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Reasoning | |
Basic Logical Concepts | |
What Logic Is | |
Propositions and Sentences | |
Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusions | |
More Complex Arguments | |
Recognizing Arguments | |
Deduction and Induction | |
Validity and Truth | |
Arguments and Explanations | |
Analyzing and Diagramming Arguments | |
Argument Diagrams | |
Analyzing Passages Containing More than One Argument | |
Analyzing Complex Argumentative Passages | |
Solving Problems Using Logic | |
Problem Solving | |
Problems in Reasoning | |
Retrograde Reasoning | |
Language | |
The Uses of Language | |
Three Basic Functions of Language | |
Discourse Serving Multiple Functions | |
The Forms of Discourse | |
Emotive Words | |
Kinds of Agreement and Disagreement | |
Emotively Neutral Language | |
Definition | |
Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitions | |
Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputes | |
Denotation (Extension) and Connotation (Intension) | |
Extension and Denotative Definitions | |
Intension and Connotative Definitions | |
Rules for Definition by Genus and Difference | |
Fallacies | |
What Is a Fallacy? | |
Fallacies of Relevance | |
Fallacies of Presumption | |
Fallacies of Ambiguity | |
Deduction | |
Categorical Propositions | |
The Theory of Deduction | |
Categorical Propositions and Classes | |
Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | |
The Traditional Square of Opposition | |
Further Immediate Inferences | |
Existential Import | |
Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions | |
Categorical Syllogisms | |
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms | |
The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument | |
Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms | |
Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies | |
Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism | |
Arguments in Ordinary Language | |
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language | |
Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument | |
Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form | |
Uniform Translation | |
Enthymemes | |
Sorites | |
Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms | |
The Dilemma | |
Symbolic Logic | |
The Symbolic Language of Modern Logic | |
The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction | |
Conditional Statements and Material Implication | |
Argument Forms and Arguments | |
Statement Forms, Material Equivalence, and Logical Equivalence | |
The Paradoxes of Material Implication | |
The Three Laws of Thought | |
The Method of Deduction | |
Formal Proof of Validity | |
The Rule of Replacement | |
Proof of Invalidity | |
Inconsistency | |
Quantification Theory | |
Singular Propositions | |
Quantification | |
Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositions | |
Proving Validity | |
Proving Invalidity | |
Asyllogistic Inference | |
Induction | |
Analogy and Probable Inference | |
Argument by Analogy | |
Appraising Analogical Arguments | |
Refutation by Logical Analogy | |
Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiry | |
Cause and Effect | |
Mill's Methods | |
Critique of Mill's Methods | |
Science and Hypothesis | |
The Values of Science | |
Explanations: Scientific and Unscientific | |
Evaluating Scientific Explanation | |
Seven Stages of Scientific Investigation | |
Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigation | |
Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypotheses | |
Classification as Hypothesis | |
Probability | |
Alternative Conceptions of Probability | |
The Probability Calculus | |
Probability of Joint Occurrences | |
Probability of Alternative Occurrences | |
Expected Value | |
Solutions to Selected Exercises | |
Special Symbols | |
Glossary and Index of Logical Terms | |
Index of Names and Titles | |
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