Introduction to Logic

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  • Edition: 12th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1/1/2009
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Dedicated to the memory of Irving M. Copi, the twelfth edition of Introduction to Logic retains its breadth of coverage, while breaking new ground with a compelling new design and inclusion of new pedagogic features to help students in their study of logic. This new edition goes further than any previous edition-or competing logic text-in assisting students with their mastery of logic! NEW to Introduction to Logic, Twelfth Edition! New material-Additional coverage of conditional proofs; new category for fallacies of defective induction; separated treatment of classic syllogistic logic and modern symbolic logic "VISUAL LOGIC" feature-Clear and vivid illustrations provided to clarify challenging logic topics Marginal definitions-Helps students define terms while reading Summary tables-Over 30 "OVERVIEWS" to help students review material at a glance New student supplemet-Available to package with new texts, LogicNotes with Practice Problems provides a Notebook with numerous practice problems and solutions (Package ISBN: 013-163729-0) eLogic-Prentice Hall's new CD-ROM-based logic tutorial Prentice Hall has revised its tutorial to provide students with over 800 exercises, drawn from the text, plus the tools students need to solve logic problems. Students can work problems, including diagramming arguments, creating Venn diagrams, constructing truth tables. And now students can build and check proofs! See the walk-through in this book or visit www.prenhall.com/philosophy for more information!

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Preface to the Eleventh Editionp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Walk-through of eLogic Online Tutorialp. xxii
Logic and Languagep. 1
Basic Logical Conceptsp. 3
What Logic Isp. 3
Propositions and Sentencesp. 4
Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusionsp. 6
Analyzing Argumentsp. 11
Recognizing Argumentsp. 21
Arguments and Explanationsp. 35
Deduction and Validityp. 42
Induction and Probabilityp. 43
Validity and Truthp. 46
Complex Argumentative Passagesp. 50
Reasoningp. 58
Challenge to the Readerp. 67
Summary of Chapter 1p. 68
The Uses of Languagep. 71
Three Basic Functions of Languagep. 71
Discourse Serving Multiple Functionsp. 74
The Forms of Discoursep. 76
Emotive Wordsp. 86
Kinds of Agreement and Disagreementp. 88
Emotively Neutral Languagep. 95
Summary of Chapter 2p. 97
Definitionp. 99
Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitionsp. 99
Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputesp. 102
Extension and Intensionp. 114
Extensional Definitionsp. 118
Intensional Definitionsp. 120
Rules for Definition by Genus and Differencep. 125
Summary of Chapter 3p. 134
Fallaciesp. 137
What Is a Fallacy?p. 137
Fallacies of Relevancep. 139
Fallacies of Presumptionp. 156
Fallacies of Ambiguityp. 163
Summary of Chapter 4p. 177
Deductionp. 179
Categorical Propositionsp. 181
The Theory of Deductionp. 181
Categorical Propositions and Classesp. 182
Quality, Quantity, and Distributionp. 185
The Traditional Square of Oppositionp. 188
Further Immediate Inferencesp. 193
Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositionsp. 202
Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositionsp. 208
Summary of Chapter 5p. 214
Categorical Syllogismsp. 217
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogismsp. 217
The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argumentp. 221
Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogismsp. 224
Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallaciesp. 232
Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogismp. 236
Deduction of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogismp. 242
Summary of Chapter 6p. 246
Arguments in Ordinary Languagep. 249
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Languagep. 249
Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argumentp. 250
Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Formp. 253
Uniform Translationp. 261
Enthymemesp. 269
Soritesp. 275
Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogismsp. 279
The Dilemmap. 287
Summary of Chapter 7p. 296
Symbolic Logicp. 299
The Symbolic Language of Modern Logicp. 299
The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunctionp. 300
Conditional Statements and Material Implicationp. 312
Argument Forms and Argumentsp. 321
Statement Forms and Material Equivalencep. 335
Logical Equivalencep. 340
The Paradoxes of Material Implicationp. 343
The Three "Laws of Thought"p. 344
Summary of Chapter 8p. 346
The Method of Deductionp. 349
Formal Proof of Validityp. 349
The Rule of Replacementp. 359
Proof of Invalidityp. 372
Inconsistencyp. 375
Summary of Chapter 9p. 382
Quantification Theoryp. 385
Singular Propositionsp. 385
Quantificationp. 387
Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositionsp. 391
Proving Validityp. 398
Proving Invalidityp. 406
Asyllogistic Inferencep. 411
Summary of Chapter 10p. 419
Inductionp. 421
Analogy and Probable Inferencep. 423
Argument by Analogyp. 423
Appraising Analogical Argumentsp. 430
Refutation by Logical Analogyp. 440
Summary of Chapter 11p. 446
Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiryp. 449
Cause and Effectp. 449
Mill's Methodsp. 455
Critique of Mill's Methodsp. 480
Summary of Chapter 12p. 491
Science and Hypothesisp. 493
The Values of Sciencep. 493
Explanations: Scientific and Unscientificp. 494
Evaluating Scientific Explanationsp. 496
Seven Stages of Scientific Investigationp. 500
Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigationp. 504
Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypothesesp. 510
Classification as Hypothesisp. 518
Summary of Chapter 13p. 530
Probabilityp. 533
Alternative Conceptions of Probabilityp. 533
The Probability Calculusp. 536
Probability of Joint Occurrencesp. 537
Probability of Alternative Occurrencesp. 543
Challenge to the Readerp. 549
Expected Valuep. 549
Challenge to the Readerp. 558
Summary of Chapter 14p. 558
Solutions to Selected Exercisesp. 560
Special Symbolsp. 621
Glossary/Indexp. 623
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.


