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Introduction to Human Services, An: Policy and Practice,9780205360048
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Introduction to Human Services, An: Policy and Practice

by ;
Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780205360048

ISBN10:
0205360041
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon
List Price: $72.20
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Summary

Known for its engaging writing style and use of many current examples of human service practitioners at work, An Introduction to Human Services is one of the leading texts in the introductory human services market. The text provides complete and up-to-date coverage of social welfare programs and policies, and describes how history, politics, and the economy shape the programs. It compares the U.S. social welfare systems to systems in other countries. A strong multicultural and social systems approach also distinguishes it from other texts. An Introduction to Human Services offers an historical context of the field of human services, insights into the overall social welfare field, and concrete descriptions of how primary intervention strategies are put into daily practice in human service agencies. It also provides a well-rounded look at the many options offered in the field of human services and discusses the stresses that a human service worker will face in day-to-day work, with practical suggestions for avoiding burnout.

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
SECTION ONE The Context of Human Service Work
What Are Human Services? What Do Human Service Workers Do?
1(28)
About This Chapter
2(1)
Human Service Networks
2(11)
Helpers Have Varied Backgrounds and Job Titles
8(2)
Helpers Have Different Agency Affiliations and Orientations
10(3)
Finding the Appropriate Human Services Program
13(2)
Barriers That Prevent People from Getting Help
15(6)
A Paradox
21(1)
Choosing Our Work Role
22(5)
Our Attributes
23(1)
Our Lifestyles
23(1)
Our Personal Ideologies
24(1)
Agencies in the Local Community
24(1)
Interview with Stephanie Lake, Program Coordinator, Drug and Alcohol Education Project
25(2)
Conclusion
27(1)
Summary
27(2)
The Changing Nature of the Helping Process
29(54)
About This Chapter
30(1)
Society Shapes Helping Behavior
31(1)
Helping in Western Culture
31(19)
Change as a Cyclical Path
32(2)
Blaming the Victim versus Blaming the Social System
34(1)
Means-Tested versus Universal Programs
35(1)
Programs to Provide Money
36(2)
The War on Poverty
38(1)
The Welfare Rights Movement
38(1)
Culture of poverty versus Opportunity Theory
39(5)
Welfare Reform and Racism
44(1)
The War against Women
45(1)
Changes in the Economy
46(4)
Cycles of Helping
50(15)
Cycles in Welfare Reform
50(3)
Cycles of Treatment of Mental Illness
53(4)
Interview with Judi Chamberlin, Mental Patients' Liberation Front
57(5)
Cycles in Juvenile Justice
62(3)
Behavior Defined as a Social Problem
65(1)
Defining Problems
66(6)
The Drug Scare
66(1)
How the Media Demonize People
67(1)
AIDS
68(1)
Welfare
69(2)
Preventive Health Care
71(1)
The History of Human Service Work
72(9)
The COSs and the Settlement House Movement
73(3)
Social Work Schools
76(1)
Current Trends in Social Work
77(1)
The Roots of the Human Service Field
77(2)
New Disciplines
79(1)
Declassification and Deprofessionalization
80(1)
Breaking Down Boundaries
80(1)
Conclusion
81(1)
Summary
81(2)
Strategies of Intervention
83(28)
About This Chapter
84(1)
The Concept of Multicausality
85(9)
The Strategies of Intervention
94(4)
Interview with Ruth Bork, Coordinator, Disabilities Resource Center
95(3)
Direct-Service Strategies
98(1)
Caregiving
98(1)
Case Managing/Counseling
98(1)
Teaching/Training/Coaching and Behavior Changing
99(1)
Direct-Service and Systems-Change Strategies
99(2)
Group Facilitating
99(1)
Outreaching
100(1)
Mobilizing and Advocating
100(1)
Consulting and Assisting a Specialist
101(1)
Systems-Change Strategies
101(2)
Planning
101(1)
Administering
102(1)
Collecting and Managing Data
102(1)
Evaluating/Researching
102(1)
Activities and Tasks Used to Implement Each Strategy
103(4)
Gathering Data
103(2)
Storing and Sharing Information
105(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
105(1)
Building Relationships
105(1)
Designing and Implementing Action Plans
