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WEI (KEVIN) LIU, PhD, is an Engineering Specialist at General Motors. He has twelve years of hybrid electric vehicle engineering experience and fifteen years of academic experience.
Nomenclature xix
Abbreviations xxv
1 Introduction 1
1.1 General Architectures of Hybrid Electric Vehicle, 2
1.1.1 Series Hybrid, 2
1.1.2 Parallel Hybrid, 3
1.1.3 Series–Parallel Hybrid, 3
1.2 Hybrid Vehicle System Components, 5
1.3 Hybrid Vehicle System Analysis, 6
1.3.1 Power Flow of Hybrid Vehicles, 6
1.3.2 Typical Drive Cycles, 7
1.3.3 Vehicle Drivability, 8
1.3.4 Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions, 8
1.4 Controls of Hybrid Vehicle, 8
References, 10
2 Basic Components of Hybrid Vehicle 11
2.1 Prime Mover, 11
2.1.1 Gasoline Engine, 11
2.1.2 Diesel Engine, 12
2.1.3 Fuel Cells, 14
2.2 Electric Motor with DC/DC Converter and DC/AC Inverter, 15
2.3 Energy Storage System, 17
2.3.1 Energy Storage System Requirements for Hybrid Vehicles, 17
2.3.2 Basic Types of Batteries for Hybrid Vehicle System Application, 19
2.4 Transmission System in Hybrid Vehicle, 24
References, 24
3 Hybrid Vehicle System Modeling 25
3.1 Modeling of Internal Combustion Engine, 25
3.2 Modeling of Electric Motor, 32
3.3 Modeling of Battery System, 37
3.4 Modeling of Transmission System, 42
3.4.1 Modeling of Clutch and Power Split Device, 42
3.4.2 Modeling of Torque Converter, 50
3.4.3 Modeling of Gear Box, 52
3.4.4 Modeling of Transmission Controller, 53
3.5 Modeling of Final Drive and Wheel, 56
3.6 Modeling of Vehicle Body, 58
3.7 PID-Based Driver Model, 59
References, 61
4 Power Electronics and Electric Motor Drives of Hybrid Vehicle 63
4.1 Basic Power Electronic Devices, 63
4.1.1 Diodes, 64
4.1.2 Thyristors, 65
4.1.3 Bipolar Junction Transistors, 67
4.1.4 Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors, 69
4.1.5 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors, 71
4.2 DC/DC Converter, 72
4.2.1 Basic Principle of DC–DC Converter, 72
4.2.2 Step-Down (Buck) Converter, 74
4.2.2.1 Steady-State Operation, 76
4.2.2.2 Output Voltage Ripple, 80
4.2.3 Step-Up (Boost) Converter, 83
4.2.4 Step-Down/Up (Buck–Boost) Converter, 86
4.2.5 DC–DC Converters Applied in Hybrid Vehicle Systems, 90
4.2.5.1 Isolated Buck DC–DC Converter, 90
4.2.5.2 Four-Quadrant DC–DC Converter, 94
4.3 DC–AC Inverter, 94
4.3.1 Basic Concepts of DC–AC Inverters, 95
4.3.2 Single-Phase DC–AC Inverter, 99
4.3.3 Three-Phase DC–AC Inverter, 102
4.4 Electric Motor Drives, 106
4.4.1 BLDC Motor and Control, 106
4.4.1.1 Operation of BLDC Motor, 106
4.4.1.2 Torque and Rotating Field Production, 107
4.4.1.3 BLDC Motor Control, 108
4.4.1.4 BLDC Motor Torque–Speed Characteristics and Typical Technical Parameters, 113
4.4.1.5 Sensorless BLDC Motor Control, 113
4.4.2 AC Induction Motor and Control, 115
4.4.2.1 Basic Principle of AC Induction Motor Operation, 115
4.4.2.2 Controls of AC Induction Motor, 118
4.5 Plug-In Battery Charger Design, 124
4.5.1 Basic Configuration of PHEV/BEV Battery Charger, 124
4.5.2 Power Factor and Correcting Techniques, 125
4.5.3 Controls of Plug-In Charger, 127
References, 129
5 Energy Storage System Modeling and Control 131
