Introduction to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 11/12/1996
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Table of Contents

Prefacep. xvi
The Evolution of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justicep. 1
A Brief History: The Evolution of Law and Our Criminal Justice Systemp. 3
Introductionp. 4
Primitive and Ancient Lawp. 4
English Law and Law Enforcementp. 6
Early Law Enforcement in the United Statesp. 12
Establishment of Federal Agenciesp. 16
Establishment of State Agenciesp. 20
Development of County Agenciesp. 22
Development of Local Agenciesp. 22
The Three Eras of Policingp. 23
The Evolution of Our Juvenile Justice Systemp. 33
A Brief Recap of U.S. Policingp. 37
Summaryp. 37
The American Quest for Freedom and Justice: Our Lawsp. 41
Introductionp. 42
The Declaration of Independencep. 43
Types of Lawp. 43
Constitutional Lawp. 45
The Bill of Rightsp. 46
Criminal Lawp. 56
Civil Law and Tortsp. 59
Police Powerp. 61
The Needs of Society and the Rights of the Individualp. 63
Summaryp. 64
Crime in the United States-Offenders and Victimsp. 68
Introductionp. 69
Sources of Information on Crimep. 69
Classification and Definitions of Major Crimesp. 76
Offenders-What Leads People to Commit Crime?p. 92
Victims of Crime and Violencep. 99
Police Officers as Victimsp. 109
Summaryp. 110
Contemporary Law Enforcementp. 113
Contemporary Policing: An Overviewp. 115
Introductionp. 116
Why We Have Policep. 117
What Police Dop. 117
Policing and the Peoplep. 118
Traditional Goals of Policingp. 119
Contemporary Goals Resulting from Community Policingp. 123
Organization of the Departmentp. 123
Administrative Servicesp. 125
Field Servicesp. 131
Rural Policingp. 132
The Police Subculturep. 133
Styles of Policingp. 134
The Police Imagep. 137
How the Public Really Feels about the Policep. 139
Summaryp. 140
Community Policing, Problem-Solving Policing and Servicep. 143
Introductionp. 144
Community Policing Definedp. 144
Historical Roots of Community Policingp. 145
The Importance of Communityp. 145
Involving and Educating Citizensp. 149
Partnershipsp. 150
Problem-Oriented Policing and Problem Solvingp. 158
Implementing Community Policingp. 162
The Effect of Implementing Community Policingp. 164
A Community Service Orientationp. 164
Youth Programsp. 167
Community Crime Prevention Programsp. 170
What Works/What Doesn'tp. 172
Challenges to Community Policingp. 173
Benefits of Community Policing to Officersp. 174
Serving and Protecting Our Increasingly Diverse Populationp. 174
Summaryp. 177
Patrol: The Backbone of Policingp. 181
Introductionp. 182
Patrol Officer Responsibilitiesp. 182
Management of Patrol Operationsp. 183
Types of Patrolp. 184
Activities While on Patrolp. 189
Methods of Patrolp. 191
The Traffic Division: An Overviewp. 199
Enforcing Traffic Lawsp. 199
Directing and Controlling Trafficp. 208
Assisting at and Investigating Traffic Crashesp. 208
The Traffic Programp. 210
Patrol and Community Policingp. 210
Summaryp. 211
Specialized Roles of Policep. 215
Introductionp. 216
Investigationp. 216
Profilersp. 227
Psychicsp. 228
Intelligence Officersp. 228
Juvenile Officersp. 231
Vice Officersp. 232
SWAT Officersp. 235
K-9 Assisted Officersp. 237
Reserve Officersp. 239
Summaryp. 239
Challenges to the Professionp. 243
Policing within the Lawp. 245
Introductionp. 246
The Fourth Amendmentp. 247
Stop and Friskp. 249
Roadblocks and Checkpointsp. 253
Field Detentionp. 254
Lawful Searchesp. 255
Lawful Arrestsp. 267
De Facto Arrestsp. 269
Protecting a Suspect's Rights-The Miranda Warningp. 269
A Recap of the Landmark Casesp. 275
Summaryp. 280
Gangs and Drugs: Threats to Our National Securityp. 284
Introductionp. 285
The Threat of Gangsp. 285
Gangs Definedp. 286
Types of Gangsp. 287
Racial or Ethnic Gangsp. 288
Characteristics of Gangsp. 293
Identifying Gangs and Gang Membersp. 295
Why People Join Gangsp. 299
Gang Control Strategiesp. 302
Gangs and Community Policingp. 307
Gangs and the Criminal Justice Systemp. 309
The Enterprise Theory of Investigationp. 310
The Threat of Drugsp. 311
Narcotics, Marijuana and Other Dangerous Drugsp. 313
Alcoholp. 317
Illicit Drug Abuse and Crimep. 319
Drugs and Societyp. 321
Drug Controlp. 322
Summaryp. 331
Terrorism: The Newest Threat to Our National Securityp. 336
Introductionp. 337
The Threat of Terrorismp. 337
Terrorism Definedp. 338
Classification of Terrorist Actsp. 339
Motivations for Terrorismp. 339
Methods Used by Terroristsp. 343
A Brief Chronology of Terrorism-Past to Presentp. 347
September 11, 2001p. 348
The U.S. Response-Detect, Prepare, Prevent, Protect, Respond and Recoverp. 351
The Critical Role of Local Law Enforcement in Homeland Securityp. 353
A New Kind of War-An Asymmetric Warp. 360
Another Homeland Security Initiative: The Center for Food Protection and Defensep. 360
The Role of the Media in the War on Terrorismp. 361
Concerns Related to the War on Terrorismp. 361
Summaryp. 363
Issues Concerning Police Conductp. 367
Introductionp. 367
Discretionp. 368
Discrimination or Disparity in Policing: Gender, Class and Race Issuesp. 369
Use of Forcep. 375
Police Pursuitsp. 383
Civil Liabilityp. 388
Corruption, Ethics and Integrity-Where to Draw the Linep. 391
Summaryp. 399
Departmental Issuesp. 404
Introductionp. 405
Evaluating and Selecting an Agency for Employmentp. 405
The Recruiting Processp. 406
The Selection Processp. 410
Federal Guidelines and Regulationsp. 419
Probation and Trainingp. 421
Retentionp. 423
Civilian Review Boardsp. 427
Sexual Harassmentp. 428
Unionsp. 429
Privatization of Criminal Justicep. 430
Moonlightingp. 431
Accreditationp. 432
Police Professionalismp. 436
Summaryp. 437
Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice Systemp. 441
Courts and Corrections: Law Enforcement's Partners in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 443
Introductionp. 444
The Police as Gatekeepers to the Criminal Justice Systemp. 445
An American Courtroomp. 446
The Court System: An Overviewp. 446
Specialized Courtsp. 450
The Adversary Systemp. 454
Key Players in the Judicial Processp. 455
Critical Stages in the Criminal Justice Processp. 459
Alternatives to a Trial-Diversionp. 463
The Trialp. 463
Sentencingp. 466
Case Review and Appealp. 468
The Corrections System: An Overviewp. 468
Purposes of Correctionsp. 468
Probationp. 469
Intermediate Sanctions/Community Correctionsp. 471
Boot Campsp. 472
Incarcerationp. 473
Parolep. 476
Community-Based Reintegration Programsp. 477
Recidivismp. 478
The Death Penalty versus Life without Parolep. 478
The Restorative Justice Modelp. 480
Community Corrections and the Role of Policep. 482
Community Justicep. 482
A Look to the Futurep. 484
Summaryp. 486
Glossaryp. 490
Author Indexp. 502
Subject Indexp. 506
Photo Creditsp. 520
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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