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Introduction to Learning and Behavior,9780495595281
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Introduction to Learning and Behavior

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780495595281

ISBN10:
0495595284
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/8/2008
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
List Price: $209.66

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    Outlines and Highlights for Introduction to Learning and Behavior by Powell, Isbn : 9780495595281




Summary

Designed to apply learning theory and principles to the presentation of learning, this text shows how learning principles work in both animals and people. Throughout the book, the authors show how the study of learning helps solve practical problems, such as improving study skills, improving relationships, raising children, and effectively stopping smoking. This book is both solidly based in research and engaging for the student. To help ensure that students understand the materials, the authors strategically include multiple opportunities for review and self-testing within the text FACULTY One-Line Description: Emphasizes the basic principles of learning rather than theory. While striking an appropriate balance between basic research findings, many of which are derived from animal research and the application of those findings to important and interesting aspects of human behavior.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
About the Authorsp. xxi
Introductionp. 1
And Furthermore: Notation for Conditioning Diagramsp. 4
Historical Backgroundp. 6
Aristotle: Empiricism and the Laws of Associationp. 6
Descartes: Mind-Body Dualism and the Reflexp. 8
The British Empiricistsp. 8
Structuralism: The Experimental Study of Human Consciousnessp. 9
Functionalism: The Study of the Adaptive Mindp. 10
The Theory of Evolution: Humans as Animalsp. 11
Behaviorism: The Study of Observable Behaviorp. 12
And Furthermore: John B. Watson: Behaviorism's Controversial Founderp. 15
Five Schools of Behaviorismp. 16
Watson's Methodological Behaviorismp. 16
Hull's Neobehaviorismp. 19
And Furthermore: Deliberate Practice and Expert Performancep. 20
Tolman's Cognitive Behaviorismp. 23
And Furthermore: How to Read Graphsp. 28
Bandura's Social Learning Theoryp. 28
Skinner's Radical Behaviorismp. 30
Advice for the Lovelornp. 38
And Furthermore: The Life of B. F. Skinnerp. 39
Summaryp. 42
Suggested Readingsp. 43
Study Questionsp. 43
Concept Reviewp. 44
Chapter Testp. 46
Answers to Chapter Testp. 49
Research Methodsp. 50
Basic Terms and Definitionsp. 51
Independent and Dependent Variablesp. 51
Functional Relationshipsp. 52
Stimulus and Responsep. 53
Overt and Covert Behaviorp. 53
Appetitive and Aversive Stimulip. 54
Establishing Operations: Deprivation and Satiationp. 55
Contiguity and Contingencyp. 56
Measurement of Behaviorp. 57
Behavioral Definitionsp. 57
Recording Methodsp. 58
Research Designsp. 64
Descriptive Researchp. 64
Experimental Researchp. 67
Advice for the Lovelornp. 80
Use of Animals in Behavioral Researchp. 81
And Furthermore: Cruel Starvation or a Healthy Diet: The Ethics of Food Restrictionp. 83
Summaryp. 84
Suggested Readingsp. 85
Study Questionsp. 85
Concept Reviewp. 86
Chapter Testp. 88
Answers to Chapter Testp. 90
Elicited Behaviors and Classical Conditioningp. 91
Elicited Behaviorsp. 92
Reflexesp. 92
Fixed Action Patternsp. 94
Simple Mechanisms of Learningp. 96
Habituation and Sensitizationp. 96
Opponent-Process Theory of Emotionp. 100
Advice for the Lovelornp. 105
Classical Conditioningp. 105
Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioningp. 106
Basic Procedure and Definitionsp. 107
Appetitive and Aversive Conditioningp. 112
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning and Interpersonal Attractionp. 116
Excitatory and Inhibitory Conditioningp. 116
Temporal Arrangement of Stimulip. 117
Summaryp. 121
Suggested Readingsp. 122
Study Questionsp. 122
Concept Reviewp. 123
Chapter Testp. 124
Answers to Chapter Testp. 127
Classical Conditioning: Basic Phenomena and Various Complexitiesp. 128
Some Basic Conditioning Phenomenap. 129
Acquisitionp. 129
Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibitionp. 130
Stimulus Generalization and Discriminationp. 133
Discrimination Training and Experimental Neurosisp. 136
Two Extensions to Classical Conditioningp. 138
Higher-Order Conditioningp. 138
And Furthermore: When Celebrities Misbehavep. 142
Sensory Preconditioningp. 143
Three Examples of Specificity in Classical Conditioningp. 146
Overshadowingp. 146
Blockingp. 147
Latent Inhibitionp. 151
Advice for the Lovelornp. 153
Additional Phenomenap. 154
Temporal Conditioningp. 154
Occasion Settingp. 154
External Inhibitionp. 156
US Revaluationp. 156
Pseudoconditioningp. 158
Summaryp. 160
Suggested Readingsp. 161
Study Questionsp. 161
Concept Reviewp. 162
Chapter Testp. 163
Answers to Chapter Testp. 166
Classical Conditioning: Underlying Processes and Practical Applicationsp. 167
Underlying Processes in Classical Conditioningp. 168
S-S Versus S-R Learningp. 168
Stimulus-Substitution Versus Preparatory-Response Theoryp. 169
Compensatory-Response Modelp. 171
And Furthermore: Conditioned Compensatory Responses and Drug Overdosep. 176
Rescorla-Wagner Theoryp. 178
Advice for the Lovelornp. 181
Practical Applications of Classical Conditioningp. 182
Understanding Phobiasp. 182
And Furthermore: The Ethics of the Little Albert Experimentp. 186
Treating Phobiasp. 192
And Furthermore: Was Sigmund Freud a Behavior Analyst?p. 197
Aversion Therapy for Eliminating Problem Behaviorsp. 199
Medical Applications of Classical Conditioningp. 201
And Furthermore: Classical Conditioning, Gulf War Syndrome, and Multiple Chemical Sensitivityp. 203
Summaryp. 204
Suggested Readingsp. 206
Study Questionsp. 206
Concept Reviewp. 207
Chapter Testp. 208
Answers to Chapter Testp. 210
Operant Conditioning: Introductionp. 211
Historical Backgroundp. 213
Thorndike's Law of Effectp. 213
Skinner's Selection by Consequencesp. 215
Operant Conditioningp. 217
Operant Behaviorp. 218
Operant Consequences: Reinforcers and Punishersp. 220
Operant Antecedents: Discriminative Stimulip. 223
Four Types of Contingenciesp. 226
Positive Reinforcementp. 228
Negative Reinforcementp. 228
Positive Punishmentp. 230
Negative Punishmentp. 231
And Furthermore: Four Types of Contingencies: Tricky Examplesp. 233
Positive Reinforcement: Further Distinctionsp. 234
Immediate Versus Delayed Reinforcementp. 234
Primary and Secondary Reinforcersp. 235
And Furthermore: Learned Industriousnessp. 238
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcementp. 238
And Furthermore: Positive Reinforcement of Artistic Appreciationp. 240
Natural and Contrived Reinforcersp. 241
Shapingp. 243
Advice for the Lovelornp. 246
And Furthermore: Training Ishmaelp. 247
Summaryp. 249
Suggested Readingsp. 250
Study Questionsp. 251
Concept Reviewp. 251
Chapter Testp. 253
Answers to Chapter Testp. 255
Schedules and Theories of Reinforcementp. 257
Schedules of Reinforcementp. 258
Continuous Versus Intermittent Schedulesp. 258
Four Basic Intermittent Schedulesp. 259
Other Simple Schedules of Reinforcementp. 267
Complex Schedules of Reinforcementp. 275
Theories of Reinforcementp. 280
