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Introduction to Human Services : Through the Eyes of Practice Settings,9780205439614
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Introduction to Human Services : Through the Eyes of Practice Settings

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780205439614

ISBN10:
0205439616
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Allyn & Bacon

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Summary

Introduction to Human Services, First Edition By:Michelle Martin (Judson College) Overview: This highly readable human services text offers a generalist view of the breadth and scope of human services. Features: Ten practice settings are explored in depth, including the history and role of the human service professional, common clinical issues, and intervention strategies used within a given practice setting. A chapter on faith-based agencies, a long neglected practice setting, focuses on agencies from three of the worldrs"s major religions. Native American issues, including a history of governmental oppression, are covered. A comprehensive chapter on Macro Practice addresses this growing and important field, including social injustice such as crimes against women and children, hate crimes, sweatshops, human sex trafficking, FGM, and economic injustice in developing countries. What Reviewers Are Saying: "The strengths of this new text include the depth and breadth of topics presented; the application of information to real cases; the comprehensive look at the nature and qualifications of the profession; and the organization of the material. I would definitely consider using this text for my introductory course in human services." --Joyce Clohessey, Westmoreland County Community College "The approach taken by Martin is refreshing, as it ls"cuts to the chasers" of the helping profession. Many students enter the field of helping with only an abstract sense of their career path. Martinrs"s approach would assist students in having a more concrete view of the populations and issues in the helping professions as well as the individual skills and knowledge base needed by the professional. I especially enjoy the idea of having more information on faith based work, as many of my students express an interest in this area." --Stephanie Ziegler Briggs, Central Piedmont Community College [ Insert MyHelpingLab Advertisement ]

