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Introduction to Infrastructure,9780470411919
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Introduction to Infrastructure

by ;
Edition:
1
ISBN13:

9780470411919

ISBN10:
0470411910
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/1/2011
Publisher(s):
Wiley
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Summary

Penn and Parker's Introduction to Infrastructure is comprehensive, balanced coverage of different aspects of civil engineering that shows interconnectedness of the different civil engineering disciplines. This 1st Edition covers a broad coverage of engineering disciplines, and introduction to ethics. Traditional technical topics (e.g. construction, environmental/water resources, geotechnical, etc.) are interwoven through the text and rather than treating these subdisciplines on a chapter-by-chapter basis, case studies will be used to emphasize their interconnectedness. The text also features practical civil and environmental engineering applications, with level of technical rigor (e.g. rudimentary); a conversational tone, prompting the reader; problem-based; and Website accompanying text such as current infrastructure related news; and ordinances (parking, stormwater, etc.) from communities of various sizes and geographic locations to be used as the basis for textbook exercises.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Infrastructure and Careers in Civil and Environmental Engineering 1

Introduction 1

The Prevalence of Infrastructure 3

Infrastructure Systems 5

Funding Infrastructure 6

Sustainability 7

The Civil and Environmental Engineering Professions 9

Construction 9

Environmental 10

Geotechnical 10

Structural 10

Transportation 10

Water Resources 10

Integration with Other Professions 11

Integration with the Public 12

Professional Issues 13

Licensure 13

Graduate Degrees 14

Life-Long Learning 14

Teamwork and Leadership 15

The Future of Civil and Environmental Engineering 16

Employment Opportunities 17

About This Book 17

2 The Natural Environment 20

Introduction 20

Hydrologic Cycle and Hydrologic Budget 21

Watersheds 25

Rivers 26

Habitat/Native Species 28

Wetlands 28

Geologic Formations 29

Groundwater 33

Atmosphere 35

Climate Change 35

3 Structural Infrastructure 40

Prelude to Chapters 3 through 5 40

Introduction 41

Foundations 42

Skyscrapers 43

Schools (ASCE 2009 Grade: D) 44

Bridges (ASCE 2009 Grade: C) 44

Dams (ASCE 2009 Grade: D) 48

Levees and Floodwalls (ASCE 2009 Grade: D–) 50

Retaining walls 53

4 Transportation Infrastructure 57

Introduction 57

Roads (ASCE 2009 Grade: D–) 58

Intersections and Interchanges 61

Parking 63

Traffic Congestion Relief 65

Mass Transit (ASCE 2009 Grade: D) 65

Non-Motorized Transportation 69

Aviation (ASCE 2009 Grade: D) 70

Waterways (ASCE 2009 Grade: D–) 71

Ports 72

Locks 72

Tunnels 73

Rail (ASCE 2009 Grade: C–) 75

5 Environmental and Energy Infrastructure 79

Introduction 79

Energy (ASCE 2009 Grade: D+) 80

Energy Sources 80

Energy Transport 80

Energy Generation 80

Distribution 82

Drinking Water (ASCE 2009 Grade: D–) 82

Sources and Demand 83

Storage 83

Conveyance 84

Treatment 84

Distribution 85

Wastewater (ASCE 2009 Grade: D–) 86

Sources 87

Conveyance 87

Treatment 89

Discharge 90

Stormwater 90

Collection and Conveyance 90

Culverts 91

Storage 92

Treatment 93

Parks and Recreation (ASCE 2009 Grade: C–) 95

Solid Waste (ASCE 2009 Grade: C+) 97

Collection 97

Transfer 97

Recycling and Reuse 98

Composting 99

Landfills 99

Incinerators 100

Hazardous Waste (ASCE 2009 Grade: D) 101

Superfund 101

Brownfields 101

6 Construction Sites 104

Introduction 104

Security 105

Staging Areas 105

Equipment 105

Trailers and Storage Containers 105

Cranes 106

Excavators 106

Bulldozers 107

Loaders 107

Skidsteers 108

Dump Trucks 109

Earthmovers 109

Lifts 110

Blasting Equipment 110

Piledrivers 111

Dewatering 111

Ready-Mix Concrete Trucks 112

Concrete Pumping 112

Concrete Forms 112

Falsework 113

Utilities 114

Erosion Control 115

7 Infrastructure Systems 120

Introduction 120

Systems Overview 123

Infrastructure Components as Systems 126

Intra-Sector Systems 126

Inter-Sector Systems 128

The ‘‘Big Picture’’ System 131

8 History, Heritage, and Future 137

Introduction 137

Themes 140

Transportation 141

Roads 141

Canals 143

Bridges 145

Water Distribution and Treatment 147

Water Distribution 147

Water Treatment 149

Wastewater Conveyance and Treatment 150

Wastewater Conveyance 150

Wastewater Treatment 151

