CART

(0) items

An Introduction to Language,9780155084810
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

An Introduction to Language

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780155084810

ISBN10:
015508481X
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
8/2/2002
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $108.33
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $0.03
See Prices

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Related Products


  • An Introduction to Language
    An Introduction to Language
  • An Introduction to Language
    An Introduction to Language
  • An Introduction to Language
    An Introduction to Language
  • An Introduction to Language
    An Introduction to Language
  • An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition
    An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition




Summary

AN INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE is ideal for use at all levels and in many different areas of instruction including education, languages, psychology, anthropology, teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), and linguistics. All chapters in this best-seller have been substantially revised to reflect recent discoveries and new understanding of linguistics and languages.

Table of Contents

Part 1 The Nature of Human Language
What is Language
3(30)
Linguistic Knowledge
4(8)
Knowledge of the Sound System
4(1)
Knowledge of Words
5(1)
Arbitrary Relation of form and Meaning
5(3)
The Creativity of Linguistic Knowledge
8(3)
Knowledge of Sentences and Nonsentences
11(1)
Linguistic Knowledge and Performance
12(2)
What Is Grammar?
14(4)
Descriptive Grammars
14(1)
Prescriptive Grammars
15(2)
Teaching Grammars
17(1)
Language Universals
18(5)
The Development of Grammar
19(1)
Sign Languages: Evidence for Languages Universals
20(1)
American Sign Language (ASL)
21(2)
Animal ``languages''
23(4)
``Talking'' Parrots
23(1)
The Birds and the Bees
24(3)
What We Know about Language
27(1)
Summary
28(1)
References for Further Reading
29(1)
Exercises
30(3)
Brain and language
33(36)
The Human Brain
34(14)
The Modularity of the Brain
34(5)
Evidence from Childhood Brain Lesions
39(1)
Split Brains
40(1)
Further Experiments
41(2)
More Evidence for Modularity
43(1)
Aphasia
43(5)
Distinct Categories of Conceptual Knowledge
48(1)
The Autonomy of Language
48(3)
Asymmetry of Abilities
49(1)
Laura
49(1)
Christopher
50(1)
Genetic Evidence for Language Autonomy
50(1)
Language and Brain Development
51(5)
The Critical Period
51(3)
A Critical Period for Bird Songs
54(2)
The Evolution of Language
56(5)
In the Beginning: The Origin of Language
56(1)
God's Gift to Mankind?
57(1)
The First Language
58(1)
Human Invention or the Cries of Nature?
59(1)
The development of Language in the spices
59(2)
Summary
61(1)
References for Further Reading
62(1)
Exercises
63(6)
Part 2 Grammatical Aspects of Language
Morophology: The Word of Language
69(48)
Dictionaries
72(1)
Content Words and Function Words
73(2)
Morphemes: The Minimal Units of Meaning
75(7)
Bound and Free Morphemes
77(1)
Prefixes and Suffixes
77(2)
Infixes
79(1)
Circumfixes
80(1)
Roots and Stems
80(1)
Huckles and Ceives
81(1)
Rules of Word Formation
82(9)
Derivational Morphology
83(1)
The Hierarchical Structure of Words
84(2)
More about Derivational Morphemes
86(1)
Lexical Gaps
87(1)
Rule Productivity
88(2)
``Pullet Surprises''
90(1)
Sign Language Morphology
91(1)
Word Coinage
92(7)
Compounds
93(1)
Meaning of Compounds
94(1)
Universality of Compounding
95(1)
Acronyms
95(2)
Back-Formations
97(1)
Abbreviations
97(1)
