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Introduction to Logic with eLogic CD-ROM,9780131931541
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Introduction to Logic with eLogic CD-ROM

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Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
Prentice Hall

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Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Preface to the Eleventh Editionp. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
Walk-through of eLogic Online Tutorialp. xxii
Logic and Languagep. 1
Basic Logical Conceptsp. 3
What Logic Isp. 3
Propositions and Sentencesp. 4
Arguments, Premisses, and Conclusionsp. 6
Analyzing Argumentsp. 11
Recognizing Argumentsp. 21
Arguments and Explanationsp. 35
Deduction and Validityp. 42
Induction and Probabilityp. 43
Validity and Truthp. 46
Complex Argumentative Passagesp. 50
Reasoningp. 58
Challenge to the Readerp. 67
Summary of Chapter 1p. 68
The Uses of Languagep. 71
Three Basic Functions of Languagep. 71
Discourse Serving Multiple Functionsp. 74
The Forms of Discoursep. 76
Emotive Wordsp. 86
Kinds of Agreement and Disagreementp. 88
Emotively Neutral Languagep. 95
Summary of Chapter 2p. 97
Definitionp. 99
Disputes, Verbal Disputes, and Definitionsp. 99
Kinds of Definition and the Resolution of Disputesp. 102
Extension and Intensionp. 114
Extensional Definitionsp. 118
Intensional Definitionsp. 120
Rules for Definition by Genus and Differencep. 125
Summary of Chapter 3p. 134
Fallaciesp. 137
What Is a Fallacy?p. 137
Fallacies of Relevancep. 139
Fallacies of Presumptionp. 156
Fallacies of Ambiguityp. 163
Summary of Chapter 4p. 177
Deductionp. 179
Categorical Propositionsp. 181
The Theory of Deductionp. 181
Categorical Propositions and Classesp. 182
Quality, Quantity, and Distributionp. 185
The Traditional Square of Oppositionp. 188
Further Immediate Inferencesp. 193
Existential Import and the Interpretation of Categorical Propositionsp. 202
Symbolism and Diagrams for Categorical Propositionsp. 208
Summary of Chapter 5p. 214
Categorical Syllogismsp. 217
Standard-Form Categorical Syllogismsp. 217
The Formal Nature of Syllogistic Argumentp. 221
Venn Diagram Technique for Testing Syllogismsp. 224
Syllogistic Rules and Syllogistic Fallaciesp. 232
Exposition of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogismp. 236
Deduction of the 15 Valid Forms of the Categorical Syllogismp. 242
Summary of Chapter 6p. 246
Arguments in Ordinary Languagep. 249
Syllogistic Arguments in Ordinary Languagep. 249
Reducing the Number of Terms in a Syllogistic Argumentp. 250
Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Formp. 253
Uniform Translationp. 261
Enthymemesp. 269
Soritesp. 275
Disjunctive and Hypothetical Syllogismsp. 279
The Dilemmap. 287
Summary of Chapter 7p. 296
Symbolic Logicp. 299
The Symbolic Language of Modern Logicp. 299
The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunctionp. 300
Conditional Statements and Material Implicationp. 312
Argument Forms and Argumentsp. 321
Statement Forms and Material Equivalencep. 335
Logical Equivalencep. 340
The Paradoxes of Material Implicationp. 343
The Three "Laws of Thought"p. 344
Summary of Chapter 8p. 346
The Method of Deductionp. 349
Formal Proof of Validityp. 349
The Rule of Replacementp. 359
Proof of Invalidityp. 372
Inconsistencyp. 375
Summary of Chapter 9p. 382
Quantification Theoryp. 385
Singular Propositionsp. 385
Quantificationp. 387
Traditional Subject-Predicate Propositionsp. 391
Proving Validityp. 398
Proving Invalidityp. 406
Asyllogistic Inferencep. 411
Summary of Chapter 10p. 419
Inductionp. 421
Analogy and Probable Inferencep. 423
Argument by Analogyp. 423
Appraising Analogical Argumentsp. 430
Refutation by Logical Analogyp. 440
Summary of Chapter 11p. 446
Causal Connections: Mill's Methods of Experimental Inquiryp. 449
Cause and Effectp. 449
Mill's Methodsp. 455
Critique of Mill's Methodsp. 480
Summary of Chapter 12p. 491
Science and Hypothesisp. 493
The Values of Sciencep. 493
Explanations: Scientific and Unscientificp. 494
Evaluating Scientific Explanationsp. 496
Seven Stages of Scientific Investigationp. 500
Scientists in Action: The Pattern of Scientific Investigationp. 504
Crucial Experiments and Ad Hoc Hypothesesp. 510
Classification as Hypothesisp. 518
Summary of Chapter 13p. 530
Probabilityp. 533
Alternative Conceptions of Probabilityp. 533
The Probability Calculusp. 536
Probability of Joint Occurrencesp. 537
Probability of Alternative Occurrencesp. 543
Challenge to the Readerp. 549
Expected Valuep. 549
Challenge to the Readerp. 558
Summary of Chapter 14p. 558
Solutions to Selected Exercisesp. 560
Special Symbolsp. 621
Glossary/Indexp. 623
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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