion
181(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
182(2)
Summary
184(2)
The Social Welfare System
186(67)
About This Chapter
187(1)
Surveying the Current Scene
187(1)
The Social Welfare System
188(40)
Social Security
189(2)
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
191(19)
Supplemental Security Income
210(1)
General Assistance
211(1)
Food Stamps
212(2)
Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children
214(1)
School Breakfast and Lunch Programs
215(1)
Medical Aid Programs
215(4)
Unemployment Insurance
219(1)
Earned Income Tax Credit
220(1)
Personal Social Services
220(1)
Vital Service Delivery Programs
221(2)
Services for Pregnant and Parenting Teens
223(1)
Mental Health Services
224(2)
Medical Social Work
226(1)
Developmental Disabilities
227(1)
Where the Money Comes From
228(11)
Private Enterprise and Social Welfare Programs
228(2)
Changes in the Economy
230(4)
Interview with Suzanne Dennehy, Hospital Worker's Union Intern
234(2)
Playing with Statistics---Who is Poor?
236(3)
The Loss of Housing
239(8)
The Homeless
240(3)
Responses to Homelessness
243(4)
Fighting Back
247(3)
Our Vision
248(2)
Conclusion
250(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
250(1)
Summary
251(2)
SECTION TWO Implementing Human Service Interventions
Working with Diversity
253(56)
About This Chapter
254(1)
An Overview of the Struggle for Equality
255(5)
Impact of Prejudice on Self-Esteem
258(2)
Understanding Ethnicity
260(38)
The Definition of Culture
260(1)
Melting Pot versus Salad Bowl Theory of Culture
260(1)
Bicultural Theory
261(1)
The Difference between ``Minority Group'' and ``Ethnic Group''
261(2)
Learning about Ethnic Groups
263(2)
Oppression and Exclusion
265(1)
Media Stereotypes
265(1)
The Process of Acculturation
266(1)
Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender
267(1)
Interview with Oly Reid and Inez Figueroa, Counselors at a Battered Women's Shelter
268(2)
Ethnic Identity
270(1)
Patriarchy
270(1)
The Power of Names
271(2)
Discrimination Hurts Everybody
273(2)
Institutional Racism
275(2)
Anti-Semitism
277(1)
Affirmative Action
278(2)
Immigrants
280(11)
Guidelines for Ethnic-Sensitive Human Service Work
291(7)
Working with Women
298(5)
The Women's Movement and New Social Services
299(2)
Understanding New Theories about Women
301(1)
How Feminist Theory Influences Our Practice
301(1)
A Gender Analysis of Child Welfare
302(1)
Working with Gays and Lesbians
303(1)
Working with the Disabled
304(2)
New Definition of Disability Influences Our Practice
304(2)
Conclusion
306(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
306(1)
Summary
307(2)
Interviewing
309(43)
About This Chapter
310(1)
Characteristics of an Interview
311(21)
Purposeful Communication
312(1)
Focus and Structure
312(2)
Skill and Awareness
314(7)
Awareness of Attitudes and Values
321(4)
Core Values of the Interviewer
325(4)
Interview with Chuck Snow and Elaine Saunders, Commission for the Blind
329(3)
Structure of an Interview
332(13)
Opening the Interview and Building Rapport
333(3)
Exploring the Issues
336(8)
Closing
344(1)
Recording
345(3)
Recording and Privacy
346(1)
Kinds of Recording
347(1)
Conclusion
348(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
349(1)
Summary
350(2)
Case Management/Counseling
352(43)
About This Chapter
353(2)
All Problems Are Serious Yet Ordinary
355(5)
Interview with Carmen Mejia, Family Resource Worker, Coordinated Approach to Partnership in Parenting (CAPP)
356(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for Youthful Offenders
358(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for the Elderly
360(1)
Goals of the Case Manager/Counselor
360(4)
Releasing or Changing a Negative Emotional State
361(1)
Understanding of Self and Situation
362(1)
Making Decisions
362(1)
Implementing Decisions
363(1)
The Process of Case Management/Counseling
364(7)
Getting Prepared for the Client and the Problem
364(4)
Reading and Evaluating Referral materials
368(1)
Methods of Collecting Additional Data about a Case
369(2)
Building Supportive Relationships
371(12)
Negotiating and Refining the Working Contract
373(3)
Deciding on Problems and Priorities
376(1)
Creating the Action Plan
376(2)
Implementing the Action Plan
378(3)
Evaluating the Work and Deciding on the Next Step
381(2)
Crisis Intervention
383(3)
Defining a Crisis
383(1)
Helping the Person in Crisis
383(2)
Crisis Intervention Summary
385(1)
Case Management/Counseling in the Era of Managed Health Care
386(5)
Recent Developments in Health Care Delivery
387(2)
The Rise of the For-Profit Managed Health Care
389(1)
Some Problems with the Expansion of the Health Care Industry
389(1)
Implications for Human Service Workers
390(1)
What Can the Individual Human Service Worker Do to Improve Health Care Delivery?
390(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
391(2)
Summary
393(2)
Facilitating Groups
395(33)
About This Chapter
396(1)
Workers as Group Members
396(6)
Group Leadership Roles Have Been Increasing
397(3)
Example of a Human Service Worker in a Community Residence
400(2)
Establishing and Facilitating a Group: Ten Key Questions
402(23)
What Positives and Negatives Should the Group Anticipate?
403(1)
What Phases or Cycles is the Group Likely to Go Through?
