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Introduction To Law Enforcement And Criminal Justice

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780534646684

ISBN10:
0534646689
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/23/2005
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning

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Summary

The strength of this book is that it provides coverage of both law enforcement and the criminal justice system in one convenient text. No other text offers a similar hybrid. Wrobleski and Hess offer a practical, yet comprehensive, approach and emphasize the law enforcement perspective as they examine the role of police in the criminal justice system. Another key strength of this book is that it has an easily accessible writing style and extensive pedagogy.

Table of Contents

Preface xvi
SECTION I: THE EVOLUTION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE
1(112)
A Brief History: The Evolution of Law and Our Criminal Justice System
3(38)
Introduction
4(1)
Primitive and Ancient Law
4(2)
Egypt
5(1)
Greece
6(1)
Rome
6(1)
English Law and Law Enforcement
6(6)
The Anglo-Saxons and the Tithing System
6(1)
The Norman Frankpledge System
7(1)
The Twelfth Century
7(1)
The Magna Carta
8(1)
The Next 500 Years
8(2)
Henry Fielding and the Bow Street Runners
10(1)
Peelian Reform
11(1)
London Metropolitan Police (1829)
12(1)
City and Borough Police Forces (1835)
12(1)
Women Enter Law Enforcement
12(1)
Early Law Enforcement in the United States
12(4)
The First U.S. Police Forces
13(1)
Slave Patrols
14(1)
Evolution of the City Police
15(1)
The Vigilante Movement
15(1)
Establishment of Federal Agencies
16(4)
The Department of Justice
17(1)
The Department of the Treasury
18(1)
Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
19(1)
Current Organization
19(1)
Establishment of State Agencies
20(2)
Development of County Agencies
22(1)
The County Sheriff
22(1)
The County Police
22(1)
The Coroner or Medical Examiner
22(1)
Development of Local Agencies
22(1)
District and Special Township Police
22(1)
The Constable
23(1)
The Marshal
23(1)
Municipal Police
23(1)
Overlap
23(1)
The Three Eras of Policing
23(10)
The Political Era (1840--1930)
24(3)
The Reform or Professional Era (1930--1980)
27(5)
The Community Era (1980--Present)
32(1)
The Evolution of Our Juvenile Justice System
33(4)
The Puritan Emphasis
34(1)
Providing a Refuge
34(1)
The Juvenile Court
34(3)
A Brief Recap of U.S. Policing
37(1)
Summary
37(4)
The American Quest for Freedom and Justice: Our Laws
41(27)
Introduction
42(1)
The Declaration of Independence
43(1)
Types of Law
43(2)
Social or Moral Law
44(1)
Precedents: Common Law and Case Law
44(1)
Statutory Law
44(1)
Equity
45(1)
Constitutional Law
45(1)
Order of Authority of Law
46(1)
The Bill of Rights
46(10)
The First Amendment
47(1)
The Second Amendment
48(1)
The Fourth Amendment
49(1)
The Fifth Amendment
50(2)
The Sixth Amendment
52(2)
The Eighth Amendment
54(1)
The Ninth Amendment
55(1)
The Tenth Amendment
55(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment
55(1)
Criminal Law
56(3)
Proving That a Crime Has Been Committed
58(1)
Civil Law and Torts
59(2)
The Law Enforcement Officer and Civil Liability
59(2)
Police Power
61(2)
The Needs of Society and the Rights of the Individual
63(1)
Conflict Theory
64(1)
Consensus Theory
64(1)
Crime Control versus Due Process
64(1)
Summary
64(4)
Crime in the United States---Offenders and Victims
68(45)
Introduction
69(1)
Sources of Information on Crime
69(7)
The Media
70(1)
Self-Report Surveys
70(1)
Official Sources
70(6)
Classification and Definitions of Major Crimes
76(16)
Violent Crimes
76(1)
Crimes against Property
77(3)
Part II Index Crimes
80(1)
Other Crimes
80(12)
Offenders---What Leads People to Commit Crime?