Words from Names
98(1)
Blends
98(1)
Grammatical Morphemes
99(6)
Inflectional Morphemes
100(2)
Exceptions and Suppletions
102(1)
Morphology and Syntax
103(2)
Morphological Analysis: Identifying Morphemes
105(1)
Summary
106(2)
References for Further Reading
108(1)
Exercises
108(9)
The Sentence Patterns of Language
117(56)
Grammatical or Ungrammatical?
118(3)
What Grammaticality Is Based On
119(1)
What Grammaticality Is Not Based On
120(1)
What Else Do You Know about Syntax?
121(2)
Sentence Structure
123(14)
Syntactic Categories
125(3)
Phrase Structure Trees
128(2)
Heads and Complements
130(1)
Selection
131(2)
What Heads the Sentence?
133(2)
The Infinity of Language
135(2)
Phrase Structure Rules
137(15)
Growing Trees: The Relationship between Phrase Structure Rules and Phrase Structure Trees
140(3)
Structural Ambiguities
143(1)
Trees That Won't Grow
144(2)
More Phrase Structure Rules
146(6)
Sentence Relatedness
152(12)
Transformational Rules
153(1)
Structure Dependent Rules
154(2)
Syntactic Dependencies
156(1)
Wh Questions
157(2)
UG Principles and Parameters
159(3)
Sign Language Syntax
162(2)
Summary
164(1)
References for Further Reading
165(1)
Exercises
165(8)
The Meanings of language
173(58)
Lexical Semantic (Word Meanings)
173(14)
Semantic Properties
174(2)
Evidence for Semantic Properties
176(1)
Semantic Properties and the Lexicon
176(1)
More Semantic Relationships
177(1)
-nyms
178(1)
Homonyms and Polysemy
179(2)
Synonyms
181(1)
Antonyms
182(1)
Formation of Antonyms
183(1)
Hyponyms
184(1)
Metonyms
184(1)
Retronyms
185(1)
Proper Names
185(2)
Phrase and Sentence Meaning
187(14)
Phrasal Meaning
188(1)
Noun-Centered Meaning
189(1)
Sense and Reference
190(1)
Verb-Centered Meaning
191(1)
Thematic Roles
192(2)
Thematic Roles in Other Languages
194(1)
The Theta-Criterion
195(1)
Sentential Meaning
195(1)
The ``Truth'' of Sentences
196(1)
Paraphrase
197(1)
Entailment
198(1)
Contradiction
198(1)
Events versus States
199(1)
Pronouns and Coreferentiality
199(2)
To Mean or Not to Mean
201(6)
Anomaly: No Sense and Nonsense
201(3)
Metaphor
204(1)
Idioms
205(2)
Pragmatics
207(12)
Linguistic Context: Discourse
208(1)
Pronouns
209(2)
The Articles The and A
211(1)
Situational Context
212(1)
Maxims of Conversation
213(1)
Speech Acts
114(102)
Presuppositions
216(1)
Deixis
217(2)
Summary
219(2)
References for Further Reading
221(1)
Exercises
222(9)
Phonetics: The Sounds of Language
231(42)
Sound Segments
232(3)
Identity of Speech Sounds
233(2)
Spelling and Speech
235(5)
The Phonetic Alphabet
236(4)
Articulatory Phonetics
240(22)
Airstream Mechanisms
240(2)
Consonants
242(1)
Places of Articulation
242(1)
Bilabials [p] [b] [m]
242(1)
Labiodentals [f] [v]
242(1)
Interdentals (θ] [d]
242(1)
Alveolars [t) (d) (n] [s] (z] (1] [r]
242(1)
Palatals [f]/[S] [3]/[Z] [C] [J]
243(1)
Velars [k] [g] (g]
243(1)
Uvulars [R] [q) [G]
243(1)
Glottal [?] [h]
243(1)
Manners of Articulation
244(1)
Voiced and Voiceless Sounds
244(2)
Nasal and Oral Sounds
246(1)
Stops [p] [b] [m] [t] [d] [n] [k] [g] [n] [c] [j][?]
247(1)
Fricatives (f] [v] [θ] [d] [s] [z] [s] [z]
248(1)
Affricates [c] [j]
248(1)
Liquids [1] [r]
249(1)
Glides (j] [w]
250(1)
Phonetic Symbols for American English Consonants
250(2)
Vowels
252(1)
Tongue Position
252(2)
Lip Rounding
254(1)
Diphthongs
255(1)
Nasalization of Vowels
255(1)
Tense and Lax Vowels
255(1)
Dialed Differences
256(1)
Major Classes
257(1)
Noncontinuants and Continuants
257(1)
Obstruents and Sonorants
257(1)
Consonants and Vowels
257(1)
Labials [p] [b] [m] [f] [v]
258(1)
Coronals [t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [s] [z] [c] [J] [1]
258(1)
