9780127748115

Introduction to Information Optics

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  • ISBN13:

    9780127748115

  • ISBN10:

    0127748113

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2001-09-04
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
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Summary

While there are books treating individual topics contained in this book, this will be the first single volume providing a cohesive treatment on this subject as a whole. This goes beyond optical communications in that it includes related topics such as sensing, displays, computing, and data storage.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Entropy Information and Opticsp. 1
Information Transmissionp. 2
Entropy Informationp. 4
Communication Channelp. 9
Memoryless Discrete Channelp. 10
Continuous Channelp. 11
Band-limited Analysisp. 19
Degrees of Freedomp. 23
Gabor's Information Cellp. 25
Signal Analysisp. 26
Signal Detectionp. 28
Statistical Signal Detectionp. 29
Signal Recoveringp. 32
Signal Ambiguityp. 34
Wigner Distributionp. 39
Trading Information with Entropyp. 41
Demon Exorcistp. 42
Minimum Cost of Entropyp. 45
Accuracy and Reliability Observationp. 47
Uncertainty Observationp. 51
Quantum Mechanical Channelp. 54
Capacity of a Photon Channelp. 56
Referencesp. 60
Exercisesp. 60
Signal Processing with Opticsp. 67
Coherence Theory of Lightp. 67
Processing under Coherent and Incoherent Illuminationp. 72
Fresnel-Kirchhoff and Fourier Transformationp. 76
Free Space Impulse Responsep. 76
Fourier Transformation by Lensesp. 77
Fourier Transform Processingp. 79
Fourier Domain Filterp. 79
Spatial Domain Filterp. 82
Processing with Fourier Domain Filtersp. 83
Processing with Joint Transformationp. 85
Hybrid Optical Processingp. 88
Image Processing with Opticsp. 89
Correlation Detectionp. 89
Image Restorationp. 93
Image Subtractionp. 98
Broadband Signal Processingp. 98
Algorithms for Processingp. 103
Mellin-Transform Processingp. 104
Circular Harmonic Processingp. 105
Homomorphic Processingp. 107
Synthetic Discriminant Algorithmp. 108
Simulated Annealing Algorithmp. 112
Processing with Photorefractive Opticsp. 115
Photorefractive Effect and Materialsp. 115
Wave Mixing and Multiplexingp. 118
Bragg Diffraction Limitationp. 121
Angular and Wavelength Selectivitiesp. 122
Shift-Invariant Limited Correlatorsp. 125
Processing with Incoherent Lightp. 131
Exploitation of Coherencep. 131
Signal Processing with White Lightp. 135
Color Image Preservation and Pseudocoloringp. 138
Processing with Neural Networksp. 141
Optical Neural Networksp. 142
Holpfield Modelp. 143
Inpattern Association Modelp. 144
Referencesp. 147
Exercisesp. 148
Communication with Opticsp. 163
Motivation of Fiber-Optic Communicationp. 163
Light Propagation in Optical Fibersp. 164
Geometric Optics Approachp. 164
Wave-Optics Approachp. 164
Other Issues Related to Light Propagating in Optical Fiberp. 168
Critical Componentsp. 184
Optical Transmitters for Fiber-Optic Communications--Semiconductor Lasersp. 184
Optical Receivers for Fiber-Optic Communicationsp. 188
Other Components Used in Fiber-Optic Communicationsp. 192
Fiber-Optic Networksp. 192
Types of Fiber-Optic Networks Classified by Physical Sizep. 193
Physical Topologies and Routing Topologies Relevant to Fiber-Optic Networksp. 193
Wavelength Division Multiplexed Optics Networksp. 193
Testing Fiber-Optic Networksp. 195
Referencesp. 198
Exercisesp. 198
Switching with Opticsp. 201
Figures of Merits for an Optical Switchp. 202
All-Optical Switchesp. 203
Optical Nonlinearityp. 205
Etalon Switching Devicesp. 205
