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Introduction to Human Services, An: Policy and Practice

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780205442140

ISBN10:
0205442145
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Known for its engaging writing style and use of many current examples and cases of human service practitioners at work, An Introduction to Human Services is one of the leading texts in the introductory human services market. What reviewers are saying about the Sixth Edition. . . ";The bookrs"s treatment of policy issues is far more extensive than is typical of intro textbooks. . . . Consistent with this is its coverage of the social welfare system as it currently exists, including the major cornerstone programs (TANF, WIC, Food Stamps, SSI, etc.) that any well-informed worker needs to know about to serve clients well."; Pamela Kiser, Elon University Highlights of the Sixth Edition bull; bull;Current diversity issues are discussed, including references to the September 11th attacks, new material on Arab-Americans, racial profiling, and racial discrimination. One of the authors shares her own experiences of race and class privilege. bull;Includes up-to-date information on the opposition to abortion (Chapter 5) and gay and lesbian marriage, affirmative action, bilingual education, and new immigration policies (Chapter 7). bull;Thoroughly updated with information on Social Security, TANF, day care, SSI, food stamps, WIC, Medicare, school breakfast and lunch, unemployment insurance, Earned Income Tax Credit, and more (Chapter 6). bull;Includes updated information on managed care (Chapter 9). bull;Includes discussions on unique topics in human service with information on stem cell research, cloning, sperm banks releasing information on biological fathers, as well as charging pregnant women who are substance abusers with child abuse. Research Navigatortrade; for Social Work Research Navigatortrade; can be a studentrs"s best friend when facing a large research project. Especially helpful with the toughest challenge-getting started-Research Navigatortrade; offers a comprehensive, step-by-step walk-through of the research process, along with access to some of the most respected source databases available. Access to Research Navigatortrade;-a $15 value-is FREE when packaged with any new Allyn & Bacon textbook! If your text did not come packaged with Research Navigatortrade;, visit www.researchnavigator.com today to purchase immediate access. The Career Center Students need help transitioning from the academic world to the professional. With The Career Center, they can register to receive eight 30-minute career counseling sessions-a total of four hours of career consultant time! The Career Center is designed to address the wide range of preparation and life stages of individuals who are attempting to develop their careers. Qualified career specialists advise students as they establish, or reestablish, themselves in todayrs"s competitive global economy. The Career Center-a $25 value-is FREE to your students when you order it packaged with any new Allyn & Bacon textbook. Visit www.ablongman.com/careercenter for more information. Contact your local Allyn & Bacon representative and request special packaging codes to take advantage of these great offers.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
SECTION ONE The Context of Human Service Work
What Are Human Services? What Do Human Service Workers Do?
1(29)
About This Chapter
2(1)
Human Service Networks
2(11)
Helpers Have Varied Backgrounds and Job Titles
8(2)
Helpers Have Different Agency Affiliations and Orientations
10(3)
Finding the Appropriate Human Services Program
13(2)
Barriers That Prevent People from Getting Help
15(6)
A Paradox
21(1)
Choosing Our Work Role
22(5)
Our Attributes
23(1)
Our Lifestyles
23(1)
Our Personal Ideologies
24(1)
Agencies in the Local Community
25(1)
Interview with Stephanie Lake, Program Coordinator, Drug and Alcohol Education Project
25(2)
Summary
27(1)
Discussion Questions
28(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
29(1)