Anterior [p] [b] [m] [f] [v] [θ] [d] [t] [d] [n] [s] [z]
258(1)
Sibilants [s] [z] [s] [z] [c] [j]
258(1)
Syllabic Sounds
258(1)
Prosodic Suprasegmental Features
258(1)
Tone and Intonation
259(3)
Diacritics
262(1)
Phonetic Symbols and Spelling Correspondences
262(3)
Sign-Language Primes
265(2)
Summary
267(1)
References for Further Reading
268(1)
Exercises
268(5)
Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language
273(68)
The Pronunciation of Morphemes
275(8)
The Pronunciation of Plurals
275(4)
Exceptions to the Plural Rule
279(1)
Allomorphy in English: Further Examples
280(1)
Allomorphy in Other languages
281(2)
Phonemes: The Phonological Units of Language
283(8)
Vowel Nasalization in English
283(4)
Minimal Pairs in ASL
287(1)
Complementary Distribution
287(4)
Distinctive Features
291(6)
Feature Values
291(1)
Predictability of Redundant (Nondistinctive) Features
292(2)
More on Redundancies
294(1)
Unpredictability of Phonemic Features
295(2)
Natural Classes
297(4)
Feature Specifications for American English Consonants and Vowels
299(2)
The Rules of Phonology
301(16)
Assimilation Rules
301(4)
Feature Changing Rules
305(1)
Dissimilation Rules
306(1)
Feature Addition Rules
307(1)
Segment Deletion and Addition Rules
307(4)
Movement (Metathesis) Rules
311(1)
From One to Many and from Many to One
312(3)
The Function of Phonological Rules
315(1)
Slips of the Tongue: Evidence for Phonological Rules
316(1)
Prosodic Phonology
317(5)
Syllable Structure
317(1)
Word Stress
318(2)
Sentence and Phrase Stress
320(1)
Intonation
321(1)
Sequential Constraints
322(2)
Lexical Gaps
324(1)
Phonological Analysis: Discovering Phonemes
324(3)
Summary
327(2)
References for Further Reading
329(1)
Exercises
329(12)
Part 3 The Psychology of Language
Language Acquisition
341(56)
Mechanisms of Language Acquisition
342(5)
Do Children Learn through Imitation?
343(1)
Do Children learn through Reinforcement?
344(1)
Do Children Learn Language through Analogy?
345(1)
Do Children Learn through Structured Input?
346(1)
Children Construct Grammars
347(27)
The Innateness Hypothesis
348(3)
Stages in Language Acquisition
351(1)
The Perception and Production of Speech Sounds
352(2)
First Words
354(2)
The Development of Grammar
356(1)
The Acquisition of Phonology
356(2)
The Acquisition of Word Meaning
358(2)
The Acquisition of Morphology
360(3)
The Acquisition of Syntax
363(4)
The Acquisition of Pragmatics
367(1)
The Development of Auxiliaries: A Case Study
368(3)
Setting Parameters
371(1)
The Acquisition of Signed Languages
372(2)
Knowing More Than One language
374(10)
Childhood Bilingualism
374(2)
Theories of Bilingual Development
376(1)
Two Monolinguals in One Head
377(1)
The Role of Input
377(1)
Cognitive Effects of Bilingualism
378(1)
Second Language Acquisition
379(1)
Is L2 Acquisition the Same as L1 acquisition?
379(2)
Native Language Influence in L1 Acquisition
381(1)
The Creative Component of L2 Acquisition
382(1)
A Critical Period for L1 Acquisition?
383(1)
Second-Language Teaching Methods
384(1)
Can Chimps learn Human Language?
384(6)
Gua
385(1)
Viki
385(1)
Washoe
385(1)
Sarah
386(1)
Learning Yerkish
386(1)
Koko
386(1)
Nim Chimpsky
386(2)
Clever Hans
388(1)
Kanzi
389(1)
Summary
390(2)
References for Further Reading
392(1)
Exercises
393(4)
Language Processing: Human and Computer
397(48)
The Human Mind at Work: Human Language Processing
397(15)
Comprehension
399(1)
The Speech Signal
399(2)
Speech Perception and Comprehension
401(2)
Comprehension Models and Experimental Studies
403(1)
Lexical Access and Word Recognition
404(2)
Syntactic Processing
406(2)
Speech Production
408(1)
