What is included with this book?
Preface | p. xiii |
Entropy Information and Optics | p. 1 |
Information Transmission | p. 2 |
Entropy Information | p. 4 |
Communication Channel | p. 9 |
Memoryless Discrete Channel | p. 10 |
Continuous Channel | p. 11 |
Band-limited Analysis | p. 19 |
Degrees of Freedom | p. 23 |
Gabor's Information Cell | p. 25 |
Signal Analysis | p. 26 |
Signal Detection | p. 28 |
Statistical Signal Detection | p. 29 |
Signal Recovering | p. 32 |
Signal Ambiguity | p. 34 |
Wigner Distribution | p. 39 |
Trading Information with Entropy | p. 41 |
Demon Exorcist | p. 42 |
Minimum Cost of Entropy | p. 45 |
Accuracy and Reliability Observation | p. 47 |
Uncertainty Observation | p. 51 |
Quantum Mechanical Channel | p. 54 |
Capacity of a Photon Channel | p. 56 |
References | p. 60 |
Exercises | p. 60 |
Signal Processing with Optics | p. 67 |
Coherence Theory of Light | p. 67 |
Processing under Coherent and Incoherent Illumination | p. 72 |
Fresnel-Kirchhoff and Fourier Transformation | p. 76 |
Free Space Impulse Response | p. 76 |
Fourier Transformation by Lenses | p. 77 |
Fourier Transform Processing | p. 79 |
Fourier Domain Filter | p. 79 |
Spatial Domain Filter | p. 82 |
Processing with Fourier Domain Filters | p. 83 |
Processing with Joint Transformation | p. 85 |
Hybrid Optical Processing | p. 88 |
Image Processing with Optics | p. 89 |
Correlation Detection | p. 89 |
Image Restoration | p. 93 |
Image Subtraction | p. 98 |
Broadband Signal Processing | p. 98 |
Algorithms for Processing | p. 103 |
Mellin-Transform Processing | p. 104 |
Circular Harmonic Processing | p. 105 |
Homomorphic Processing | p. 107 |
Synthetic Discriminant Algorithm | p. 108 |
Simulated Annealing Algorithm | p. 112 |
Processing with Photorefractive Optics | p. 115 |
Photorefractive Effect and Materials | p. 115 |
Wave Mixing and Multiplexing | p. 118 |
Bragg Diffraction Limitation | p. 121 |
Angular and Wavelength Selectivities | p. 122 |
Shift-Invariant Limited Correlators | p. 125 |
Processing with Incoherent Light | p. 131 |
Exploitation of Coherence | p. 131 |
Signal Processing with White Light | p. 135 |
Color Image Preservation and Pseudocoloring | p. 138 |
Processing with Neural Networks | p. 141 |
Optical Neural Networks | p. 142 |
Holpfield Model | p. 143 |
Inpattern Association Model | p. 144 |
References | p. 147 |
Exercises | p. 148 |
Communication with Optics | p. 163 |
Motivation of Fiber-Optic Communication | p. 163 |
Light Propagation in Optical Fibers | p. 164 |
Geometric Optics Approach | p. 164 |
Wave-Optics Approach | p. 164 |
Other Issues Related to Light Propagating in Optical Fiber | p. 168 |
Critical Components | p. 184 |
Optical Transmitters for Fiber-Optic Communications--Semiconductor Lasers | p. 184 |
Optical Receivers for Fiber-Optic Communications | p. 188 |
Other Components Used in Fiber-Optic Communications | p. 192 |
Fiber-Optic Networks | p. 192 |
Types of Fiber-Optic Networks Classified by Physical Size | p. 193 |
Physical Topologies and Routing Topologies Relevant to Fiber-Optic Networks | p. 193 |
Wavelength Division Multiplexed Optics Networks | p. 193 |
Testing Fiber-Optic Networks | p. 195 |
References | p. 198 |
Exercises | p. 198 |
Switching with Optics | p. 201 |
Figures of Merits for an Optical Switch | p. 202 |
All-Optical Switches | p. 203 |
Optical Nonlinearity | p. 205 |
Etalon Switching Devices | p. 205 |
Nonlinear Directional Coupler | p. 208 |
Nonlinear Interferometric Switches | p. 211 |
Fast Electro-optic Switches: Modulators | p. 219 |
Direct Modulation of Semiconductor Lasers | p. 220 |
External Electro-optic Modulators | p. 225 |
MEMS Switches Without Moving Parts | p. 236 |
Optical Switching Based on MEMS | p. 236 |
MEMS Fabrications | p. 237 |
Electrostatic Actuators | p. 238 |
MEMS Optical Switches | p. 242 |
Summary | p. 247 |
References | p. 248 |
Exercises | p. 250 |
Transformation with Optics | p. 255 |