92(7)
Theories of Criminality and Causes of Crime
92(1)
The Influence of Biology
93(1)
The Influence of the Environment
93(3)
Career Criminals or Recidivists
96(1)
Juvenile Offenders
97(2)
Victims of Crime and Violence
99(10)
Types of Victims
99(1)
Victimization Factors---Who Is at Risk?
99(1)
Other Factors in Victimization
100(1)
Effects of Victimization
100(1)
Fear of Victimization
101(1)
The ``Second Wound'': Further Victimization by the Criminal Justice System
101(1)
Assisting Victims---Historical Overview
102(1)
Crime Victims' Rights
103(1)
Should the U.S. Constitution Be Amended to Include Victims' Rights?
104(1)
Programs and Services for Crime Victims
105(3)
A Parallel Justice System for Victims?
108(1)
The Role of the Police
108(1)
Police Officers as Victims
109(1)
Summary
110(3)
SECTION II: CONTEMPORARY LAW ENFORCEMENT
113(130)
Contemporary Policing: An Overview
115(28)
Introduction
116(1)
Why We Have Police
117(1)
What Police Do
117(1)
Policing and the People
118(1)
Traditional Goals of Policing
119(4)
Enforcing Laws
119(1)
Preserving the Peace
120(1)
Preventing Crime
120(1)
Protecting Constitutional Rights
121(1)
Providing Services
122(1)
Contemporary Goals Resulting from Community Policing
123(1)
Organization of the Department
123(2)
Administrative Services
125(6)
Communications
125(4)
Records
129(2)
Field Services
131(1)
Patrol
131(1)
Traffic
131(1)
Investigation
132(1)
Community Service/Community Relations
132(1)
Specialized Officers
132(1)
Rural Policing
132(1)
The Police Subculture
133(1)
Styles of Policing
134(3)
Stereotypes
135(2)
The Police Image
137(2)
Factors Influencing Police Image
138(1)
The Importance of Image
139(1)
How the Public Really Feels about the Police
139(1)
Summary
140(3)
Community Policing, Problem-Solving Policing and Service
143(38)
Introduction
144(1)
Community Policing Defined
144(1)
Historical Roots of Community Policing
145(1)
The Importance of Community
145(4)
Social Capital
146(1)
Lack of Community
147(2)
Involving and Educating Citizens
149(1)
Civilian Review Boards
149(1)
Citizen Patrols
149(1)
Citizen Police Academies
150(1)
Ride-Along Programs
150(1)
Partnerships
150(8)
Cooperative Policing
155(1)
School/Law Enforcement/Community Partnerships
155(1)
Partnerships with the Media
155(2)
Community Policing, Partnerships and the Decrease in Crime
157(1)
Problem-Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
158(4)
The Crime Triangle
161(1)
Common Mistakes in Problem Solving
162(1)
Implementing Community Policing
162(2)
Analyzing the Community
163(1)
The Effect of Implementing Community Policing
164(1)
A Community Service Orientation
164(3)
Providing Emergency Services
165(2)
Other Community Services
167(1)
Youth Programs
167(3)
The PAL Program
167(1)
School Resource Officers
168(1)
Operation CleanSweep
168(1)
McGruff
168(1)
Police Explorers
169(1)
Dare
169(1)
Other Programs
169(1)
Community Crime Prevention Programs
170(2)
Neighborhood or Block Watch Programs
170(1)
Operation Identification Programs
170(1)
Home Security
171(1)
Store Security
171(1)
Automobile Security
171(1)
What Works/What Doesn't
172(1)
Services and Programs That Implement Community Policing
173(1)
Challenges to Community Policing
173(1)
Resistance and Misguided Perceptions
174(1)
Benefits of Community Policing to Officers
174(1)
Serving and Protecting Our Increasingly Diverse Population
174(3)
The Growing Elderly Population
175(1)
The Growing Minority Population
175(1)