Planning Units
408(2)
Lexical Selection
410(1)
Application and Misapplication of Rules
410(1)
Nonlinguistic Influences
411(1)
Computer Processing of Human Language
412(21)
Text and Speech Analysis
412(1)
Frequency Analysis, Concordances, and Collocations
413(1)
Information Retrieval and Summarization
414(1)
Spell Checkers
415(1)
Machine Translation
416(2)
Computers That Talk and Listen
418(1)
Computational Phonetics and Phonology
418(1)
Speech Recognition
418(2)
Speech Synthesis
420(3)
Computational Morphology
423(1)
Computational Syntax
424(5)
Computational Semantics
429(1)
Computational Pragmatics
430(2)
Computer Models of Grammar
432(1)
Summary
433(3)
Reference for Further Reading
436(1)
Exercises
437(8)
Part 4 Language and Society
Language in Society
445(54)
Dialects
445(3)
Regional Dialects
446(1)
Accents
447(1)
Dialects of English
448(6)
Phonological Differences
449(1)
Lexical Differences
450(1)
Dialed Atlases
451(2)
Syntactic Differences
453(1)
The ``Standard''
454(5)
Language Purists
455(2)
Banned Languages
457(2)
The Revival of Languages
459(1)
African American English
459(6)
Phonology of African American English
460(1)
R-Deletion
460(1)
L-Deletion
460(1)
Consonant Cluster Simplification
460(1)
Neutralization of [I] and [ε] before Nasals
461(1)
Diphthong Reduction
461(1)
Loss of Interdental fricatives
461(1)
Syntactic Differences between AAE and SAE
461(1)
Double Negatives
462(1)
Deletion of the Verb ``Be''
462(1)
Habitual ``Be''
462(2)
History of African American English
463(2)
Latino (Hispanic) English
465(3)
Chicano English (ChE)
466(1)
Phonological Variables of ChE
466(1)
Syntactic Variables in ChE
467(1)
Lingua Francas
468(1)
Pidgins and Creoles
469(3)
Pidgins
469(3)
Creoles
472(1)
Styles, Slang, and Jargon
472(4)
Styles
472(1)
Slang
473(2)
Jargon and Argot
475(1)
Taboo or Not Taboo?
476(6)
Euphemisms
479(2)
Racial and National Epithets
481(1)
Language, Sex, and Gender
482(5)
Marked and Unmarked Forms
483(2)
The Generic ``He''
485(1)
Language and Gender
486(1)
Secret languages and Language Games
487(1)
Summary
488(2)
References for Further Reading
490(1)
Exercises
491(8)
Language Change: The Syllables of Time
499(46)
The Regularity of Sound Change
501(2)
Sound Correspondences
501(1)
Ancestral Protolanguages
502(1)
Phonological Change
503(3)
Phonological Rules
503(1)
The Great Vowel Shift
504(2)
Morphological Change
506(2)
Syntactic Change
508(2)
Lexical Change
510(6)
Addition of New Words
511(1)
Borrowings or Loan Words
512(1)
History through Loan Words
512(2)
Loss of Words
514(1)
Semantic Change
515(1)
Broadening
515(1)
Narrowing
516(1)
Meaning Shifts
516(1)
Reconstructing ``Dead'' Languages
516(8)
The Nineteenth-Century Comparativists
517(1)
Cognates
518(2)
Comparative Reconstruction
520(2)
Historical Evidence
522(2)
Extinct and Endangered Languages
524(2)
The Genetic Classification of languages
526(5)
Languages of the World
528(3)
Types of Languages
531(3)
Why Do languages Change?
534(2)
Summary
536(1)
References for Further Reading
537(1)
Exercises
538(7)
Writing: The ABCs of Language
545(28)
The History of Writing
546(6)
Pictograms and Ideograms
547(1)
Cuneiform Writing
548(2)
The Rebus Principle
550(1)
From Hieroglyphs to the Alphabet
551(1)
Modern Writing Systems
552(7)
Word Writing
553(1)
Syllabic Writing
554(2)
Consonantal Alphabet Writing
556(1)
Alphabetic Writing
556(3)
Reading, Writing, and Speech
559(8)
Reading
561(1)
Spelling
562(4)
Spelling Pronunciations
566(1)
Summary
567(1)
References for Further Reading
567(1)
Exercises
568(5)
Glossary 573(26)
Index 599


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...