Huygens-Fresnel Diffraction | p. 256 |
Fresnel Transform | p. 257 |
Definition | p. 257 |
Optical Fresnel Transform | p. 257 |
Fourier Transform | p. 259 |
Wavelet Transform | p. 260 |
Wavelets | p. 260 |
Time-frequency Joint Representation | p. 261 |
Properties of Wavelets | p. 262 |
Physical Wavelet Transform | p. 264 |
Electromagnetic Wavelet | p. 264 |
Electromagnetic Wavelet Transform | p. 266 |
Electromagnetic Wavelet Transform and Huygens Diffraction | p. 260 |
Wigner Distribution Function | p. 270 |
Definition | p. 270 |
Inverse Transform | p. 271 |
Geometrical Optics Interpretation | p. 271 |
Wigner Distribution Optics | p. 272 |
Fractional Fourier Transform | p. 275 |
Definition | p. 275 |
Fractional Fourier Tranform and Fresnel Diffraction | p. 277 |
Hankel Transform | p. 279 |
Fourier Transform in Polar Coordinate System | p. 279 |
Hankel Transform | p. 281 |
Radon Transform | p. 282 |
Definition | p. 282 |
Image Reconstruction | p. 283 |
Geometric Transform | p. 284 |
Basic Geometric Transformations | p. 288 |
Generalized Geometric Transformation | p. 288 |
Optical Implementation | p. 289 |
Hough Transform | p. 292 |
Definition | p. 292 |
Optical Hough Transform | p. 293 |
References | p. 294 |
Exercises | p. 295 |
Interconnection with Optics | p. 299 |
Introduction | p. 299 |
Polymer Waveguides | p. 303 |
Polymeric Materials for Waveguide Fabrication | p. 303 |
Fabrication of Low-Loss Polymeric Waveguides | p. 305 |
Waveguide Loss Measurement | p. 310 |
Thin-Film Waveguide Couplers | p. 312 |
Surface-Normal Grating Coupler Design and Fabrication | p. 312 |
45[degree] Surface-Normal Micromirror Couplers | p. 326 |
Integration of Thin-Film Photodetectors | p. 331 |
Integration of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) | p. 334 |
Optical Clock Signal Distribution | p. 339 |
Polymer Waveguide-Based Optical Bus Structure | p. 343 |
Optical Equivalent for Electronic Bus Logic Design | p. 345 |
Summary | p. 348 |
References | p. 349 |
Exercises | p. 351 |
Pattern Recognition with Optics | p. 355 |
Basic Architectures | p. 356 |
Correlators | p. 356 |
Neural Networks | p. 357 |
Hybrid Optical Architectures | p. 357 |
Robustness of JTC | p. 362 |
Recognition by Correlation Detections | p. 364 |
Nonconventional Joint-Transform Detection | p. 364 |
Nonzero-order Joint-Transform Detection | p. 368 |
Position-Encoding Joint-Transform Detection | p. 370 |
Phase-Representation Joint-Transform Detection | p. 371 |
Iterative Joint-Transform Detection | p. 372 |
Polychromatic Pattern Recognition | p. 375 |
Detection with Temporal Fourier-Domain Filters | p. 376 |
Detection with Spatial-Domain Filters | p. 377 |
Target Tracking | p. 380 |
Autonomous Tracking | p. 380 |
Data Association Tracking | p. 382 |
Pattern Recognition Using Composite Filtering | p. 387 |
Performance Capacity | p. 388 |
Quantization Performance | p. 390 |
Pattern Classification | p. 394 |
Nearest Neighbor Classifiers | p. 395 |
Optical Implementation | p. 398 |
Pattern Recognition with Photorefractive Optics | p. 401 |
Detection by Phase Conjugation | p. 401 |
Wavelength-Multiplexed Matched Filtering | p. 404 |
Wavelet Matched Filtering | p. 407 |
Neural Pattern Recognition | p. 411 |
Recognition by Supervised Learning | p. 412 |
Recognition by Unsupervised Learning | p. 414 |
Polychromatic Neural Networks | p. 418 |
References | p. 422 |
Exercises | p. 423 |
Information Storage with Optics | p. 435 |
Digital Information Storage | p. 435 |
Upper Limit of Optical Storage Density | p. 436 |
Optical Storage Media | p. 438 |
Photographic Film | p. 438 |
Dichromated Gelatin | p. 439 |
Photopolymers | p. 439 |
Photoresists | p. 440 |
Thermoplastic Film | p. 440 |
Photorefractive Materials | p. 441 |
Photochromic Materials | p. 442 |
Electron-Trapping Materials | p. 442 |
Two Photon-Absorption Materials | p. 443 |
Bacteriorhodospin | p. 444 |
Photochemical Hole Burning | p. 444 |