The Changing Nature of the Helping Process
30(57)
About This Chapter
31(1)
Society Shapes Helping Behavior
32(1)
Helping in Western Culture
32(19)
Change as a Cyclical Path
33(2)
Blaming the Victim versus Blaming the Social System
35(1)
Means-Tested versus Universal Programs
36(1)
Programs to Provide Money
37(1)
The War on Poverty
37(2)
The Welfare Rights Movement
39(1)
Culture of Poverty versus Opportunity Theory
40(4)
Welfare Reform and Racism
44(1)
The War against Women
45(2)
Changes in the Economy
47(4)
Cycles of Helping
51(15)
Cycles in Welfare Reform
51(3)
Cycles of Treatment of Mental Illness
54(3)
Interview with Judi Chamberlin, Mental Patients' Liberation Front
57(6)
Cycles in Juvenile Justice
63(3)
Behavior Defined as a Social Problem
66(1)
Defining Problems
67(6)
The Drug Scare
67(1)
How the Media Demonize People
68(1)
AIDS
68(2)
Welfare
70(2)
Preventive Health Care
72(1)
The History of Human Service Work
73(10)
The COSs and the Settlement House Movement
75(2)
Social Work Schools
77(1)
Current Trends in Social Work
78(1)
The Roots of the Human Service Field
79(2)
New Disciplines
81(1)
Declassification and Deprofessionalization
81(1)
Breaking Down Boundaries
82(1)
Summary
83(1)
Discussion Questions
84(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
85(2)
Strategies of Intervention
87(30)
About This Chapter
88(1)
The Concept of Multicausality
89(10)
The Strategies of Intervention
99(4)
Interview with Ruth Bork, Administrator, Disabilities Resource Center
100(3)
Direct-Service Strategies
103(1)
Caregiving
103(1)
Case Managing/Counseling
103(1)
Teaching/Training/Coaching and Behavior Changing
103(1)
Direct-Service and Systems-Change Strategies
104(2)
Group Facilitating
104(1)
Outreaching
105(1)
Mobilizing and Advocating
105(1)
Consulting and Assisting a Specialist
106(1)
Systems-Change Strategies
106(2)
Planning
106(1)
Administering
107(1)
Collecting and Managing Data
107(1)
Evaluating/Researching
107(1)
Activities and Tasks Used to Implement Each Strategy
108(4)
Gathering Data
108(2)
Storing and Sharing Information
110(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
110(1)
Building Relationships
110(1)
Designing and Implementing Action Plans
110(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating Our Work
111(1)
Putting Together the Interventions and the Activities
112(2)
Summary
114(1)
Discussion Questions
115(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
115(2)
Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge
117(35)
About This Chapter
118(1)
The Professional Helping Relationship
119(4)
The Structure of the Professional Helping Relationship
120(2)
The Content of the Professional Helping Relationship
122(1)
The Pyramid Model
123(2)
Attitudes and Values Form the Base of the Pyramid
124(1)
Attitudes/Values, Skills, and Knowledge: An Overview
125(6)
Interview with John Torrente, Outreach Counselor at Sanctuary House, a Shelter for Teenagers
127(4)
Attitudes and Values of the Human Service Worker
131(10)
Patience
131(1)
Empathy
132(3)
Self-Awareness
135(1)
Capacity to Deal with Ambiguity and Take Risks
136(1)
Capacity to Ask for Help and Offer Feedback
137(1)
Belief in the Capacity to Change
138(1)
Open-Mindedness, Skepticism, and Rejection of Stereotypes
139(1)
Humor and a Light Touch
140(1)
Skills of the Human Service Worker
141(5)
Data Gathering
141(3)
Information Storing and Sharing
144(1)
Relationship Building
144(1)
Negotiating Contracts and Assessing Problems
145(1)
Constructing Action Plans
145(1)
Implementing Action Plans
146(1)
Monitoring and Evaluating
146(1)
Basic Knowledge of the Human Service Worker
146(3)
Human Growth and Development
146(1)
Abnormal Growth and Development
147(1)
Impact of Society and Culture on Behavior
147(1)
The Dynamics of Groups and Organizations
147(1)
Social and Political Forces That Affect Helping
148(1)
Social Problems, Populations, and Resources
148(1)
Research and Evaluation
149(1)
Summary
149(1)
Discussion Questions
150(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
151(1)
Values and Ethical Dilemmas
152(41)
About This Chapter
153(1)
Can Workers Be Completely Unbiased?