404(3)
Why is This Group Needed? What is its Central Purpose?
407(5)
What Activities Will Help This Group Accomplish its Purpose?
412(3)
Who Should be Included in the Group?
415(1)
What Structure Does This Group Need?
416(1)
What Kind of Leadership Does This Group Need?
417(3)
What Kind of Environment Will This Group Need?
420(1)
What Kind of Interaction Will the Members Have with the Leader and with Each Other?
420(2)
In What Ways Can We Keep Evaluating How Well the Group is Doing?
422(3)
Putting Theory into Practice
425(2)
Summary
427(1)
Program Planning
428(40)
About This Chapter
429(2)
Basic Tools of the Planning Process
431(8)
Pencil and Paper and a Word Processor
432(1)
Computer, E-Mail, and Planning Software
433(1)
Directories, Schedules, and Other Resource Materials
434(1)
Calendar/Memo Book and Clock
435(1)
Large Sheets of Newsprint, a Chalkboard, and Markers
436(1)
Clearly Focused Questions
436(2)
Interview with Raquel Rosenblatt, Program Coordinator, Fenway Project
438(1)
Phases and Steps in the Planning Process
439(26)
Troubleshooting
440(9)
Magnifying
449(7)
Microscoping
456(9)
Conclusion
465(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
466(1)
Summary
467(1)
Organizing and Changing Systems
468(37)
About This Chapter
469(1)
Getting to the Source of the Problem
469(2)
A Parable
469(1)
Stopping Problems at Their Source
470(1)
What Can One Worker Do?
471(1)
Checking on the Mental Health Quotient (MHQ) of a System
471(2)
Attitudes Toward Systems-Change Interventions
473(3)
Interview with Sara Wong, Staff Worker, Riverside Tenants Organizing Council
474(2)
Dilemmas of the Change Agent
476(2)
Workers Must Choose Sides
476(1)
Workers Must Choose among Competing Values
477(1)
Workers Must Overcome Resistance to Change with No Guarantee of Reward
477(1)
Workers Lack Models
478(1)
Changes Are Generated from the Top Down and from the Bottom Up
478(5)
Guarding Change
480(1)
The Targets of Change
481(2)
Methods of Organizing and Changing Systems
483(9)
Educating to Create Change
483(1)
Persuading to Create Change
483(1)
Pressuring to Create Change
484(1)
Choosing Which Method to Use and Who Should Lead the Struggle
484(2)
Learning about the History of the Problem and the System
486(1)
Locating the Sources of Power and Potential for Change
487(2)
Getting to Know the Resources of the Community
489(3)
Planning and Implementing a Change Effort
492(9)
Reaching Out to the Public
492(4)
Decision Making and Participation
496(3)
Changing the Rules, Regulations, and Power Arrangements of a System
499(2)
Rewards of Social Change Interventions
501(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
502(1)
Summary
503(2)
SECTION THREE Thriving and Surviving in This Field
Understanding Legal Issues
505(31)
About This Chapter
506(1)
Legal Issues That Can Confront a Worker
507(2)
Variations in the Law
509(1)
The Law as Resource
509(4)
Street-Level Bureaucracy
509(1)
Regulations: Bureaucratic Interpretations of Law
510(3)
Learning the Regulations
513(1)
The Law as Restriction
513(1)
Laws Every Worker Needs to Know
514(14)
Confidentiality
515(1)
Privileged Communication
516(4)
Privacy
520(5)
Due Process
525(3)
Helping Clients Get Their Legal Rights
528(2)
Strategies
528(2)
Some Current Legal Issues
530(3)
Interview with Donald Boucher, Mental Health Worker
530(2)
Right to Adequate Treatment
532(1)
Right to Treatment in the Least Restrictive Setting
532(1)
Right to Refuse Treatment
533(1)
The Importance of Written Plans
533(1)
Conclusion
533(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
534(1)
Summary
534(2)
Staying Current and Avoiding Burnout
536(38)
About This Chapter
537(1)
Why Stay in the Field?
538(1)
Burnout: Symptoms and Causes
539(1)
Symptoms of Burnout
539(1)
Causes of Burnout
540(13)
Psychological Conflicts
540(1)
Conflicting Social Values
541(1)
Interview with John Templeton, Welfare Worker
541(3)
The Bind of the Double Message
544(1)
Increased Bureaucratization
545(1)
Low Salaries and Increased Dissatisfaction
546(1)
Insurance and Government Reimbursement
546(1)
Time Pressures
547(1)
Lack of Resources outside the Agency
547(1)
Lack of Support from the Agency
548(1)
Pressures Exerted by Clients
549(1)
Stigma, Discrimination, and Status Ranking
550(1)
Hazards of the Work
551(2)
Some Reactions to Stressful Conditions
553(3)
Total Capitulation
554(1)
Total Noncapitulation
554(1)
Niche Finding
554(1)
Becoming a Victim Martyr
555(1)
Withdrawal
556(1)
Staying Alive---Positive Adjustments
556(15)
Combating Stress
557(1)
Problem Solving
557(1)
Gaining Power through Knowledge
558(1)
Getting Support
559(3)
Formal and Informal Groups
562(4)
Choosing Your Fights
566(1)
Creative Ways of Working
567(1)
Varying the Work
568(1)
Sharing Ideas
568(2)
Setting Limits on Self and Others
570(1)
Conclusion: Why We Stay in This Field
571(1)
Putting Theory into Practice
571(1)
Summary
572(2)
Glossary 574(8)
References 582(17)
Index 599


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