Magneto-optic Materials | p. 445 |
Phase-Change Materials | p. 446 |
Bit-Pattern Optical Storage | p. 446 |
Optical Tape | p. 447 |
Optical Disk | p. 447 |
Multilayer Optical Disk | p. 448 |
Photon-Gating 3-D Optical Storage | p. 449 |
Stacked-Layer 3-D Optical Storage | p. 451 |
Photochemical Hole-Burning 3-D Storage | p. 454 |
Holographic Optical Storage | p. 454 |
Principle of Holography | p. 455 |
Plane Holographic Storage | p. 456 |
Stacked Holograms for 3-D Optical Storage | p. 458 |
Volume Holographic 3-D Optical Storage | p. 460 |
Near Field Optical Storage | p. 461 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 461 |
References | p. 465 |
Exercises | p. 468 |
Computing with Optics | p. 475 |
Introduction | p. 476 |
Parallel Optical Logic and Architectures | p. 477 |
Optical Logic | p. 477 |
Space-Variant Optical Logic | p. 481 |
Programmable Logic Array | p. 481 |
Parallel Array Logic | p. 485 |
Symbolic Substitution | p. 486 |
Content-Addressable Memory | p. 488 |
Number Systems and Basic Operations | p. 489 |
Operations with Binary Number Systems | p. 489 |
Operations with Nonbinary Number Systems | p. 499 |
Parallel Signed-Digit Arithmetic | p. 501 |
Generalized Signed-Digit Number Systems | p. 501 |
MSD Arithmetic | p. 503 |
TSD Arithmetic | p. 530 |
QSD Arithmetic | p. 534 |
Conversion between Different Number Systems | p. 543 |
Conversion between Signed-Digit and Complement Number Systems | p. 544 |
Conversion between NSD and Negabinary Number Systems | p. 546 |
Optical Implementation | p. 549 |
Symbolic Substitution Implemented by Matrix-Vector Operation | p. 549 |
SCAM-Based Incoherent Correlator for QSD Addition | p. 551 |
Optical Logic Array Processor for Parallel NSD Arithmetic | p. 558 |
Summary | p. 560 |
References | p. 562 |
Exercises | p. 569 |
Sensing with Optics | p. 571 |
Introduction | p. 571 |
A Brief Review of Types of Fiber-Optic Sensors | p. 572 |
Intensity-Based Fiber-Optic Sensors | p. 572 |
Polarization-Based Fiber-Optic Sensors | p. 575 |
Phase-Based Fiber Optic Sensors | p. 583 |
Frequency (or Wavelength)-Based Fiber-Optic Sensors | p. 587 |
Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensors | p. 589 |
Intrinsic Distributed Fiber-optic Sensors | p. 589 |
Quasi-distributed Fiber-optic Sensors | p. 600 |
Summary | p. 612 |
References | p. 613 |
Exercises | p. 615 |
Information Display with Optics | p. 617 |
Introduction | p. 617 |
Information Display Using Acousto-optic Spatial Light Modulators | p. 1618 |
The Acousto-optic Effect | p. 618 |
Intensity Modulation of Laser | p. 625 |
Deflection of Laser | p. 628 |
Laser TV Display Using Acousto-optic Devices | p. 629 |
3-D Holographic Display | p. 632 |
Principles of Holography | p. 632 |
Optical Scanning Holography | p. 638 |
Synthetic Aperture Holography | p. 640 |
Information Display Using Electro-optic Spatial Light Modulators | p. 643 |
The Electro-optic Effect | p. 643 |
Electrically Addressed Spatial Light Modulators | p. 647 |
Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulators | p. 650 |
Concluding Remarks | p. 661 |
References | p. 661 |
Exercises | p. 664 |
Networking with Optics | p. 667 |
Background | p. 667 |
Optical Network Elements | p. 671 |
Optical Fibers | p. 671 |
Optical Amplifiers | p. 673 |
Wavelength Division Multiplexer/Demultiplexer | p. 678 |
Transponder | p. 687 |
Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer | p. 689 |
Optical Cross-Connect | p. 691 |
Optical Monitoring | p. 694 |
Design of Optical Transport Network | p. 696 |
Optical Fiber Dispersion Limit | p. 696 |
Optical Fiber Nonlinearity Limit | p. 697 |
System Design Examples | p. 701 |
Applications and Future Development of Optical Networks | p. 704 |
Long-haul Backbone Networks | p. 704 |
Metropolitan and Access Networks | p. 709 |
Future Development | p. 711 |
References | p. 714 |
Exercises | p. 715 |
Index | p. 719 |
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