Irving Copi first publishedIntroduction to Logicin 1953, a little more than half a century ago. The book has grown mightily in the years since--but it is a mark of Professor Copi's power as thinker and teacher that this book has become the one work used by more people around the world in the study of logic than any other book ever written--with the possible exception ofThe Organonof Aristotle. Three reasons for this long-continuing success are justly noted as follows. First, Professor Copi perfected the structure for a textbook in logic which was not only intellectually coherent, but also fit smoothly and usefully into the widely practiced patterns of college instruction. That original structure remains the architectonic of this twelfth edition: first, it presents the basic concepts of logic and the logical difficulties encountered in everyday uses of language; next, the methods of deductive reasoning are presented in a manner which an account of traditional syllogistics precedes an explanation of modern symbolic logic; and last, the methods of inductive reasoning are presented in a manner beginning with the analysis of simple arguments by analogy and advance to moderately sophisticated techniques in science and the theory of probability. Second, Professor Copi was an understanding teacher who clearly saw that the mastery of the principles of logic could best be acquired by giving students many opportunities to exercise their skills and reinforce their satisfactions with materials whose contents are interesting and worthy. Logic, he would say, is an art as well as a science, and proficiency in its use requires practice as well as comprehension. Therefore, from the very beginning, every edition ofIntroduction to Logichas been rich with illustrative materials and exercises taken from arguments encountered in real life. The present edition retains that spirit, by introducing many fresh and intriguing exercises and illustrations which have been drawn from lively controversies-political, scientific, and moral-of the twenty-first century. Third,Introduction to Logicbecame the most widely used of all textbooks in logic because Irving Copi had the talents that enabled him to combine great accuracy with clarity, and deep penetration with engaging exposition. This was, and is, a textbook--but a textbook that has been written well, and one that we hope does not loom before students as a parade of chores, but wins its readers as friends confronting a series of enjoyable intellectual challenges. These merits are fairly claimed for the original manuscript of Irving Copi. Ensuing editions have always sought to preserve those merits and to find new ways to realize them. Instructors who useIntroduction to Logicin their courses may be helped by a brief report in this preface of the manifestations of that continuing revitalization in this twelfth edition. The larger structure of the book has been retained as noted above, but some important changes have been introduced to that structure. 1. Organization of the Twelfth Edition How best to present the basic conceptual material of the early chapters has been a perennial pedagogical concern. We must resolve the unavoidable tension between the need to put a series of related basic concepts before the student early on, and the competing need to follow the introduction of each of these concepts with exercises that can exhibit their use and complexity. We have tried several different approaches, sometimes breaking the exposition into several chapters, and in the eleventh edition we combined theoretical exposition and many exercises into one very long chapter. But this most recent pattern has been found to make the material somewhat more difficult to digest. We have consulted widely with our colleagues across the country on this matter; the resolution with which we now emerge is the following. The fir

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