154(3)
Interview with Florence Miller, Advocate at WINGS, an Agency That Helps Women Who Are Addicted
155(2)
Dilemmas Surrounding the Value of Self-Determination
157(8)
Self-Determination and Child Abuse
159(4)
Self-Determination When Treatment Is Mandated
163(1)
Self-Determination Is Undermined When Clients Are Manipulated
164(1)
Some Current Ethical Conflicts
165(13)
Conflicts Surrounding AIDS
165(1)
Conflicts Surrounding the Right to Die
165(3)
Conflicts Surrounding Reproductive Choice
168(10)
Conflicting Views on the Nature of Human Nature
178(2)
The Belief That People Need to Be Civilized
178(1)
The Belief That People Are Basically Rational
179(1)
The Belief That People Are Corrupted by Society
179(1)
The Belief That People Need to Be Connected to Each Other
179(1)
Conflicts Caused by Bureaucratic Demands
180(4)
Guidelines for Dealing with Conflicts in a Bureaucracy
181(1)
The Client as Our Employer
182(1)
Social Class Differences between Workers and Clients
183(1)
Conflicts Due to the Variation in National Values in the United States
184(4)
Age and Aging
185(1)
Sexual Orientation
185(3)
Keeping Values Straight in a Time of War
188(2)
Finding Your Way through the Maze of Ethical Conflicts
190(1)
Summary
190(1)
Discussion Questions
191(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
192(1)
The Social Welfare System
193(63)
About This Chapter
194(1)
Surveying the Current Scene
194(1)
The Social Welfare System
195(45)
Comparing the United States to Other Countries
195(2)
Social Security
197(2)
Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
199(8)
Charitable Choice
207(3)
The Effects of Welfare Reform
210(10)
Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance
220(1)
General Assistance
221(1)
Food Stamps
222(2)
Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
224(1)
School Breakfast and Lunch Programs
225(1)
Medical Aid Programs
226(4)
Unemployment Insurance
230(1)
Earned Income Tax Credit
230(1)
The Child Tax Credit
231(1)
Personal Social Services
231(2)
Vital-Service Delivery Programs
233(3)
Mental Health Services
236(1)
Medical Social Work
237(1)
Services for the Disabled
238(2)
Where the Money Comes From
240(6)
Private Enterprise and Social Welfare Programs
241(2)
Interview with Suzanne Dennehy, Hospital Worker's Union Intern
243(1)
Playing with Statistics: The Poverty Game
244(2)
The Loss of Housing
246(6)
The Homeless
247(3)
Responses to Homelessness
250(2)
Our Vision
252(1)
Summary
253(1)
Discussion Questions
254(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
254(2)
SECTION TWO Implementing Human Service Interventions
Working with Diversity
256(60)
About This Chapter
257(3)
An Overview of the Struggle for Equality
260(7)
Understanding Oppression and Privilege
261(5)
Impact of Prejudice on Self-Esteem
266(1)
Understanding Ethnicity
267(37)
The Definition of Culture
267(2)
Media Stereotypes
269(2)
Interview with Oly Reid and Inez Figueroa, Counselors at a Battered Women's Shelter
271(1)
Ethnic Identity
272(2)
The Power of Names
274(1)
Discrimination Hurts Everybody
275(2)
Institutional Racism
277(4)
Discrimination against Arab Americans
281(2)
Anti-Semitism
283(1)
Affirmative Action
284(4)
Immigrants
288(10)
Guidelines for Ethnic-Sensitive Human Service Work
298(6)
Working with Women
304(4)
The Women's Movement and New Social Services
304(1)
Understanding New Theories about Women
305(1)
How Feminist Theory Influences Our Practice
306(1)
A Gender Analysis of Child Welfare
307(1)
Working with Gays and Lesbians
308(1)
Working with People with Disabilities
309(2)
New Definition of Disability Influences Our Practice
310(1)
Summary
311(2)
Discussion Questions
313(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
313(3)
Interviewing
316(44)
About This Chapter
317(1)
Characteristics of an Interview
318(21)
Purposeful Communication
319(1)
Focus and Structure
319(2)
Skill and Awareness
321(7)
Awareness of Attitudes and Values
328(4)
Core Values of the Interviewer
332(5)