5.1 Introduction, 131
5.2 Methods of Determining State of Charge, 133
5.2.1 Current-Based SOC Determination, 133
5.2.2 Voltage-Based SOC Determination, 136
5.2.3 Extended Kalman Filter–Based SOC Determination, 145
5.2.4 SOC Determination Based on Transient Response Characteristics, 147
5.2.5 Fuzzy Logic–Based SOC Determination, 149
5.2.6 Combination of Estimated SOCs by Different Approaches, 151
5.2.7 Further Discussion of SOC Calculations in Hybrid Vehicle Applications, 152
5.3 Estimation of Battery Power Availability, 154
5.3.1 PNGV HPPC Power Availability Estimation, 156
5.3.2 Revised PNGV HPPC Power Availability Estimation, 158
5.3.3 Power Availability Estimation Based on Electrical Circuit Equivalent Model, 159
5.4 Battery Life Prediction, 165
5.4.1 Aging Behavior and Mechanisms, 165
5.4.2 Definition of State of Life, 167
5.4.3 SOL Determination under Storage Condition, 168
5.4.4 SOL Determination under Cycling Condition, 172
5.4.4.1 Offline Lifetime Determination under Cycling Condition, 173
5.4.4.2 Online SOL Determination under Cycling Condition, 173
5.5 Cell Balancing, 180
5.5.1 SOC Balancing, 181
5.5.2 Hardware Implementation of Balancing, 181
5.5.3 Cell Balancing Control Algorithms and Evaluation, 184
5.6 Estimation of Cell Core Temperature, 192
5.6.1 Introduction, 192
5.6.2 Core Temperature Estimation of Air-Cooled Cylinder-Type HEV Battery, 193
5.7 Battery System Efficiency, 196
References, 197
6 Energy Management Strategies of Hybrid Vehicle 199
6.1 Introduction, 199
6.2 Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy, 200
6.3 Fuzzy Logic–Based Energy Management Strategy, 201
6.3.1 Fuzzy Logic Control, 202
6.3.2 Fuzzy Logic–Based HEV Energy Management Strategy, 209
6.4 Determination of Optimal ICE Operating Points of Hybrid Vehicle, 218
6.4.1 Mathematical Description of Problem, 219
6.4.2 Procedures Determining Optimal Operating Points, 220
6.4.3 Golden Section Search Method, 221
6.4.4 Determining Optimal Operating Points, 221
6.4.5 Example of Optimal Determination, 222
6.4.6 Performance Evaluation, 226
6.5 Cost Function–Based Optimal Energy Management Strategy, 233
6.5.1 Mathematical Description of Cost Function–Based Optimal Energy Management, 234
6.5.2 Example of Optimization Implementation, 237
6.6 Optimal Energy Management Strategy Incorporated with Cycle Pattern Recognition, 239
6.6.1 Driving Cycle/Style Pattern Recognition Algorithm, 239
6.6.2 Determination of Optimal Energy Distribution, 240
References, 242
7 Other Hybrid Vehicle Control Problems 245
7.1 Basics of Internal Combustion Engine Control, 245
7.2 Engine Torque Fluctuation Dumping Control Through Electric Motor, 247
7.2.1 Sliding-Mode Control, 248
7.2.2 Engine Torque Fluctuation Dumping Control Based on Sliding-Mode Control Method, 251
7.3 High-Voltage Bus Spike Control, 253
7.4 Thermal Control of HEV Battery System, 258
7.4.1 Combined PID Feedback with Feedforward Battery Thermal System Control Strategy, 260
7.4.2 Optimal Battery Thermal Control Strategy, 262
7.5 HEV/EV Traction Motor Control, 265
7.5.1 Traction Torque Control, 265
7.5.2 Anti-Rollback Control, 266
7.6 Active Suspension Control of HEV/EV Systems, 267
7.6.1 Suspension System Model of a Quarter Car, 269
