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Introduction To Learning And Behavior

by ; ;
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534634513

ISBN10:
0534634516
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/19/2004
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $115.00

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Summary

1. Introduction. 2. Research Methods. 3. Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning. 4. Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities. 5. Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applications. 6. Operant Conditioning: Introduction. 7. Operant Conditioning: Schedules and Theories Of Reinforcement. 8. Extinction and Stimulus Control. 9. Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment. 10. Choice, Matching, and Self-Control. 11. Biological Dispositions In Learning. 12. Observational Learning, Language, and Rule-Governed Behavior. Glossary.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv
CHAPTER 1. Introduction 1(46)
AND FURTHERMORE: Notation for Conditioning Diagrams
4(2)
Historical Background
6(8)
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Association
6 (2)
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflex
8(1)
The British Empiricists
8(1)
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Consciousness
9(1)
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mind
10 (1)
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behavior
11(3)
AND FURTHERMORE: John B. Watson: Behaviorism's Controversial Founder
13(1)
Five Schools of Behaviorism
14(22)
Watson's Methodological Behaviorism
15(2)
Hull's Neobehaviorism
17(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Deliberate Practice and Expert Performance
18 (3)
Tolman's Cognitive Behaviorism
21(5)
AND FURTHERMORE: How to Read Graphs
24(2)
Bandura's Social Learning Theory
26(2)
Skinner's Radical Behaviorism
28(20)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
35(1)
The Life of B.F. Skinner
36 (3)
Summary
39(1)
Suggested Readings
40 (1)
Study Questions
40(1)
Concept Review
41(2)
Chapter Test
43(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
46(1)
CHAPTER 2. Research Methods 47(42)
Basic Terms and Definitions
48(7)
Independent and Dependent Variables
48(1)
Functional Relationships
49(1)
Stimulus and Response
50(1)
Overt and Covert Behavior
50(1)
Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli
51(1)
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiation
52 (1)
Contiguity and Contingency
53(2)
Measurement of Behavior
55(6)
Behavioral Definitions
55(1)
Recording Methods
56(5)
Research Designs
61(17)
Descriptive Research
61(3)
Experimental Research
64(26)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
77(1)
Use of Animals in Behavioral Research
78(3)
AND FURTHERMORE: Enhanced Motivation or Cruel Starvation: The Ethics of Food Deprivation
80(1)
Summary
81(1)
Suggested Readings
82(1)
Study Questions
82(1)
Concept Review
83(2)
Chapter Test
85(2)
Answers to Chapter Test
87(2)
CHAPTER 3. Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioning 89(38)
Elicited Behaviors
90(5)
Reflexes
90(2)
Fixed Action Patterns
92(3)
Simple Mechanisms of Learning
95 (8)
Habituation and Sensitization
95 (2)
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion
97(6)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
102(1)
Classical Conditioning
103(17)
Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioning
104(1)
Basic Procedure and Definitions
105(6)
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioning
111(3)
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioning
114(2)
AND FURTHERMORE: Classical Conditioning and Interpersonal Attraction
115(1)
Temporal Arrangement of Stimuli
116 (4)
Summary
120(1)
Suggested Readings
120(1)
Study Questions
121(1)
Concept Review
121(1)
Chapter Test
122(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
125(2)
CHAPTER 4. Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexities 127(40)
Some Basic Conditioning Phenomena
128(9)
Acquisition
128(1)
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition
129 (3)
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
132 (3)
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosis
135(2)
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioning
137 (7)
Higher-Order Conditioning
137(4)