105(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Our Work
106(1)
Putting Together the Interventions and the Activities
107(2)
Summary
109(2)
Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge
111(34)
About This Chapter
112(1)
The Professional Helping Relationship
113(4)
The Structure of the Professional Helping Relationship
114(2)
The Content of the Professional Helping Relationship
116(1)
The Pyramid Model
117(2)
Attitudes and Values Form the Base of the Pyramid
118(1)
Attitudes/ Values, Skills, and Knowledge: An Overview
119(6)
Interview with John Torrente, Outreach Counselor at Sanctuary House, a Shelter for Teenagers
121(4)
Attitudes and Values of the Human Service Worker
125(9)
Patience
125(1)
Empathy
126(3)
Self Awareness
129(1)
Capacity to Deal with Ambiguity and Take Risks
130(1)
Capacity to Ask for Help and Offer Feedback
131(1)
Belief in the Capacity to Change
132(1)
Open-Mindedness, Skepticism, and Rejection of Stereotypes
133(1)
Humor and a Light Touch
134(1)
Skills of the Human Service Worker
134(6)
Data Gathering
134(3)
Information Storing and Sharing
137(1)
Relationship Building
138(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
138(1)
Constructing Action Plans
139(1)
Implementing Action Plans
139(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating
140(1)
Basic Knowledge of the Human Service Worker
140(3)
Human Growth and Development
140(1)
Abnormal Growth and Development
140(1)
Impact of Society and Culture on Behavior
141(1)
The Dynamics of Groups and Organizations
141(1)
Social and Political Forces That Affect Helping
141(1)
Social Problems, Populations, and Resources
142(1)
Research and Evaluation
142(1)
Conclusion
143(1)
Summary
143(2)
Values and Ethical Dilemmas
145(38)
About This Chapter
146(1)
Can Workers Be Completely Unbiased?
147(3)
Interview with Florence Miller, Advocate at WINGS, an Agency That Helps Women Who Are Addicted
148(2)
Dilemmas Surrounding the Value of Self Determination
150(8)
Self-Determination and Child Abuse
152(4)
Self-Determination When Treatment Is Mandated
156(2)
Self-Determination Is Undermined When Clients Are Manipulated
158(1)
Some Current Ethical Conflicts
158(11)
Conflicts Surrounding AIDS
158(1)
Conflicts Surrounding the Right to Die
159(2)
Conflicts Surrounding Reproductive Choice
161(8)
Conflicting Views on the Nature of Human Nature
169(2)
The Belief That People Need to Be Civilized
170(1)
The Belief That People Are Basically Rational
170(1)
The Belief That People Are Corrupted by Society
171(1)
The Belief That People Need to Be Connected to Each Other
171(1)
Conflicts Caused by Bureaucratic Demands
171(4)
Guidelines for Dealing with Conflicts in a Bureaucracy
173(1)
The Client as Our Employer
173(2)
Social Class Differences between Workers and Clients
175(1)
Conflicts Due to the Variation in National Values in the United States
175(5)
Age and Aging
176(1)
Sexual Orientation
177(1)
Interview with Buffy Dunker, Self-Employed Activist and Therapist
177(3)
Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on Homosexual Men
180(1)
Finding Your Way through the Maze of Ethical Conflicts
181(1)
Conclusion
181(1)
Summary
181(2)
The Social Welfare System
183(67)
About This Chapter
184(1)
Surveying the Current Scene
184(1)
The Social Welfare System
185(47)
Surprising Facts
186(1)
Social Security
187(2)
Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
189(9)
Charitable Choice
198(3)
The Effects of Welfare Reform
201(11)
Supplemental Security Income
212(2)
General Assistance
214(1)
Food Stamps
214(2)
Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children
216(1)
School Breakfast and Lunch Programs
217(1)
Medical Aid Programs
218(5)
Unemployment Insurance
223(1)
Earned Income Tax Credit
223(1)
Personal Social Services
224(1)
Vital-Service Delivery Programs
225(2)
Services for Pregnant and Parenting Teens
227(1)
Mental Health Services
228(1)
Medical Social Work
229(1)
Services for the Disabled
230(2)
Where the Money Comes From
232(8)
Private Enterprise and Social Welfare Programs
233(3)
Interview with Suzanne Dennehy, Hospital Worker's Union Intern
236(1)
Playing with Statistics: The Poverty Game
236(4)
The Loss of Housing
240(6)
The Homeless
241(3)
Responses to Homelessness
244(2)
Our Vision
246(2)
Conclusion
248(1)
Summary
248(2)
SECTION TWO Implementing Human Service Interventions
Working with Diversity