7.6.2 Active Suspension System Control, 270
References, 277
8 Plug-In Charging Characteristics, Algorithm, and Impact on Power Distribution System 279
8.1 Introduction, 279
8.2 Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Battery System and Charging Characteristics, 280
8.2.1 AC-120 Plug-In Charging Characteristics, 280
8.2.2 AC-240 Plug-In Charging Characteristics, 281
8.2.3 Characteristics of Rapid Public Charging, 284
8.3 Impacts of Plug-in Charging on Electricity Network, 284
8.3.1 Impact on Distribution System, 286
8.3.2 Impact on Electric Grid, 288
8.4 Optimal Plug-In Charging Strategy, 289
8.4.1 Optimal Plug-In Charge-Back Point Determination, 290
8.4.2 Cost-Based Optimal Plug-In Charging Strategy, 291
References, 298
9 Hybrid Vehicle Design and Performance Analysis 299
9.1 Hybrid Vehicle Simulation System, 299
9.2 Typical Test Driving Cycles, 300
9.3 Sizing Components and Drivability Analysis, 306
9.3.1 Drivability Calculation, 307
9.3.2 Preliminary Sizing of Main Components of Hybrid Vehicle, 310
9.3.2.1 Sizing Prime Mover, 310
9.3.2.2 Sizing Transmission/Gear Ratio, 312
9.3.2.3 Sizing Energy Storage System, 312
9.3.2.4 Design Examples, 315
9.4 Fuel Economy and Emissions Simulation Calculations, 320
References, 323
Appendix A System Identification: State and Parameter Estimation Techniques 325
A.1 Dynamic Systems and Mathematical Models, 325
A.1.1 Types of Mathematical Models, 325
A.1.2 Linear Time-Continuous Systems, 326
A.1.2.1 Input–Output Model of Linear Time-Invariant and Time-Continuous System, 326
A.1.2.2 State Space Model of Linear Time-Invariant and Time-Continuous System, 328
A.1.3 Linear Discrete System and Modeling, 334
A.1.4 Linear Time-Invariant Discrete Stochastic Systems, 335
A.2 Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Systems, 341
A.2.1 Least Squares, 341
A.2.2 Statistical Property of Least-Squares Estimator, 342
A.2.3 Recursive Least-Squares Estimator, 344
A.2.4 Least-Squares Estimator for Slow Time-Varying Parameters, 347
A.2.5 Generalized Least-Squares Estimator, 348
A.3 State Estimation of Dynamic Systems, 349
A.4 Joint State and Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Systems, 351
A.4.1 Extended Kalman Filter, 351
A.4.2 Singular Pencil Model, 353
A.5 Enhancement of Numerical Stability of Parameter and State Estimation, 356
A.5.1 Square-Root Algorithm, 357
A.5.2 UDUT Covariance Factorization Algorithm, 358
A.6 Modeling and Parameter Identification, 361
References, 363
Appendix B Advanced Dynamic System Control Techniques 365
B.1 Pole Placement of Control System, 366
B.2 Optimal Control, 371
B.2.1 Optimal Control Problem Formulation, 371
B.2.2 Pontryagin’s Maximum Method, 372
B.2.3 Dynamic Programming, 374
B.2.4 Linear Quadratic Control, 378
B.3 Stochastic and Adaptive Control, 381
B.3.1 Minimum-Variance Prediction and Control, 382
B.3.1.1 Minimum-Variance Prediction, 382
B.3.1.2 Minimum-Variance Control, 385
B.3.2 Self-Tuning Control, 387
B.3.3 Model Reference Adaptive Control, 389
B.3.4 Model Predictive Control, 391
B.4 Fault-Tolerant Control, 392
B.4.1 Hardware Redundant Control, 394
B.4.2 Software Redundant Control, 394
References, 395
Index 397