Sensory Preconditioning
141(3)
Three Limitations to Classical Conditioning
144 (8)
Overshadowing
145(2)
Blocking
147(2)
Latent Inhibition
149(3)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
152(1)
Additional Phenomena
152(7)
Temporal Conditioning
152(1)
Occasion Setting
153 (1)
External Inhibition
154(1)
US Revaluation
155 (2)
Pseudoconditioning
157(2)
Summary
159(1)
Suggested Readings
160 (1)
Study Questions
160 (1)
Concept Review
161 (1)
Chapter Test
162(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
165(2)
CHAPTER 5. Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applications 167(43)
Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioning
168 (12)
S-S Versus S-R Learning
168(1)
Stimulus-Substitution Versus Preparatory-Response Theory
169 (2)
Compensatory-Response Model
171(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Conditioned Compensatory Responses and Drug Overdose: Two Anecdotes
174(1)
Rescorla-Wagner Theory
175(5)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
179(1)
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioning
180(23)
Understanding Phobias
180(9)
AND FURTHERMORE: The Ethics of the Little Albert Experiment
184(5)
Treating Phobias
189(8)
AND FURTHERMORE: Was Sigmund Freud a Behavior Analyst?
195(2)
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviors
197(2)
Medical Applications of Classical Conditioning
199(13)
AND FURTHERMORE: Classical Conditioning, Gulf War Syndrome, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
202(1)
Summary
203(1)
Suggested Readings
204 (1)
Study Questions
205(1)
Concept Review
205(1)
Chapter Test
206(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
209(1)
CHAPTER 6. Operant Conditioning: Introduction 210(45)
Historical Background
212(4)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
212(2)
Skinner's Selection by Consequences
214 (2)
Operant Conditioning
216(9)
Operant Behavior
217(1)
Operant Consequences: Rein forcers and Punishers (and Extinction)
218(3)
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimuli
221 (4)
Four Types of Contingencies
225(8)
Positive Reinforcement
226(1)
Negative Reinforcement
227(1)
Positive Punishment
228(1)
Negative Punishment
229(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Four Types of Contingencies: Tricky Examples
232 (1)
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctions
233(9)
Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcement
233(1)
Primary and Secondary Rein forcers
234(2)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcement
236(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Learned Industriousness
237(2)
AND FURTHERMORE: Positive Reinforcement of Artistic Appreciation
239 (1)
Natural and Artificial Rein forcers
240(2)
Shaping
242(6)
AND FURTHERMORE: Training Ishmael
244(3)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
247(1)
Summary
248(1)
Suggested Readings
249 (1)
Study Questions
249 (1)
Concept Review
250 (1)
Chapter Test
251(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
254(1)
CHAPTER 7. Operant Conditioning: Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement 255(40)
Schedules of Reinforcement
256(22)
Continuous Versus Intermittent Schedules
256(1)
Four Basic Intermittent Schedules
257(9)
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcement
266(7)
Complex Schedules of Reinforcement
273(5)
Theories of Reinforcement
278(8)
Drive Reduction Theory
279(1)
The Premack Principle
280(2)
Response Deprivation Hypothesis
282(1)
Behavioral Bliss Point Approach
283(13)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
285(1)
Summary
286(1)
Suggested Readings
287 (1)
Study Questions
287 (1)
Concept Review
288 (1)
Chapter Test
289(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
292(3)
CHAPTER 8. Extinction and Stimulus Control 295(44)
Extinction
296(12)
Side Effects of Extinction
297(4)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
301(1)
Resistance to Extinction
301 (4)
Spontaneous Recovery
305(1)
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior
306(2)
AND FURTHERMORE: Extinction of Bedtime Tantrums in Young Children
307 (1)
Stimulus Control
308(22)
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
308 (3)
The Peak Shift Effect
311(3)
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrast
314(5)
AND FURTHERMORE: St. Neot's Margin
318 (1)