Interview with Madeline K. Jacobson, Director of a Bully Project
337(2)
Structure of an Interview
339(14)
Stage 1: Opening the Interview and Building Rapport
340(3)
Stage 2: Exploring the Issues
343(9)
Stage 3: Closing
352(1)
Recording
353(3)
Recording and Privacy
354(1)
Kinds of Recording
355(1)
Summary
356(1)
Discussion Questions
357(2)
Web Resources for Further Study
359(1)
Case Management/Counseling
360(46)
About This Chapter
361(2)
All Problems Are Serious Yet Ordinary
363(5)
Interview with Carmen Mejia, Family Resource Worker, Coordinated Approach to Partnership in Parenting (CAPP)
364(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for Youthful Offenders
366(2)
Carmen Mejia as Case Manager/Counselor for the Elderly
368(1)
Goals of the Case Manager/Counselor
368(4)
Releasing or Changing a Negative Emotional State
369(1)
Understanding of Self and Situation
370(1)
Making Decisions
371(1)
Implementing Decisions
371(1)
The Process of Case Management/Counseling
372(7)
Getting Prepared for the Client and the Problem
372(3)
Reading and Evaluating Referral Materials
375(2)
Methods of Collecting Additional Data about a Case
377(2)
Building Supportive Relationships
379(12)
Negotiating and Refining the Working Contract
381(2)
Deciding on Problems and Priorities
383(1)
Conducting an Assessment Study for an Agency
384(1)
Creating the Action Plan
385(2)
Implementing the Action Plan
387(3)
Evaluating the Work and Deciding on the Next Step
390(1)
Crisis Intervention
391(5)
Defining a Crisis
391(1)
Helping the Person in Crisis
392(2)
9/11: The Human Service Response to the World Trade Center Crisis
394(2)
Case Management/Counseling in the Era of Managed Health Care
396(4)
Recent Developments in Health Care Delivery
397(2)
The Rise of For-Profit Managed Health Care
399(1)
Some Problems with the Expansion of the Health Care Industry
399(1)
Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)
400(3)
Implications for Human Service Workers
401(1)
What Can the Individual Human Service Worker Do to Improve Health Care Delivery?
402(1)
Summary
403(1)
Discussion Questions
404(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
404(2)
Facilitating Groups
406(34)
About This Chapter
407(1)
Workers as Group Members
407(6)
Group Leadership Roles Have Been Increasing
408(3)
Example of a Human Service Worker in a Community Residence
411(2)
Establishing and Facilitating a Group: Ten Key Questions
413(24)
What Positives and Negatives Should the Group Anticipate?
414(1)
What Phases or Cycles Is the Group Likely to Go Through?
415(4)
Why Is This Group Needed? What Is Its Central Purpose?
419(5)
What Activities Will Help This Group Accomplish Its Purpose?
424(2)
Who Should Be Included in the Group?
426(2)
What Structure Does This Group Need?
428(1)
What Kind of Leadership Does This Group Need?
429(3)
What Kind of Environment Will This Group Need?
432(1)
What Kind of Interaction Will the Members Have with the Leader and with Each Other?
432(2)
In What Ways Can We Keep Evaluating How Well the Group Is Doing?
434(3)
Summary
437(1)
Discussion Questions
438(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
439(1)
Program Planning
440(40)
About This Chapter
441(2)
Basic Tools of the Planning Process
443(8)
Pencil and Paper and a Word Processor
444(1)
Computer, Internet, and Planning Software
445(1)
Directories, Schedules, and Other Resource Materials
445(2)
Calendar/Memo Book and Clock
447(1)
Large Sheets of Newsprint, a Chalkboard, and Markers
448(1)
Clearly Focused Questions
448(2)
Interview with Raquel Rosenblatt, Program Coordinator, Fenway Project
450(1)
Phases and Steps in the Planning Process
451(27)
Phase 1: Troubleshooting
452(9)
Phase 2: Magnifying
461(8)
Phase 3: Microscoping
469(9)
Summary
478(1)
Discussion Questions
478(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
479(1)
Organizing and Changing Systems
480(38)
About This Chapter
481(1)
Getting to the Source of the Problem
481(2)
A Parable
481(1)
Stopping Problems at Their Source
482(1)
What Can One Worker Do?