250(62)
About This Chapter
251(1)
An Overview of the Struggle for Equality
252(5)
Impact of prejudice on Self Esteem
256(1)
Understanding Ethnicity
257(44)
The Definition of Culture
258(1)
Melting Pot versus Salad Bowl Theory of Culture
259(1)
Bicultural Theory
259(1)
The Difference between ``Minority Group'' and ``Ethnic Group''
259(3)
Learning about Ethnic Groups
262(2)
Oppression and Exclusion
264(1)
Media Stereotypes
264(1)
The Process of Acculturation
265(1)
Ethnicity, Social Class, and Gender
266(1)
Interview with Oly Reid and Inez Figueroa, Counselors at a Battered Women's Shelter
267(1)
Ethnic Identity
268(1)
Patriarchy
269(1)
The Power of Names
270(2)
Discrimination Hurts Everybody
272(2)
Reparations for Slavery
274(1)
Institutional Racism
274(6)
Anti-Semitism
280(1)
Affirmative Action
280(3)
Immigrants
283(11)
Guidelines for Ethnic-Sensitive Human Service Work
294(7)
Working with Women
301(5)
The Women's Movement and New Social Services
302(2)
Understanding New Theories about Women
304(1)
How Feminist Theory Influences Our Practice
304(1)
A Gender Analysis of Child Welfare
305(1)
Working with Gays and Lesbians
306(1)
Working with Disabled People
307(2)
New Definition of Disability Influences Our Practice
307(2)
Conclusion
309(1)
Summary
309(3)
Interviewing
312(43)
About This Chapter
313(1)
Characteristics of an Interview
314(22)
Purposeful Communication
315(1)
Focus and Structure
315(2)
Skill and Awareness
317(7)
Awareness of Attitudes and Values
324(5)
Core Values of the Interviewer
329(4)
Interview with Chuck Snow and Elaine Saunders, Commission for the Blind
333(3)
Structure of an Interview
336(14)
Stage 1: Opening the Interview and Building Rapport
336(4)
Stage 2: Exploring the Issues
340(9)
Stage 3: Closing
349(1)
Recording
350(3)
Recording and Privacy
351(1)
Kinds of Recording
352(1)
Conclusion
353(1)
Summary
354(1)
Case Management/Counseling
355(43)
About This Chapter
356(2)
All Problems Are Serious Yet Ordinary
358(5)
Interview with Carmen Mejia, Family Resource Worker, Coordinated Approach to Partnership in Parenting (CAPP)
359(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for Youthful Offenders
361(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for the Elderly
363(1)
Goals of the Case Manager/Counselor
363(4)
Releasing or Changing a Negative Emotional State
364(1)
Understanding of Self and Situation
365(1)
Making Decisions
366(1)
Implementing Decisions
366(1)
The Process of Case Management/Counseling
367(7)
Getting Prepared for the Client and the Problem
367(3)
Reading and Evaluating Referral Materials
370(2)
Methods of Collecting Additional Data about a Case
372(2)
Building Supportive Relationships
374(11)
Negotiating and Refining the Working Contract
376(2)
Deciding on Problems and Priorities
378(1)
Creating the Action Plan
379(2)
Implementing the Action Plan
381(3)
Evaluating the Work and Deciding on the Next Step
384(1)
Crisis Intervention
385(4)
Defining a Crisis
385(2)
Helping the Person in Crisis
387(1)
Crisis Intervention Summary
388(1)
Case Management/Counseling in the Era of Managed Health Care
389(4)
Recent Developments in Health Care Delivery
390(2)
The Rise of For-Profit Managed Health Care
392(1)
Some Problems with the Expansion of the Health Care Industry
392(1)
Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)
393(3)
Implications for Human Service Workers
394(1)
What Can the Individual Human Service Worker Do to Improve Health Care Delivery?
395(1)
Summary
396(2)
Facilitating Groups
398(33)
About This Chapter
399(1)
Workers as Group Members
399(6)
Group Leadership Roles Have Been Increasing
400(3)
Example of a Human Service Worker in a Community Residence
403(2)
Establishing and Facilitating a Group: Ten Key Questions
405(24)
What Positives and Negatives Should the Group Anticipate?
406(1)
What Phases or Cycles Is the Group Likely to Go Through?
407(4)
Why Is This Group Needed? What Is Its Central Purpose?
411(5)
What Activities Will Help This Group Accomplish Its Purpose?
416(2)
Who Should Be Included in the Group?
418(2)
What Structure Does This Group Need?
420(1)
What Kind of Leadership Does This Group Need?
420(3)
What Kind of Environment Will This Group Need?
423(1)
What Kind of Interaction Will the Members Have with the Leader and with Each Other?
424(2)
In What Ways Can We Keep Evaluating How Well the Group Is Doing?