The Growing Immigrant Population
175(1)
The Growing Homeless Population
176(1)
The Growing Number of Individuals with AIDS and Other Infectious Diseases
176(1)
The Growing Number of Individuals with Disabilities
177(1)
The Widening Gap between the Rich and the Poor
177(1)
Summary
177(4)
Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
181(34)
Introduction
182(1)
Patrol Officer Responsibilities
182(1)
Management of Patrol Operations
183(1)
Types of Patrol
184(5)
General Patrol
184(1)
Random/Preventive Patrol
184(2)
Directed Patrol
186(3)
Activities While on Patrol
189(2)
Calls for Service
189(1)
Self-Initiated Tasks
190(1)
Administrative Duties
190(1)
A Demanding Role
191(1)
Methods of Patrol
191(8)
Foot Patrol
191(1)
Automobile Patrol
192(1)
Motorcycle Patrol
193(1)
Bicycle Patrol
193(2)
Segways
195(1)
Mounted Patrol
196(1)
Air Patrol
196(1)
Water Patrol
197(1)
Special-Terrain Patrol
197(1)
Combination Patrol
198(1)
High Visibility versus Low Visibility
198(1)
The Traffic Division: An Overview
199(1)
Enforcing Traffic Laws
199(9)
Selective Traffic Enforcement
199(1)
Speeding
200(1)
Red Light Running
201(1)
Nonuse of Seat Belts
201(1)
Aggressive Driving and Road Rage
202(1)
Driving under the Influence of Alcohol or Drugs
202(3)
The Traffic Stop
205(1)
Racial Profiling
206(1)
Traffic Enforcement and the Apprehension of Criminals
207(1)
Directing and Controlling Traffic
208(1)
Assisting at and Investigating Traffic Crashes
208(2)
Responsibilities of the Officer Called to a Crash Scene
209(1)
Crash Reconstruction
209(1)
The Traffic Program
210(1)
Public Education Programs
210(1)
Patrol and Community Policing
210(1)
Summary
211(4)
Specialized Roles of Police
215(28)
Introduction
216(1)
Investigation
216(11)
Forensic Science
216(1)
The Investigator
217(1)
The Preliminary Investigation
217(1)
The Follow-Up Investigation
218(1)
Investigative Responsibilities
218(8)
Crime Scene Investigation Units
226(1)
Case Management/Investigation
226(1)
The Internet
226(1)
Community Policing and Investigation
227(1)
Profilers
227(1)
Psychics
228(1)
Intelligence Officers
228(3)
Undercover Officers
228(2)
Internal Affairs
230(1)
Juvenile Officers
231(1)
Vice Officers
232(3)
Illegal and Legal Gambling
233(1)
Prostitution and Pornography
234(1)
SWAT Officers
235(2)
K-9 Assisted Officers
237(2)
K-9 Case Law
238(1)
Reserve Officers
239(1)
Summary
239(4)
SECTION III: CHALLENGES TO THE PROFESSION
243(198)
Policing within the Law
245(39)
Introduction
246(1)
The Fourth Amendment
247(2)
Reasonable
247(1)
Probable Cause
248(1)
Stop and Frisk
249(4)
Plain View and Plain Feel/Touch
252(1)
Roadblocks and Checkpoints
253(1)
Field Detention
254(1)
Lawful Searches
255(12)
Searches Conducted with a Warrant
255(2)
Searches Conducted without a Warrant
257(10)
Limitations on Searches
267(1)
Lawful Arrests
267(2)
Elements of Criminal Arrest
267(1)
Arrest Warrants
267(1)
Arrests without a Warrant
267(2)
Right to Resist Arrest
269(1)
De Facto Arrests
269(1)
Protecting a Suspect's Rights---The Miranda Warning
269(6)
Waiving the Right
273(1)
The Public Safety Exception
273(1)
Protecting the Rights of Foreign Nationals
274(1)
Involuntary Confessions
274(1)
Entrapment
275(1)
A Recap of the Landmark Cases
275(5)
Summary
280(4)
Gangs and Drugs: Threats to Our National Security
284(52)
Introduction
285(1)
The Threat of Gangs
285(1)
Gangs Defined
286(1)
Types of Gangs
287(1)
Racial or Ethnic Gangs
288(5)
Hispanic Gangs
288(1)
African American Gangs