Table of Contents

Preface xix
part one Human Services as a Profession
1(34)
Introduction to the Human Services Profession: Purpose, Preparation, Practice, and Theoretical Orientations
2(18)
The Many Types of Human Service Professionals
3(2)
Why Is Human Services Needed?
5(2)
Human Service Professionals: Educational Requirements and Professional Standards
7(4)
Human Service Education and Licensure
9(2)
Duties and Functions of a Human Service Professional
11(2)
How Do Human Service Professionals Practice?
13(4)
Theoretical Frameworks Used in Human Services
14(2)
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
16(1)
PIE---Person in Environment
17(1)
Eco-Systems Theory
17(1)
Understanding Human Services through a Look at Practice Settings
17(3)
History and Evolution of the Human Services Profession
20(15)
The Feudal System of the Middle Ages
21(1)
Poor Laws of England
22(2)
The Elizabethan Poor Laws
24(2)
Charity Organization Societies
26(1)
Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement
27(3)
Influences of African-American Social Workers
30(1)
The New Deal and the Social Security Act of 1935
31(1)
Concluding Thoughts on the History of Human Services
32(3)
part two Clinical Issues and the Role of the Human Service Professional
35(344)
Skills and Intervention Strategies for Generalist Practice
36(24)
Informed Consent and Confidentiality
38(2)
The Limits of Confidentiality
38(2)
Skills and Competencies
40(5)
Sympathy and Empathy
40(2)
Boundary Setting
42(2)
The Hallmarks of Personal Growth
44(1)
The Clinical Assessment
45(3)
Patience
46(1)
Active Listening Skills
47(1)
Observation Skills
48(1)
Family Genograms
48(2)
Psychological Testing
50(1)
Clinical Diagnoses
50(3)
Criticisms of the DSM-IV-TR
51(1)
Continuum of Mental Health
52(1)
Case Management and Counseling
53(1)
Basic Counseling Techniques for Generalist Practice
53(5)
Task-Centered Casework
54(3)
Perceptual Reframing, Emotional Regulation, Networking, and Advocacy
57(1)
Concluding Thoughts on Generalist Practice
58(2)
Child and Family Services
60(48)
Overview and Purpose of Child and Family Services Agencies
61(1)
The History of the Foster Care System in the United States
62(6)
The U.S. Orphan Problem
63(1)
The Orphan Asylum
64(1)
The Seeds of Foster Care: The Orphan Trains
65(3)
Overview of the Current U.S. Child Welfare System
68(3)
Getting into the System
70(1)
Child Abuse Investigations
71(5)
Mandated Reporters
71(1)
Sequence of Events in the Reporting and Investigation of Child Abuse
72(1)
Types of Child Maltreatment
73(1)
The Forensic Interview
74(1)
To Intervene, or Not Intervene: Models for Decision Making
75(1)
Working with Children in Placement
76(5)
Permanency Plans
76(2)
Working with Biological Families
78(2)
Biological Parents and Their Children: Maintaining the Connection
80(1)
Working with Foster Children: Common Clinical Issues
81(5)
Separation
82(1)
Loss, Grief, and Mourning
83(1)
Identity Issues
83(1)
Continuity of Family Ties
84(1)
Crisis
85(1)
Working with Foster Parents
86(1)
Reunification
87(1)
Family Preservation
88(1)
Minority Populations and Multicultural Considerations
89(5)
Placing Children of Color in Caucasian Homes
91(1)
Native Americans and the U.S. Child Welfare System
92(2)
Concluding Thoughts on Child Protective Services
94(1)
Adoption Services
95(9)
Domestic Adoption
95(2)
Independent Adoption
97(1)
Private Agency Adoptions
97(4)
International Adoption
101(1)
Special-Needs Adoption
102(2)
Concluding Thoughts on Child and Family Services
104(4)
Adolescent Services
108(24)
Adolescence: A New Stage of Development?
110(1)
Developmental Perspectives
111(2)
Common Clinical Issues and the Role of the Human Service Professional
113(12)
Abstract Reasoning: A Dangerous Weapon in the Hands of an Adolescent
113(1)
Adolescent Rebellion
114(1)
Externalizing Behaviors
115(1)
Internalizing Behaviors
116(6)
Eating Disorders in the Adolescent Population
122(1)
Schizophrenia in the Adolescent Population
123(1)
Other Clinical Issues Affecting the Adolescent Population
124(1)
Practice Settings Specific to Adolescent Treatment
125(2)
Multicultural Considerations
127(1)
Concluding Thoughts on Adolescents
128(4)
Aging and Services for the Elderly
132(30)
The Aging of America: Changing Demographics
135(1)
Old and Old-Old: A Developmental Perspective
136(2)
Successful Aging
138(1)
Current Issues Affecting the Elderly and the Role of the Human Service Professional
139(17)
Ageism
140(2)
Housing
142(2)
Homelessness and the Elderly Population
144(1)
Adjustment to Retirement
