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Introduction to Mineralogy,9780199827381
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Introduction to Mineralogy

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780199827381

ISBN10:
0199827389
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/8/2011
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press, USA
List Price: $152.48

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Summary

The second edition of iIntroduction to Mineralogyr follows the highly successful first edition, which become an overnight market leader. iIntroduction to Mineralogyr consolidates much of the material now covered in traditional mineralogy and optical mineralogy courses and focuses on describing minerals within their geologic context. It presents the important traditional content of mineralogy including crystallography, chemical bonding, controls on mineral structure, mineral stability, and crystal growth to provide a foundation that enables students to understand the nature and occurrence of minerals. Physical, optical, and X-ray powder diffraction techniques of mineral study are described in detail, and common chemical analytical methods are outlined as well. Detailed descriptions of over 100 common minerals are provided, and the geologic context within which these minerals occur is emphasized. Appendices provide tables and diagrams to help students with mineral identification, using both physical and optical properties. Numerous line drawings, photographs, and photomicrographs help make complex concepts understandable. iIntroduction to Mineralogyr is available with Daniel Schulze's iAn Atlas of Minerals in Thin Sectionr for a nominal additional fee.

Table of Contents

Minerals
Introduction
Minerals
Mineraloids
Mineralogy
Mineral Nomenclature
General References on Mineralogy
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Crystallography
Introduction
Translational Symmetry
Plane Lattices
Translational Symmetry: 3-DSpace Lattices and Unit Cell
Bravais Lattices and Crystal Systems
Point Symmetry
Reflection
Rotation
Inversion
Compound Symmetry Operations
Symmetry Notation
32 Point Groups
Steno's Law
Measurement of Crystal Angles
Determining Crystal System and Crystal Class
Space Groups
Crystal Faces
Laws of Hauy and Bravais
Miller Indices
Indices and Crystal Axes in the Hexagonal Crystal System
Determining Miller Index
Assigning Miller Indexes by Inspection
Crystallographic Directions
Zones
Crystal Forms
Isometric Forms
Non-isometric Forms
Combining Crystal Forms
Enantiomorphous Forms and Crystals
Positive and Negative Forms
Forms in the Six Crystal Systems
Triclinic Crystal System
Monoclinic Crystal System
Orthorhombic Crystal System
Tetragonal Crystal System
Hexagonal Crystal System
Isometric Crystal System
Crystal Habit
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Crystal Chemistry
Introduction
The Nature of Chemical Elements
Nucleus
Eclectrons
Formation of Ions
Abundance of the Elements
Chemical Bonding
Valence-related bonding
Relation among the Valence-dependent Bonds
Bonds Not Involving Valence Electrons
Size of Atoms and Ions
Oxidation State
Coordination
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Crystal Structure Introduction
Introduction
Controls of Crystal Structure
Structure Controls with Metallic Bonding
Structure Controls with Covalent Bonding
Structural Controls with Molecular Crystals
Structure Controls with Ionic Bonding
Application of Pauling's Rules
Illustrating Mineral Structures
Isostructural Minerals
Polymorphism
Reconstructive Polymorphism
Displacive Polymorphism
Order-Disorder Polymorphism
Polytypism
Mineral Classification
Compositional Variation in Minerals
Substitutional Solid Solution
Mineral Formulas
Graphical Representation
Binary diagrams
Ternary diagrams
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Mineral Growth
Introduction
Mineral Stabiley
Stability
Gibbs Free Energy
Mineral reactions
Mineral Nucleation
Homogeneous Nucleation
Heterogeneous Nucleation
Crystal Growth
Rate of Growth
Zoned Crystals
Structural Defects
Point Defects
Line Defects
Planar Defects
Twinning
Post-crystallization Processes
Ordering
Twinning
Recrystallization
Exsolution
Radioactivity and Minerals
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Mineral Properties of Minerals
Physical Properties of Minerals
Introduction
Mass Dependent Properties
Density
Specific Gravity
Properties Related to Mechanical Cohesion
Harness
Tenacity
Cleavage
Fracture
Parting
Color and Luster
Light
Perception of Color
Mineral Luster
Mineral Color
Color From Mechanical Causes
Consistency of Mineral Color
Streak
Luminescence
Magnetism
Diamagnetism
Paramagnetism
Ferromagnetism
Ferrimagnetism
Electrical Properties
Electrical Conductivity
Piezoelectricity
Pyroelectricity
Miscellaneous Properties
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Optical Mineralogy
Introduction
Light
Light Waves
Polarized Light
Interaction of Light and Matter
Optically Isotropic vs. Anisotropic Materials
Reflection and Refraction
Dispersion
Petrographic Microscope
Illuminator
Substage Assembly
Microscope Stage
Objective Lenses
Upper Polarize
Bertrand Lens
Oculars
Focusing Mechanism
Accessories
Direction Conventions
Isotropic Materials
Anisotropic Minerals
Interference Phenomena
Use of the Interference Color Chart
Extinction
Function of Accessory Plates
Optical Indicatrix
Isotropic Indicatrix
Uniaxial Indicatrix
Biaxial Indicatrix
