Foreword | p. xiii |

Preface to the Eleventh Edition | p. xv |

Acknowledgments | p. xix |

Walk-through of eLogic Online Tutorial | p. xxii |

Logic and Language | p. 1 |

Basic Logical Concepts | p. 3 |

What Logic Is | p. 3 |

Propositions and Sentences | p. 4 |

Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusions | p. 6 |

Analyzing Arguments | p. 11 |

Recognizing Arguments | p. 21 |

Arguments and Explanations | p. 35 |

Deduction and Validity | p. 42 |

Induction and Probability | p. 43 |

Validity and Truth | p. 46 |

Complex Argumentative Passages | p. 50 |

Reasoning | p. 58 |

Challenge to the Reader | p. 67 |

Summary of Chapter 1 | p. 68 |

The Uses of Language | p. 71 |

Three Basic Functions of Language | p. 71 |

Discourse Serving Multiple Functions | p. 74 |

The Forms of Discourse | p. 76 |

Emotive Words | p. 86 |

Kinds of Agreement and Disagreement | p. 88 |

Emotively Neutral Language | p. 95 |

Summary of Chapter 2 | p. 97 |

Definition | p. 99 |

Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitions | p. 99 |

Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputes | p. 102 |

Extension and Intension | p. 114 |

Extensional Definitions | p. 118 |

Intensional Definitions | p. 120 |

Rules for Definition by Genus and Difference | p. 125 |

Summary of Chapter 3 | p. 134 |

Fallacies | p. 137 |

What Is a Fallacy? | p. 137 |

Fallacies of Relevance | p. 139 |

Fallacies of Presumption | p. 156 |

Fallacies of Ambiguity | p. 163 |

Summary of Chapter 4 | p. 177 |

Deduction | p. 179 |

Categorical Propositions | p. 181 |

The Theory of Deduction | p. 181 |

Categorical Propositions and Classes | p. 182 |

Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | p. 185 |

The Traditional Square of Opposition | p. 188 |

Further Immediate Inferences | p. 193 |

Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositions | p. 202 |

Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions | p. 208 |

Summary of Chapter 5 | p. 214 |

Categorical Syllogisms | p. 217 |

Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms | p. 217 |

The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument | p. 221 |

Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms | p. 224 |

Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies | p. 232 |

Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 236 |

Deduction of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 242 |

Summary of Chapter 6 | p. 246 |

Arguments in Ordinary Language | p. 249 |

Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language | p. 249 |

Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument | p. 250 |

Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form | p. 253 |

Uniform Translation | p. 261 |

Enthymemes | p. 269 |

Sorites | p. 275 |

Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms | p. 279 |

The Dilemma | p. 287 |

Summary of Chapter 7 | p. 296 |

Symbolic Logic | p. 299 |

The Symbolic Language of Modern Logic | p. 299 |

The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction | p. 300 |

Conditional Statements and Material Implication | p. 312 |

Argument Forms and Arguments | p. 321 |

Statement Forms and Material Equivalence | p. 335 |

Logical Equivalence | p. 340 |

The Paradoxes of Material Implication | p. 343 |

The Three "Laws of Thought" | p. 344 |

Summary of Chapter 8 | p. 346 |

The Method of Deduction | p. 349 |

Formal Proof of Validity | p. 349 |

The Rule of Replacement | p. 359 |

Proof of Invalidity | p. 372 |

Inconsistency | p. 375 |

Summary of Chapter 9 | p. 382 |

Quantification Theory | p. 385 |

Singular Propositions | p. 385 |

Quantification | p. 387 |

Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositions | p. 391 |

Proving Validity | p. 398 |

Proving Invalidity | p. 406 |

Asyllogistic Inference | p. 411 |

Summary of Chapter 10 | p. 419 |

Induction | p. 421 |

Analogy and Probable Inference | p. 423 |

Argument by Analogy | p. 423 |

Appraising Analogical Arguments | p. 430 |

Refutation by Logical Analogy | p. 440 |

Summary of Chapter 11 | p. 446 |

Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiry | p. 449 |

Cause and Effect | p. 449 |

Mill's Methods | p. 455 |

Critique of Mill's Methods | p. 480 |

Summary of Chapter 12 | p. 491 |

Science and Hypothesis | p. 493 |

The Values of Science | p. 493 |

Explanations: Scientific and Unscientific | p. 494 |

Evaluating Scientific Explanations | p. 496 |

Seven Stages of Scientific Investigation | p. 500 |

Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigation | p. 504 |

Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypotheses | p. 510 |

Classification as Hypothesis | p. 518 |

Summary of Chapter 13 | p. 530 |

Probability | p. 533 |

Alternative Conceptions of Probability | p. 533 |

The Probability Calculus | p. 536 |

Probability of Joint Occurrences | p. 537 |

Probability of Alternative Occurrences | p. 543 |

Challenge to the Reader | p. 549 |

Expected Value | p. 549 |

Challenge to the Reader | p. 558 |

Summary of Chapter 14 | p. 558 |

Solutions to Selected Exercises | p. 560 |

Special Symbols | p. 621 |

Glossary/Index | p. 623 |

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