Nonlinear Directional Couplerp. 208
Nonlinear Interferometric Switchesp. 211
Fast Electro-optic Switches: Modulatorsp. 219
Direct Modulation of Semiconductor Lasersp. 220
External Electro-optic Modulatorsp. 225
MEMS Switches Without Moving Partsp. 236
Optical Switching Based on MEMSp. 236
MEMS Fabricationsp. 237
Electrostatic Actuatorsp. 238
MEMS Optical Switchesp. 242
Summaryp. 247
Referencesp. 248
Exercisesp. 250
Transformation with Opticsp. 255
Huygens-Fresnel Diffractionp. 256
Fresnel Transformp. 257
Definitionp. 257
Optical Fresnel Transformp. 257
Fourier Transformp. 259
Wavelet Transformp. 260
Waveletsp. 260
Time-frequency Joint Representationp. 261
Properties of Waveletsp. 262
Physical Wavelet Transformp. 264
Electromagnetic Waveletp. 264
Electromagnetic Wavelet Transformp. 266
Electromagnetic Wavelet Transform and Huygens Diffractionp. 260
Wigner Distribution Functionp. 270
Definitionp. 270
Inverse Transformp. 271
Geometrical Optics Interpretationp. 271
Wigner Distribution Opticsp. 272
Fractional Fourier Transformp. 275
Definitionp. 275
Fractional Fourier Tranform and Fresnel Diffractionp. 277
Hankel Transformp. 279
Fourier Transform in Polar Coordinate Systemp. 279
Hankel Transformp. 281
Radon Transformp. 282
Definitionp. 282
Image Reconstructionp. 283
Geometric Transformp. 284
Basic Geometric Transformationsp. 288
Generalized Geometric Transformationp. 288
Optical Implementationp. 289
Hough Transformp. 292
Definitionp. 292
Optical Hough Transformp. 293
Referencesp. 294
Exercisesp. 295
Interconnection with Opticsp. 299
Introductionp. 299
Polymer Waveguidesp. 303
Polymeric Materials for Waveguide Fabricationp. 303
Fabrication of Low-Loss Polymeric Waveguidesp. 305
Waveguide Loss Measurementp. 310
Thin-Film Waveguide Couplersp. 312
Surface-Normal Grating Coupler Design and Fabricationp. 312
45[degree] Surface-Normal Micromirror Couplersp. 326
Integration of Thin-Film Photodetectorsp. 331
Integration of Vertical Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs)p. 334
Optical Clock Signal Distributionp. 339
Polymer Waveguide-Based Optical Bus Structurep. 343
Optical Equivalent for Electronic Bus Logic Designp. 345
Summaryp. 348
Referencesp. 349
Exercisesp. 351
Pattern Recognition with Opticsp. 355
Basic Architecturesp. 356
Correlatorsp. 356
Neural Networksp. 357
Hybrid Optical Architecturesp. 357
Robustness of JTCp. 362
Recognition by Correlation Detectionsp. 364
Nonconventional Joint-Transform Detectionp. 364
Nonzero-order Joint-Transform Detectionp. 368
Position-Encoding Joint-Transform Detectionp. 370
Phase-Representation Joint-Transform Detectionp. 371
Iterative Joint-Transform Detectionp. 372
Polychromatic Pattern Recognitionp. 375
Detection with Temporal Fourier-Domain Filtersp. 376
Detection with Spatial-Domain Filtersp. 377
Target Trackingp. 380
Autonomous Trackingp. 380
Data Association Trackingp. 382
Pattern Recognition Using Composite Filteringp. 387
Performance Capacityp. 388
Quantization Performancep. 390
Pattern Classificationp. 394
Nearest Neighbor Classifiersp. 395
Optical Implementationp. 398
Pattern Recognition with Photorefractive Opticsp. 401
Detection by Phase Conjugationp. 401
Wavelength-Multiplexed Matched Filteringp. 404
Wavelet Matched Filteringp. 407
Neural Pattern Recognitionp. 411
Recognition by Supervised Learningp. 412
Recognition by Unsupervised Learningp. 414
Polychromatic Neural Networksp. 418
Referencesp. 422
Exercisesp. 423
Information Storage with Opticsp. 435
Digital Information Storagep. 435
Upper Limit of Optical Storage Densityp. 436
Optical Storage Mediap. 438
Photographic Filmp. 438
Dichromated Gelatinp. 439