And Then There Was More. . . 151

The Future 151

9 Analysis Fundamentals 156

Introduction 156

The Nature of Analysis 158

The Analysis Process 159

Case Study: Creation of the Rational Method 165

Analysis Applications 167

Construction Engineering Analysis Application—Gantt Charts 167

Environmental/Water Resources Engineering Analysis Application—Open Channels 168

Geotechnical Engineering Analysis Application—Soil Size Analysis 170

Municipal Engineering Analysis Application—Stormwater Runoff 173

Structural Engineering Analysis Application—Tension and Compression in Beams 174

Transportation Engineering Analysis Application—Pavement Analysis 176

10 Design Fundamentals 181

Introduction 181

The Design Process 182

Problem (Need) Identification 183

Collection of Background Information 184

Development of Alternative Designs 185

Evaluation of Designs 186

Selection of Best Design 187

Documenting the Design 189

Implementation of Solution 189

Design Factors 190

Design Constraints 190

Regulations 190

Standards 191

Safety Factors 191

Acceptable Risk 192

Design Life 192

Case Study: Chicago River Reversal 193

Design Applications 195

Construction Engineering Design Application—Cut and Fill 195

Environmental Engineering Design Application—Septic Systems 197

Geotechnical Engineering Design Application—Footings 201

Municipal Engineering Design Application—Land Development 204

Structural Engineering Design Application—Bridges 206

Transportation Engineering Design Application—Inlet Spacing 206

11 Planning Considerations 212

Introduction 212

The Need for Planning 214

Infrastructure Planning 218

Transportation Planning 221

Land Use Planning 224

Regional Planning 227

Emergency Planning 229

Population Projections 231

12 Energy Considerations 237

Introduction 237

Background 238

Energy Trends and Predicting Demand 239

Sources of Energy 243

Environmental Impacts 244

Energy as an Infrastructure Consideration 247

Transportation Sector Energy Use 248

Buildings 249

Wastewater Treatment 250

Landfills 251

13 Sustainability Considerations 254

Introduction 254

The Needs of the World 257

Resource Demand 262

Measures of Sustainability 266

The Role of Civil and Environmental Engineers in Promoting Sustainability 267

Sustainable Design 268

Green Buildings 269

Sustainable Land Development 272

Water Reuse 272

14 Economic Considerations 277

Introduction 277

The Relationship Between Infrastructure and the Economy 279

Sources of Funds 280

Funding Local Projects 280

Funding State and Federal Projects 284

Consideration of Project Economics 286

15 Environmental Considerations 293

Introduction 293

Environmental Protection 294

Environmental Impacts 299

Land Development 299

Building Demolition 300

Wastewater Treatment 300

Highways 301

Dams 301

The Good (Bad?) Ole Days 302

Environmental Regulations 303

Environmental Complexity 305

16 Social Considerations 310

Introduction 310

Welcoming the Challenge 313

Social Impact Assessment 313

Displacement 314

Neighborhood Cohesion 315

Health 318

Environmental Justice 319

17 Ethical Considerations 324

Introduction 324

Ethics and Engineering 325

Codes of Ethics 327

Ethical Decision-Making Framework 330

Case Study 331

Corruption 333

18 Security Considerations 340

Introduction 340

Economic Impacts and Infrastructure Security 343

Critical Infrastructure 344

Designing for Failure 346

Water Security 346

Energy Security 349

Transportation Security 350

Risk Considerations 352

19 Other (No Less Important) Considerations 356

Introduction 357

Safety Considerations 357

Protecting the Public 357

Protecting Operations and Maintenance Workers 358

Protecting Construction Workers 359

Maintenance Considerations 363

Constructability Considerations 364

Aesthetic Considerations 368

Political Considerations 369

Legal Considerations 373

Torts 374

Contracts 375

Property Law 376

20 Analysis II 381

Introduction 381

Construction Engineering: Critical Path Method 382

Environmental Engineering: Air Pollution 383

Geotechnical Engineering: Katrina Floodwalls 386

Structural Engineering: Deflection of Beams 388

Transportation Engineering: Transportation Impact Study 392

21 Design II 397

Introduction 397

Construction Engineering: Concrete Mix and Formwork 398

Environmental Engineering: Primary Treatment of Wastewater 404

Geotechnical Engineering: Floodwalls 407

Structural Engineering: Design of Structural Members 410

Transportation Engineering: Horizontal Curves 413

Index 421



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