288(1)
Asian Gangs
289(1)
White Ethnic Gangs
290(1)
Motorcycle Gangs
290(1)
Prison Gangs
290(1)
Other Types of Gangs
290(2)
Hybrid Gangs
292(1)
Females and Gangs
292(1)
Characteristics of Gangs
293(2)
Leadership
293(1)
Organization
293(2)
Domain Identification
295(1)
Criminal Activity
295(1)
Identifying Gangs and Gang Members
295(4)
Names
295(1)
Symbols
295(1)
Communication
296(1)
Criteria for Identifying Gang Members
297(1)
Stereotypes
298(1)
The Gang Subculture
298(1)
Why People Join Gangs
299(3)
Risk Factors
301(1)
Gang Control Strategies
302(5)
Police Gang Units
304(1)
Injunctions and Legislation
304(2)
Gang Intelligence
306(1)
School Programs
306(1)
Gangs and Community Policing
307(2)
Gangs and the Criminal Justice System
309(1)
Prosecution Problems
309(1)
The Enterprise Theory of Investigation
310(1)
The Threat of Drugs
311(2)
Studies on Current Drug Use
311(2)
Narcotics, Marijuana and Other Dangerous Drugs
313(4)
Narcotics
313(1)
Marijuana
314(1)
Other Dangerous Drugs
314(3)
Alcohol
317(2)
Illicit Drug Abuse and Crime
319(2)
Drugs and Society
321(1)
Drug Control
322(9)
Crime Control
322(3)
Punishment
325(1)
Rehabilitation
326(2)
Prevention
328(1)
Legalization
329(2)
The Need for a Combined Effort
331(1)
Summary
331(5)
Terrorism: The Newest Threat to Our National Security
336(31)
Introduction
337(1)
The Threat of Terrorism
337(1)
Terrorism Defined
338(1)
Classification of Terrorist Acts
339(1)
Domestic Terrorism
339(1)
International Terrorism
339(1)
The Dual Threat
339(1)
Motivations for Terrorism
339(4)
White Supremacists
340(1)
Black Supremacists
341(1)
The Militia Movement
341(1)
Other Right-Wing Extremists
341(1)
Left-Wing Extremists
342(1)
Pro-Life Extremists
342(1)
Animal Rights Activists
342(1)
Environmental Extremists
343(1)
Methods Used by Terrorists
343(4)
Explosives and Bombs
344(1)
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
344(2)
Technological Terrorism
346(1)
A Brief Chronology of Terrorism---Past to Present
347(1)
September 11, 2001
348(3)
Why Did It Happen?
349(1)
Who Was Responsible?
350(1)
The U.S. Response---Detect, Prepare, Prevent, Protect, Respond and Recover
351(2)
The Department of Homeland Security
351(1)
The USA Patriot Act
352(1)
The Critical Role of Local Law Enforcement in Homeland Security
353(7)
Needed Training
354(1)
Investigating Terrorist Acts
355(1)
Community Policing and Homeland Security
356(1)
Intelligence Gathering and Sharing
357(3)
A New Kind of War---An Asymmetric War
360(1)
Another Homeland Security Initiative: The Center for Food Protection and Defense
360(1)
The Role of the Media in the War on Terrorism
361(1)
Concerns Related to the War on Terrorism
361(2)
Concern for Civil Rights
361(1)
Retaliation or Discrimination against People of Middle Eastern Descent
362(1)
Summary
363(4)
Issues Concerning Police Conduct
367(37)
Introduction
367(1)
Discretion
368(1)
Discrimination or Disparity in Policing: Gender, Class and Race Issues
369(6)
Gender Issues
370(1)
Class Issues
371(1)
Racial Issues
371(1)
Racial Profiling
372(3)
Use of Force
375(8)
The Use of Force Continuum
377(1)
Reasonable Force
378(1)
Excessive Force
379(1)
Less-Lethal Force
379(3)
Deadly Force
382(1)
Police Pursuits
383(5)
To Pursue or Not to Pursue
384(2)
Pursuit Policies
386(1)
Liability in Police Pursuits
387(1)
Civil Liability
388(3)
Reducing Civil Liability
390(1)
Corruption, Ethics and Integrity---Where to Draw the Line
391(8)
What Constitutes Corruption?