426(3)
Summary
429(2)
Program Planning
431(39)
About This Chapter
432(2)
Basic Tools of the Planning Process
434(8)
Pencil and Paper and a Word Processor
435(1)
Computer, E-Mail, and Planning Software
436(1)
Directories, Schedules, and Other Resource Materials
436(2)
Calendar/Memo Book and Clock
438(1)
Large Sheets of Newsprint, a Chalkboard, and Markers
439(1)
Clearly Focused Questions
439(2)
Interview with Raquel Rosenblatt, Program Coordinator, Fenway Project
441(1)
Phases and Steps in the Planning Process
442(26)
Phase 1: Troubleshooting
443(9)
Phase 2: Magnifying
452(7)
Phase 3: Microscoping
459(9)
Conclusion
468(1)
Summary
469(1)
Organizing and Changing Systems
470(37)
About This Chapter
471(1)
Getting to the Source of the Problem
471(2)
A Parable
471(1)
Stopping Problems at Their Source
472(1)
What Can One Worker Do?
473(1)
Checking on the Mental Health Quotient (MHQ) of a System
473(2)
Attitudes Toward Systems-Change Interventions
475(3)
Interview with Sara Wong, Staff Worker, Riverside Tenants Organizing Council
476(2)
Dilemmas of the Change Agent
478(2)
Workers Must Choose Sides
478(1)
Workers Must Choose among Competing Values
479(1)
Workers Must Overcome Resistance to Change with No Guarantee of Reward
479(1)
Workers Lack Models
480(1)
Changes Are Generated from the Top Down and from the Bottom Up
480(4)
Guarding Change
482(1)
The Targets of Change
483(1)
Methods of Organizing and Changing Systems
484(10)
Educating to Create Change
485(1)
Persuading to Create Change
485(1)
Pressuring to Create Change
486(1)
Choosing Which Method to Use and Who Should Lead the Struggle
486(2)
Learning about the History of the Problem and the System
488(1)
Locating the Sources of Power and Potential for Change
489(2)
Getting to Know the Resources of the Community
491(3)
Planning and Implementing a Change Effort
494(11)
Reaching Out to the Public
494(4)
Decision Making and Participation
498(3)
Changing the Rules, Regulations, and Power Arrangements of a System
501(3)
Rewards of Social Change Interventions
504(1)
Summary
505(2)
SECTION THREE Thriving and Surviving in This Field
Understanding Legal Issues
507(31)
About This Chapter
508(1)
Legal Issues That Can Confront a Worker
509(2)
Variations in the Law
511(1)
The Law as Resource
511(4)
Street-Level Bureaucracy
511(1)
Regulations: Bureaucratic Interpretations of Law
512(3)
Learning the Regulations
515(1)
The Law as Restriction
515(1)
Laws Every Worker Needs to Know
516(13)
Confidentiality
516(1)
Privileged Communication
517(5)
Privacy
522(5)
Due Process
527(2)
Helping Clients Get Their Legal Rights
529(4)
Strategies
531(2)
Some Current Legal Issues
533(3)
Interview with Donald Boucher, Mental Health Worker
533(1)
Right to Adequate Treatment
534(1)
Right to Treatment in the Least Restrictive Setting
535(1)
Right to Refuse Treatment
536(1)
The Importance of Written Plans
536(1)
Conclusion
536(1)
Summary
536(2)
Staying Current and Avoiding Burnout
538(37)
About This Chapter
539(1)
Why Stay in the Field?
540(1)
Burnout
541(1)
Symptoms of Burnout
541(1)
Causes of Burnout
542(12)
Psychological Conflicts
542(1)
Conflicting Social Values
543(1)
Interview with John Templeton, Welfare Worker and Union President
543(2)
The Bind of the Double Message
545(1)
Increased Bureaucratization
546(1)
Low Salaries and Decreased Satisfaction
547(1)
Insurance and Government Reimbursement
547(1)
Time Pressures
548(1)
Lack of Resources outside the Agency
549(1)
Lack of Support from the Agency
550(1)
Pressures Exerted by Clients
550(2)
Stigma, Discrimination, and Status Ranking
552(1)
Hazards of the Work
552(2)
Some Reactions to Stressful Conditions
554(4)
Total Capitulation
554(1)
Total Noncapitulation
555(1)
Niche Finding
556(1)
Becoming a Victim Martyr
556(1)
Withdrawal
557(1)
Staying Alive---Positive Adjustments
558(14)
Combating Stress
559(1)
Problem Solving
559(1)
Gaining Power through Knowledge
560(1)
Getting Support
561(3)
Formal and Informal Groups
564(4)
Choosing Your Fights
568(1)
Creative Ways of Working
569(1)
Varying the Work
570(1)
Sharing Ideas
570(2)
Setting Limits on Self and Others
572(1)
Conclusion: Why We Stay in This Field
572(1)
Summary
573(2)
Glossary 575(8)
References 583(23)
Index 606


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