Photopolymersp. 439
Photoresistsp. 440
Thermoplastic Filmp. 440
Photorefractive Materialsp. 441
Photochromic Materialsp. 442
Electron-Trapping Materialsp. 442
Two Photon-Absorption Materialsp. 443
Bacteriorhodospinp. 444
Photochemical Hole Burningp. 444
Magneto-optic Materialsp. 445
Phase-Change Materialsp. 446
Bit-Pattern Optical Storagep. 446
Optical Tapep. 447
Optical Diskp. 447
Multilayer Optical Diskp. 448
Photon-Gating 3-D Optical Storagep. 449
Stacked-Layer 3-D Optical Storagep. 451
Photochemical Hole-Burning 3-D Storagep. 454
Holographic Optical Storagep. 454
Principle of Holographyp. 455
Plane Holographic Storagep. 456
Stacked Holograms for 3-D Optical Storagep. 458
Volume Holographic 3-D Optical Storagep. 460
Near Field Optical Storagep. 461
Concluding Remarksp. 461
Referencesp. 465
Exercisesp. 468
Computing with Opticsp. 475
Introductionp. 476
Parallel Optical Logic and Architecturesp. 477
Optical Logicp. 477
Space-Variant Optical Logicp. 481
Programmable Logic Arrayp. 481
Parallel Array Logicp. 485
Symbolic Substitutionp. 486
Content-Addressable Memoryp. 488
Number Systems and Basic Operationsp. 489
Operations with Binary Number Systemsp. 489
Operations with Nonbinary Number Systemsp. 499
Parallel Signed-Digit Arithmeticp. 501
Generalized Signed-Digit Number Systemsp. 501
MSD Arithmeticp. 503
TSD Arithmeticp. 530
QSD Arithmeticp. 534
Conversion between Different Number Systemsp. 543
Conversion between Signed-Digit and Complement Number Systemsp. 544
Conversion between NSD and Negabinary Number Systemsp. 546
Optical Implementationp. 549
Symbolic Substitution Implemented by Matrix-Vector Operationp. 549
SCAM-Based Incoherent Correlator for QSD Additionp. 551
Optical Logic Array Processor for Parallel NSD Arithmeticp. 558
Summaryp. 560
Referencesp. 562
Exercisesp. 569
Sensing with Opticsp. 571
Introductionp. 571
A Brief Review of Types of Fiber-Optic Sensorsp. 572
Intensity-Based Fiber-Optic Sensorsp. 572
Polarization-Based Fiber-Optic Sensorsp. 575
Phase-Based Fiber Optic Sensorsp. 583
Frequency (or Wavelength)-Based Fiber-Optic Sensorsp. 587
Distributed Fiber-Optic Sensorsp. 589
Intrinsic Distributed Fiber-optic Sensorsp. 589
Quasi-distributed Fiber-optic Sensorsp. 600
Summaryp. 612
Referencesp. 613
Exercisesp. 615
Information Display with Opticsp. 617
Introductionp. 617
Information Display Using Acousto-optic Spatial Light Modulatorsp. 1618
The Acousto-optic Effectp. 618
Intensity Modulation of Laserp. 625
Deflection of Laserp. 628
Laser TV Display Using Acousto-optic Devicesp. 629
3-D Holographic Displayp. 632
Principles of Holographyp. 632
Optical Scanning Holographyp. 638
Synthetic Aperture Holographyp. 640
Information Display Using Electro-optic Spatial Light Modulatorsp. 643
The Electro-optic Effectp. 643
Electrically Addressed Spatial Light Modulatorsp. 647
Optically Addressed Spatial Light Modulatorsp. 650
Concluding Remarksp. 661
Referencesp. 661
Exercisesp. 664
Networking with Opticsp. 667
Backgroundp. 667
Optical Network Elementsp. 671
Optical Fibersp. 671
Optical Amplifiersp. 673
Wavelength Division Multiplexer/Demultiplexerp. 678
Transponderp. 687
Optical Add/Drop Multiplexerp. 689
Optical Cross-Connectp. 691
Optical Monitoringp. 694
Design of Optical Transport Networkp. 696
Optical Fiber Dispersion Limitp. 696
Optical Fiber Nonlinearity Limitp. 697
System Design Examplesp. 701
Applications and Future Development of Optical Networksp. 704
Long-haul Backbone Networksp. 704
Metropolitan and Access Networksp. 709
Future Developmentp. 711
Referencesp. 714
Exercisesp. 715
Indexp. 719
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