483(1)
Checking on the Mental Health Quotient (MHQ) of a System
483(2)
Attitudes toward Systems-Change Interventions
485(3)
Interview with Sara Wong, Staff Worker, Riverside Tenants Organizing Council
486(2)
Dilemmas of the Change Agent
488(3)
Workers Must Choose Sides
488(1)
Workers Must Choose among Competing Values
489(1)
Workers Must Overcome Resistance to Change with No Guarantee of Reward
489(1)
Workers Lack Models
490(1)
Changes Are Generated from the Top Down and from the Bottom Up
491(4)
Guarding Change
493(1)
The Targets of Change
493(2)
Methods of Organizing and Changing Systems
495(9)
Educating to Create Change
495(1)
Persuading to Create Change
496(1)
Pressuring to Create Change
496(1)
Choosing Which Method to Use and Who Should Lead the Struggle
497(1)
Learning about the History of the Problem and the System
498(1)
Locating the Sources of Power and Potential for Change
499(1)
Getting to Know the Resources of the Community
500(4)
Planning and Implementing a Change Effort
504(11)
Reaching Out to the Public
504(4)
Decision Making and Participation
508(3)
Changing the Rules, Regulations, and Power Arrangements of a System
511(3)
Rewards of Social Change Interventions
514(1)
Summary
515(1)
Discussion Questions
516(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
517(1)
SECTION THREE Thriving and Surviving in This Field
Understanding Legal Issues
518(34)
About This Chapter
519(1)
Legal Issues That Can Confront a Worker
520(2)
Variations in the Law
522(1)
The Law as Resource
522(4)
Street-Level Bureaucracy
522(1)
Regulations: Bureaucratic Interpretations of Law
523(3)
Learning the Regulations
526(1)
The Law as Restriction
526(1)
Laws Every Worker Needs to Know
527(16)
Confidentiality
527(1)
Privileged Communication
528(6)
Privacy
534(6)
Due Process
540(3)
Helping Clients Get Their Legal Rights
543(2)
Strategies
543(2)
Some Current Legal Issues
545(4)
Interview with Donald Boucher, Mental Health Worker
546(1)
Right to Adequate Treatment
547(1)
Right to Treatment in the Least Restrictive Setting
547(1)
Right to Refuse Treatment
548(1)
The Importance of Written Plans
549(1)
Summary
549(1)
Discussion Questions
550(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
550(2)
Staying Current and Avoiding Burnout
552(38)
About This Chapter
553(1)
Burnout
554(1)
Symptoms of Burnout
555(1)
Causes of Burnout
555(10)
Psychological Conflicts
556(1)
Conflicting Social Values
556(1)
Interview with Rick Colbath Hess, Director of MassSERVE
557(1)
The Bind of the Double Message
558(2)
Increased Bureaucratization
560(1)
Low Salaries and Decreased Satisfaction
560(1)
Insurance and Government Reimbursement
560(1)
Time Pressures
561(1)
Lack of Resources outside the Agency
562(1)
Lack of Support from the Agency
563(1)
Pressures Exerted by Clients
563(2)
Stigma, Discrimination, and Status Ranking
565(1)
Dealing with Danger
565(3)
Hazards of the Work
566(2)
Some Reactions to Stressful Conditions
568(4)
Total Capitulation
569(1)
Total Noncapitulation
569(1)
Niche Finding
569(1)
Becoming a Victim Martyr
570(1)
Withdrawal
571(1)
Staying Alive---Positive Adjustments
572(15)
Combating Stress
572(1)
Problem Solving
573(1)
Gaining Power through Knowledge
574(1)
Getting Support
575(3)
Formal and Informal Groups
578(5)
Choosing Your Fights
583(1)
Creative Ways of Working
584(1)
Varying the Work
584(1)
Sharing Ideas
585(2)
Setting Limits on Self and Others
587(1)
Summary
587(1)
Discussion Questions
588(1)
Web Resources for Further Study
589(1)
Glossary 590(8)
References 598(25)
Index 623


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