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Foreword | p. xiii |
Preface to the Eleventh Edition | p. xv |
Acknowledgments | p. xix |
Walk-through of eLogic Online Tutorial | p. xxii |
Logic and Language | p. 1 |
Basic Logical Concepts | p. 3 |
What Logic Is | p. 3 |
Propositions and Sentences | p. 4 |
Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusions | p. 6 |
Analyzing Arguments | p. 11 |
Recognizing Arguments | p. 21 |
Arguments and Explanations | p. 35 |
Deduction and Validity | p. 42 |
Induction and Probability | p. 43 |
Validity and Truth | p. 46 |
Complex Argumentative Passages | p. 50 |
Reasoning | p. 58 |
Challenge to the Reader | p. 67 |
Summary of Chapter 1 | p. 68 |
The Uses of Language | p. 71 |
Three Basic Functions of Language | p. 71 |
Discourse Serving Multiple Functions | p. 74 |
The Forms of Discourse | p. 76 |
Emotive Words | p. 86 |
Kinds of Agreement and Disagreement | p. 88 |
Emotively Neutral Language | p. 95 |
Summary of Chapter 2 | p. 97 |
Definition | p. 99 |
Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitions | p. 99 |
Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputes | p. 102 |
Extension and Intension | p. 114 |
Extensional Definitions | p. 118 |
Intensional Definitions | p. 120 |
Rules for Definition by Genus and Difference | p. 125 |
Summary of Chapter 3 | p. 134 |
Fallacies | p. 137 |
What Is a Fallacy? | p. 137 |
Fallacies of Relevance | p. 139 |
Fallacies of Presumption | p. 156 |
Fallacies of Ambiguity | p. 163 |
Summary of Chapter 4 | p. 177 |
Deduction | p. 179 |
Categorical Propositions | p. 181 |
The Theory of Deduction | p. 181 |
Categorical Propositions and Classes | p. 182 |
Quality, Quantity, and Distribution | p. 185 |
The Traditional Square of Opposition | p. 188 |
Further Immediate Inferences | p. 193 |
Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositions | p. 202 |
Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositions | p. 208 |
Summary of Chapter 5 | p. 214 |
Categorical Syllogisms | p. 217 |
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogisms | p. 217 |
The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argument | p. 221 |
Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogisms | p. 224 |
Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallacies | p. 232 |
Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 236 |
Deduction of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogism | p. 242 |
Summary of Chapter 6 | p. 246 |
Arguments in Ordinary Language | p. 249 |
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Language | p. 249 |
Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argument | p. 250 |
Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form | p. 253 |
Uniform Translation | p. 261 |
Enthymemes | p. 269 |
Sorites | p. 275 |
Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogisms | p. 279 |
The Dilemma | p. 287 |
Summary of Chapter 7 | p. 296 |
Symbolic Logic | p. 299 |
The Symbolic Language of Modern Logic | p. 299 |
The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction | p. 300 |
Conditional Statements and Material Implication | p. 312 |
Argument Forms and Arguments | p. 321 |
Statement Forms and Material Equivalence | p. 335 |
Logical Equivalence | p. 340 |
The Paradoxes of Material Implication | p. 343 |
The Three "Laws of Thought" | p. 344 |
Summary of Chapter 8 | p. 346 |
The Method of Deduction | p. 349 |
Formal Proof of Validity | p. 349 |
The Rule of Replacement | p. 359 |
Proof of Invalidity | p. 372 |
Inconsistency | p. 375 |
Summary of Chapter 9 | p. 382 |
Quantification Theory | p. 385 |
Singular Propositions | p. 385 |
Quantification | p. 387 |
Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositions | p. 391 |
Proving Validity | p. 398 |
Proving Invalidity | p. 406 |
Asyllogistic Inference | p. 411 |
Summary of Chapter 10 | p. 419 |
Induction | p. 421 |
Analogy and Probable Inference | p. 423 |
Argument by Analogy | p. 423 |
Appraising Analogical Arguments | p. 430 |
Refutation by Logical Analogy | p. 440 |
Summary of Chapter 11 | p. 446 |
Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiry | p. 449 |
Cause and Effect | p. 449 |
Mill's Methods | p. 455 |
Critique of Mill's Methods | p. 480 |
Summary of Chapter 12 | p. 491 |
Science and Hypothesis | p. 493 |
The Values of Science | p. 493 |
Explanations: Scientific and Unscientific | p. 494 |
Evaluating Scientific Explanations | p. 496 |
Seven Stages of Scientific Investigation | p. 500 |
Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigation | p. 504 |
Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypotheses | p. 510 |
Classification as Hypothesis | p. 518 |
Summary of Chapter 13 | p. 530 |
Probability | p. 533 |
Alternative Conceptions of Probability | p. 533 |
The Probability Calculus | p. 536 |
Probability of Joint Occurrences | p. 537 |
Probability of Alternative Occurrences | p. 543 |
Challenge to the Reader | p. 549 |
Expected Value | p. 549 |
Challenge to the Reader | p. 558 |
Summary of Chapter 14 | p. 558 |
Solutions to Selected Exercises | p. 560 |
Special Symbols | p. 621 |
Glossary/Index | p. 623 |
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