392(1)
How Corruption Arises and Perpetuates
393(4)
How Police Learn about Ethics
397(1)
The Importance of Police Integrity and Core Virtues
397(1)
Building an Ethical Department
398(1)
Summary
399(5)
Departmental Issues
404(37)
Introduction
405(1)
Evaluating and Selecting an Agency for Employment
405(1)
The Recruiting Process
406(4)
Desired Qualities of Law Enforcement Officers
407(1)
Finding Qualified Applicants
407(1)
Recruiting Minorities
408(1)
Recruiting Women
408(2)
The Selection Process
410(9)
The Formal Application---Basic Requirements to Become a Police Officer
410(3)
The Written Examination
413(1)
Physical Fitness Tests
414(1)
Psychological Testing
414(1)
The Interview
414(2)
The Background Investigation
416(1)
Testing or Assessment Centers
417(1)
The Medical Examination
418(1)
The Law Enforcement Candidate Ride-Along
418(1)
The Human Resource Roundtable
418(1)
The Final Result
419(1)
Federal Guidelines and Regulations
419(2)
Equal Employment Opportunity Act
419(1)
Affirmative Action
419(2)
Americans with Disabilities Act
421(1)
Probation and Training
421(2)
Failure to Train
423(1)
Retention
423(4)
Salary and Benefits
424(1)
Promotional Opportunities
425(1)
Stress and Burnout
425(2)
Civilian Review Boards
427(1)
Sexual Harassment
428(1)
Unions
429(1)
Privatization of Criminal Justice
430(1)
Moonlighting
431(1)
Accreditation
432(4)
Police Professionalism
436(1)
Sociological Elements of Professionalism
436(1)
The Final Analysis---Does Law Enforcement Qualify?
436(1)
Summary
437(4)
SECTION IV: LAW ENFORCEMENT AND THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
441(49)
Courts and Corrections: Law Enforcement's Partners in the Criminal Justice System
443(47)
Introduction
444(1)
The Police as Gatekeepers to the Criminal Justice System
445(1)
An American Courtroom
446(1)
The Court System: An Overview
446(4)
The State Court System
446(1)
The Federal Court System
447(1)
The Supreme Court
447(3)
Specialized Courts
450(4)
Community Courts
450(1)
Tribal Courts
450(1)
Drug Courts
451(1)
Gun Courts
451(1)
Domestic Violence (DV) Courts
452(1)
Mental Health Courts
452(1)
Juvenile Courts
452(2)
The Adversary System
454(1)
Key Players in the Judicial Process
455(4)
The Defendant
455(2)
The Prosecutor
457(1)
The Defense Attorney
458(1)
Judges
458(1)
Critical Stages in the Criminal Justice Process
459(4)
Bail and Writ of Habeas Corpus
460(1)
Plea Bargaining
461(1)
The Preliminary Hearing
461(1)
The Grand Jury
462(1)
The Coroner's Jury
462(1)
The Arraignment
462(1)
Alternatives to a Trial---Diversion
463(1)
The Trial
463(3)
Jury Selection
463(1)
Testimony
464(1)
Closing Statements and Jury Deliberation
465(1)
Sentencing
466(2)
Three-Strikes Laws, Mandatory Minimums and Truth-in-Sentencing
467(1)
Case Review and Appeal
468(1)
The Corrections System: An Overview
468(1)
Purposes of Corrections
468(1)
Purposes of Juvenile Corrections
469(1)
Probation
469(2)
Who Gets Probation?
470(1)
Conditions of Probation
470(1)
Partnerships between Law Enforcement and Probation Services
470(1)
The Growing Use of Probation
470(1)
Intermediate Sanctions/Community Corrections
471(1)
Intermediate Sanctions for Juveniles
472(1)
Boot Camps
472(1)
Incarceration
473(3)
Jails
474(1)
Prisons
474(2)
Parole
476(1)
Community-Based Reintegration Programs
477(1)
Halfway Houses
477(1)
Restitution Centers
477(1)
Other Reintegration Methods
477(1)
Recidivism
478(1)
The Death Penalty versus Life without Parole
478(2)
The Restorative Justice Model
480(2)
Community Corrections and the Role of Police
482(1)
Community Justice
482(2)
A Look to the Future
484(2)
Summary
486(4)
Glossary 490(12)
Author Index 502(4)
Subject Index 506(14)
Photo Credits 520


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