Drive Reduction Theoryp. 280
The Premack Principlep. 282
Response Deprivation Hypothesisp. 284
Behavioral Bliss Point Approachp. 285
Advice for the Lovelornp. 287
Summaryp. 287
Suggested Readingsp. 288
Study Questionsp. 289
Concept Reviewp. 289
Chapter Testp. 291
Answers to Chapter Testp. 294
Extinction and Stimulus Controlp. 295
Extinctionp. 296
Side Effects of Extinctionp. 297
Advice for the Lovelornp. 301
Resistance to Extinctionp. 301
Spontaneous Recoveryp. 305
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviorp. 306
And Furthermore: Extinction of Bedtime Tantrums in Young Childrenp. 307
Stimulus Controlp. 308
Stimulus Generalization and Discriminationp. 309
The Peak Shift Effectp. 312
Multiple Schedules and Behavioral Contrastp. 314
And Furthermore: St. Neots' Marginp. 319
Fading and Errorless Discrimination Learningp. 320
Stimulus Control Procedures for the Study of Memoryp. 322
Stimulus Control: Additional Applicationsp. 325
And Furthermore: Edwin Guthrie: Stimulus Control for the Practical Personp. 329
Summaryp. 330
Suggested Readingsp. 331
Study Questionsp. 332
Concept Reviewp. 333
Chapter Testp. 334
Answers to Chapter Testp. 337
Escape, Avoidance, and Punishmentp. 339
Escape and Avoidancep. 340
Two-Process Theory of Avoidancep. 342
Avoidance Conditioning and Phobiasp. 345
And Furthermore: Repression: Avoidance of Distressing Thoughts?p. 346
Avoidance Conditioning and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorderp. 350
Punishmentp. 353
Types of Punishmentp. 353
Problems with the Use of Punishmentp. 357
Benefits and the Effective Use of Punishmentp. 358
Theories of Punishmentp. 361
And Furthermore: Punishment and Procrastinationp. 362
Effects of Noncontingent Punishmentp. 365
Learned Helplessnessp. 365
Masserman's Experimental Neurosisp. 367
Advice for the Lovelornp. 368
And Furthermore: Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Behavioral Perspectivep. 370
Summaryp. 371
Suggested Readingsp. 373
Study Questionsp. 373
Concept Reviewp. 374
Chapter Testp. 375
Answers to Chapter Testp. 378
Choice, Matching, and Self-Controlp. 379
Choice and Matchingp. 380
Concurrent Schedulesp. 380
The Matching Lawp. 382
Deviations from Matchingp. 385
And Furthermore: Basketball and the Matching Lawp. 386
Matching and Meliorationp. 390
Advice for the Lovelornp. 393
Self-Controlp. 394
Skinner on Self-Controlp. 394
Self-Control as a Temporal Issuep. 397
And Furthermore: B. F. Skinner: The Master of Self-Controlp. 398
Mischel's Delay of Gratification Paradigmp. 400
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of Self-Controlp. 401
The Small-But-Cumulative Effects Modelp. 410
And Furthermore: But Why Do I Sometimes Just Give Up?p. 412
Summaryp. 413
Suggested Readingsp. 414
Study Questionsp. 414
Concept Reviewp. 415
Chapter Testp. 416
Answers to Chapter Testp. 419
Biological Dispositions in Learningp. 421
Preparedness and Conditioningp. 422
Preparedness in Classical Conditioningp. 422
And Furthermore: Conditioned Food Preferencesp. 428
Preparedness in Operant Conditioningp. 428
Operant-Respondent Interactionsp. 429
Instinctive Driftp. 429
Sign Trackingp. 431
Advice for the Lovelornp. 433
Adjunctive Behaviorp. 434
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristicsp. 434
Adjunctive Behavior in Humansp. 437
And Furthermore: Extreme Polydipsia: Not Just a "Rat Thing"p. 438
Adjunctive Behavior as Displacement Activityp. 438
Activity Anorexiap. 440
Basic Procedure and Defining Characteristicsp. 440
Comparisons With Anorexia Nervosap. 441
Underlying Mechanismsp. 443
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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