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learning
319 (2)
Stimulus Control Procedures for the Study of Memory
321(4)
Stimulus Control: Additional Applications
325(15)
AND FURTHERMORE: Edwin Guthrie: Stimulus Control for the Practical Person
328(2)
Summary
330(1)
Suggested Readings
331(1)
Study Questions
331(1)
Concept Review
332(2)
Chapter Test
334(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
337(2)
CHAPTER 9. Escape, Avoidance, and Punishment 339(40)
Escape and Avoidance
340(13)
Two-Process Theory of Avoidance
342(5)
AND FURTHERMORE: Repression: Avoidance of Distressing Thoughts?
344(3)
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobias
347(3)
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
350 (3)
Punishment
353(11)
Types of Punishment
353(4)
Problems With the Use of Punishment
357(2)
Benefits and the Effective Use of Punishment
359(2)
Theories of Punishment
361(3)
AND FURTHERMORE: Punishment and Procrastination
364(1)
Effects of Noncontingent Punishment
364 (8)
Learned Helplessness
365(3)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
367(1)
Masserman's Experimental Neurosis
368(12)
AND FURTHERMORE: Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Behavioral Perspective
370(2)
Summary
372(1)
Suggested Readings
373(1)
Study Questions
373(1)
Concept Review
374(1)
Chapter Test
375(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
378(1)
CHAPTER 10. Choice, Matching, and Self-Control 379(41)
Choice and Matching
380 (14)
Concurrent Schedules
380 (2)
The Matching Law
382(3)
Deviations From Matching
385(5)
AND FURTHERMORE: Basketball and the Matching Law
386(4)
Matching and Melioration
390(4)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
393(1)
Self-Control
394(18)
Skinner on Self-Control
395(3)
AND FURTHERMORE: B.F. Skinner, the Master of Self-Control
398 (1)
Self-Control as a Temporal Issue
398 (3)
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Control
401 (9)
Cognitive Factors in Self-Control
410(2)
Summary
412(2)
Suggested Readings
414(1)
Study Questions
414(1)
Concept Review
415(1)
Chapter Test
415(4)
Answers to Chapter Test
419(1)
CHAPTER 11. Biological Dispositions in Learning 420(36)
Preparedness and Conditioning
421 (7)
Preparedness in Classical Conditioning
421(6)
AND FURTHERMORE: Conditioned Food Preferences
426 (1)
Preparedness in Operant Conditioning
427(1)
Operant-Respondent Interactions
428 (6)
Instinctive Drift
428(1)
Sign Tracking
429(5)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
432(1)
AND FURTHERMORE: The CAM Model of Drug Addiction
433 (1)
Adjunctive Behavior
434(6)
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
434 (3)
Adjunctive Behavior in Humans
437(1)
AND FURTHERMORE: Extreme Polydipsia: Not Just a "Rat Thing"
438 (1)
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activity
438 (2)
Activity Anorexia
440(6)
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristics
440 (1)
Comparisons With Anorexia Nervosa
441(2)
Underlying Mechanisms
443 (1)
Clinical Implications
444(13)
AND FURTHERMORE: The Healthy Side of the Diet-Activity Connection
445(1)
Behavior Systems Theory
446 (3)
Summary
449(1)
Suggested Readings
450(1)
Study Questions
450(1)
Concept Review
451(1)
Chapter Test
452(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
455(1)
CHAPTER 12. Observational Learning, Language, and Rule-Governed Behavior 456(39)
Observational Learning
457(9)
Observational Learning in Classical Conditioning
458 (2)
Observational Learning in Operant Conditioning
460(3)
Observational Learning in Animals
463(3)
Language
466(8)
Can Animals "Talk"?
467(1)
Sign Language Experiments
468(2)
Artificial Language Experiments
470(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Talking to the Animals
472(2)
Rule-Governed Behavior
474(14)
Definitions and Characteristics
474(2)
Some Disadvantages of Rule-Governed Behavior
476(2)
Psychopathology, Psychotherapy, and Rule-Governed Behavior
478(6)
ADVICE FOR THE LOVELORN
479(3)
AND FURTHERMORE: Morita Therapy: Acceptance and Commitment the Japanese Way
482(2)
Personal Rules in Self-Regulation
484(4)
AND FURTHERMORE: Say-Do Correspondence and Willpower
486(2)
Summary
488(1)
Suggested Readings
489 (1)
Study Questions
490(1)
Concept Review
491(1)
Chapter Test
491(3)
Answers to Chapter Test
494(1)
Glossary 495(10)
References 505 (22)
Index 527


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