145(3)
Grandparents Parenting
148(4)
Depression
152(1)
Dementia
153(1)
Elder Abuse
154(2)
Practice Settings Serving the Elderly
156(1)
Special Populations
157(1)
Concluding Thoughts on Services to the Elderly
158(4)
Mental Health and Mental Illness
162(34)
The History of Mental Illness: Perceptions and Treatment
164(3)
The Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally III
166(1)
Common Mental Illnesses and Clinical Issues
167(8)
Serious Mental Disorders Diagnosed on Axis I
168(1)
Psychotic Disorders
168(1)
Affective Disorders
169(3)
Serious Mental Disorders Diagnosed on Axis II
172(3)
Mental Health Practice Settings and Counseling Interventions
175(6)
Intervention Strategies
176(2)
Common Practice Settings
178(3)
Mental Illness and Special Populations
181(8)
Mental Illness and the Homeless Population
181(2)
Mental Illness and the Prison Population: The Criminalization of the Mentally III
183(4)
Mental Health Courts
187(1)
Multicultural Considerations
188(1)
Current Legislation Affecting Access to Mental Health Services
189(4)
Mental Health Parity Act of 1996
189(1)
The President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health
190(3)
Concluding Thoughts on Mental Health and Mental Illness
193(3)
Homelessness
196(28)
The Nature of Homelessness: How Many People are Homeless and Why
197(4)
The Causes of Homelessness
199(2)
History of Homelessness in the United States
201(3)
The Contemporary Picture of Homelessness: The Rise of Single-Parent Families
204(7)
Homeless Shelter Living for Families with Children
206(1)
Homeless Children: School Attendance and Academic Performance
207(1)
Runaway Youth
208(2)
Single Men, the Mentally III, and Substance Abuse
210(1)
The Elderly Homeless
210(1)
Current Policies and Legislation
211(3)
The Role of the Human Service Professional: Working with the Homeless Population: Common Clinical Issues
214(7)
Common Practice Settings for Working with the Homeless Population
219(2)
Concluding Thoughts on Homelessness
221(3)
Health Care and Hospice
224(30)
Human Services in Hospitals
225(9)
Crisis and Trauma Counseling
228(2)
Working with Patients with HIV/AIDS
230(4)
The Hospice Movement
234(3)
The History of Hospice: The Neglect of the Dying
234(1)
The Hospice Philosophy
235(1)
The Hospice Team
236(1)
The Role of the Hospice Human Services Worker
237(7)
The Psychosocial Assessment
237(1)
Intervention Strategies
238(1)
Case Management and Counseling Services
239(1)
Resisting the Reality of the Death
240(1)
Planning for the Death
241(1)
The Spiritual Component of Dying
242(2)
Death and Dying: Effective Bereavement Counseling
244(3)
The Journey Through Grief: A Task-Centered Approach
244(3)
Multicultural Issues
247(1)
Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice Care
248(2)
Concluding Thoughts on Human Services in Hospice Settings
250(4)
Substance Abuse and Treatment
254(34)
History of the Practice Setting
256(1)
History of Use and Early Treatment Efforts within the United States
256(3)
The Prohibition Movement
258(1)
The Rise of Modern Addiction Treatment in the United States
259(1)
Demographics, Prevalence, and Usage Patterns
259(2)
Defining Terms and Concepts
261(1)
Theoretical Models of Use and Abuse
262(3)
Types of Substances Abused
265(3)
Abuse of Prescription Drugs
266(2)
Common Clinical Issues and the Role of the Human Service Professional
268(2)
The Presence of Substance Abuse Across All Practice Settings
268(1)
Acceptance of Problem
268(1)
Hitting Bottom
269(1)
Clinical Interventions
270(2)
Motivational Interviewing
271(1)
Cultural Sensitivity
272(1)
Defining Treatment Goals
273(1)
Abstinence
273(1)
Harm Reduction
273(1)
Mode of Service Delivery
274(3)
Availability of Treatment
274(1)
Public Programs
274(1)
Private Programs
274(1)
Continuum of Care
275(2)
Treatment Modalities
277(1)
The Role of the Human Services Professional
277(1)
Stages of Recovery
278(1)
Relapse Prevention
279(1)
Common Treatment Settings
279(5)
Detoxification Programs
280(1)
Inpatient Treatment Programs
280(1)
Partial Hospitalization Programs
281(1)
Residential Treatment Programs
281(1)
Outpatient Treatment
282(1)
Pharmacological Treatments
282(1)
Self-Help
283(1)
Family Involvement
283(1)
Concluding Thoughts on Substance Abuse
284(4)
Human Services in the Schools
288(28)
School Social Work
290(6)
The School Social Work Model
292(1)
School Social Work Roles, Functions, and Core Competencies
292(4)
School Counseling
296(3)
Historical Roots of School Counseling
296(1)
School Counselors: Professional Identity
297(1)
The Urban Problem
297(1)
Common Roles and Functions of School Counselors
298(1)
School Psychologists
299(13)
Common Clinical Issues and Effective Responses by Human Services Personnel
300(1)
Depression and other Mental Health Concerns
300(2)
Diversity and Race
302(2)
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Youth
304(1)
The Terrorism Threat and the Impact of Living During Wartime
305(1)
Substance Abuse
306(2)
Child Abuse and Neglect
308(1)
Teenage Pregnancy
308(2)
ADD and ADHD
310(2)
Concluding Thoughts on Schools
312(4)
Faith-Based Agencies
316(34)
Faith-Based versus Secular Organizations
318(2)
Faith-Based Community Initiatives Act
320(1)
Methods of Practice in Faith-Based Agencies
321(3)
The Benefits of Faith-Based Services
322(1)
Religious Diversity in Faith-Based Organizations
323(1)
Faith-Based Agencies: Services and Intervention Strategies
324(23)
Jewish Human Services: Agencies and the Role of the Human Services Professional
324(1)
United Jewish Communities: The Federations of North America
325(1)
Association of Jewish Family Services and Children's Agencies
326(6)
Christian Human Services: Agencies and the Role of the Human Services Professional
332(2)
Rural Communities and the Black Church
334(1)
Catholic Charities
334(2)
Prison Fellowship Ministries
336(1)
Teen Challenge
337(4)
Islamic Human Services: Agencies and the Role of the Human Services Professional
341(3)
Islamic Social Services Association
344(1)
Inner-City Muslim Action Network
344(1)
Muslim Family Services
344(3)
Concluding Thoughts on Faith-Based Human Services Agencies
347(3)
Violence, Victim Advocacy, and Corrections
350(29)
Domestic Violence
352(9)
The Nature of Domestic Violence: The Cycle of Violence
353(1)
Counseling Victims of Domestic Violence
354(1)
Whose Fault Is It Anyway? Attributing Causality of Abuse in the Relationship
354(2)
Does She Stay or Does She Go?
356(1)
Domestic Violence Practice Settings
357(1)
The Prosecution of Domestic Violence
358(1)
Batterers Programs
359(2)
Sexual Assault
361(3)
Why People Commit Rape
361(1)
The Psychological Impact of Sexual Assault
362(1)
Male-on-Male Sexual Assault
362(1)
Common Practice Settings: Rape Crisis Centers
363(1)
Victims of Violent Crime
364(5)
The Victims' Bill of Rights
365(1)
Victim-Witness Assistance
365(2)
Surviving Victims of Homicide
367(1)
Common Clinical Issues When Working with Victims of All Violent Crime
368(1)
Perpetrators of Crime
368(1)
Gang Activity
369(1)
Risk Factors of Gang Involvement
369(2)
Human Services Practice Settings Focusing on Gang Involvement
370(1)
Human Services in Prison Settings
371(1)
The War on Drugs
371(4)
Clinical Issues in the Prison Population: The Role of the Human Services Professional
372(1)
Mental Health Programs in Correctional Facilities
373(1)
Prison and Pregnancy
373(1)
STDs and AIDS
373(1)
Barriers to Treatment
374(1)
Concluding Thoughts on Corrections Human Services
375(4)
part three Macro Practice, Ethics, and Future Considerations
379(41)
Macro Practice and International Social Justice
380(28)
Why Macro Practice?
382(2)
Vulnerable and Oppressed Populations
384(4)
Mobilizing for Change: Shared Goals of Effective Macro Practice Techniques
388(3)
Common Aspects of Macro Practice
388(1)
Community Development
388(1)
Community Organizing
389(1)
Policy Practice
390(1)
The Global Community: International Human Services
391(13)
HIV/AIDS Pandemic
394(1)
Crimes Against Women and Children
394(1)
Female Genital Mutilation
394(1)
Human Sex Trafficking
395(1)
Street Children
396(1)
Child Labor and Economic Injustice
397(3)
Indigenous People
400(1)
Torture and Abuse
401(1)
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Rights
402(2)
Macro Practice in Action
404(4)
Professional Ethics and Values in Human Services
408(12)
Moral, But by Whose Standards?
410(1)
Ethical Values vs. Emotional Desires: ``I Know It Was Wrong, But We Were in Love!''
410(1)
When Our Values Collide: ``I Value Honesty, But What If Lives Are at Stake?''
411(1)
The Development of Moral Reasoning
412(1)
Developing a Professional Code of Ethics
413(1)
Resolving Ethical Dilemmas
414(1)
Cultural Influences on the Perception of Ethical Behavior
415(1)
Ethical Standards in Human Services
415(3)
Closing Thoughts on Professional Ethics
418(2)
Epilogue: The Future of Human Services
420(2)
Avoiding Professional Burnout
420(1)
Human Services and Technology
421(1)
Increased Need for Services
422(1)
Glossary Terms 422(7)
Index 429


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