Mineral Color and Pleochroism
Isotropic Minerals
Uniaxial Minerals
Biaxial
Extinction Angle and Sign of Elongation
Extinction Angle
Sign of Elongation
Categories of Extinction
Extinction in Uniaxial Minerals
Interference Figures
Uniaxial Interference Figures
Biaxial Interference Figure
Refractometry: Measurement of Index of Refraction
Immersion Method
Refractometry in Thin Section
Isotropic Minerals
Uniaxial Minerals
Biaxial Minerals
Reflected-Light Optics
Observation in Plane Polarized Light
Observations with Crossed Polarizers
Tactics for Mineral Identification
Thin section identification
Grain Mount Identification
Polished section identification
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Introduction to X-ray Crystallography
Introduction
X-rays
X-ray Generation
X-ray Detection
X-ray Diffraction
Powder Method
Sample Preparation
Instrumental Output
Data Reduction
Powder Diffraction File
Bragg Reflection Indices
Mineral Identification
Mixed Samples
Estimation of Relative Mineral Abundance
Estimation of Composition
Determining Unit Cell Parameters
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Chemical Analysis of Minerals
Introduction
Analytical Methods
Wet Chemical
Electron Probe Microanalysis
X-ray Fluorescence
Mass Spectrometry
Conventions in Reporting Chemical Analyses
Conversion of Chemical Analyses to Structural Formulas
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Strategies for Study
Introduction
Mineral Identification Tactics
Mineral Separation
Hand Sample Identification
Thin
Dentification
Grain Mount Identification
Polished
Dentification
X-ray Diffraction
Mineral Association
Problems in Paradise
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Index
Silicates
Silicates
Introduction
Silicate Structure and Classification
Mafic vs. Felsic
Igneous Rocks
Magmatic Processes
Igneous Environments
Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Processes
Sedimentary Environments
Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic Variables
Metamorphic Processes
Metamorphic Grade, Facies, Mineral Zone Boundaries and Isograds
Major Compositional Groups of Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic Environments
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Framework Silicates
Introduction
Silica Group
Quartz
Tridymite
Cristobalite
Feldspar Group
Composition
Structure
AI/Si Order/Disorder
Exsolution in the Feldspars
Other Feldspar Intergrowths
Twinning
Plagioclase
K-Feldspar
Feldspathoids
Nepheline
Leucite
Sodalite
Zeolite Group
Scapolite
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Sheet Silicates
Introduction
Structure and Classification1:1 Layer Silicates
2:1 Layer Silicates
Polytypism
TO Structures (1:1)
Serpentine (Antigorite, Chrysotile, Lizardite)
Kaolinite
TOT Structures
Talc
Pyrophyllite
TOT + c Structures: Mica Minerals (2:1)
Muscovite
Biotite
Glauconite
TOT + c Structures: Brittle Micas (2:1)
Margarite
Clintonite
TOT + O Structure
Chlorite
Clay Minerals
Structure and Classification
Geology of Clay
Identification
Uses
Clay in the Environment
Other Sheet Silicates
Stilpnomelane
Prehnite
Chain Silicates
Introduction
Pyroxene group
Structure and Classification
Geology of Pyroxenes
Orthopyroxene
Lo-Ca Clinopyroxene
Calcic Clinopyroxene
Aegirine (Acmite), Aegirine-augite
Jadeite
Omphacite
Spodumene
Pyroxenoid Group
Introduction
Wollastonite
Rhodonite
Pectolite
Amphibole Group
Structure and Classification
Geology of Amphiboles
Orthoamphibole
Cummingtonite-Grunerite
Tremolite - Ferro-actinolite
Hornblende
Glaucophane - Riebeckite
Other amphiboles
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Disilicates and Ring Silicates
Disilicates
Structure and Classification
Zoisite
Clinozoisite-Epidote
Allanite
Lawsonite
Pumpellyitering Silicates
Structure and Classification
Beryl
Cordierite
Tourmaline
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Orthosilicates
Introduction
Olivine Group
Garnet Group
Zircon
Aluminum Silicates
Andalusite
Sillimanite
Kyanite
Staurolite
Chloritoid
Titanite
Topaz
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Borates, Tungstates, and Molybdates
Structure and Classification
Carbonates
Rhombohedral Carbonates (Calcite and Dolomite Groups)
Calcite
Magnesite
Siderite
Rhodochrosite
Dolomite-Ankerite
Aragonite Group
Aragonite
Witherite
Strontianite
OH-Bearing Carbonates
Malachite
Azurite
Sulfates
Gypsum
Anhydrite
Barite
Phosphates
Apatite
Monazite
Xenotime
Tourquoise
Tungstates and Molybdates
Borates
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Oxides, Hydroxides, and Halides
Introduction
Oxides
X20 Group
Cuprite
Ice
XO Group
XY204 Minerals
Spinel Group
Magnetite
Chromite
Spinel Series
Chrysoberyl
X2O3 Group
Hematite
Corundum
Ilmenite
XO2 Group
Rutile
Cassiterite
Uraninite
Hydroxides
Brucite
Iron Hydroxide Minerals
Aluminum Hydroxide Minerals
Manganese Oxide and Hydroxide Minerals
Halides
Halite
Sylvite
Fluorite
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Sulfides and Related Minerals
Introduction
Crystal Chemistry and Classification
Sulfide Paragenesis
Hydrothermal Deposits
Supergene Processes
Sulfide Minerals
Sphalerite
Galena
Pyrrhotite
Chalcopyrite
Cinnabar
Pyrite
Marcasite
Molybdenite
Bornite
Chalcocite
Covellite
Sulfarsenides
Arsenopyrite
Arsenides
Tellurides
References Cited and Suggestions for Additional Reading
Native Elements
Introduction
Metals
Gold
Silver
Copper
Semimetals
Nonmetals
Sulfur
Graphite
Diamond
References Cited and Suggestions for Reading
Appendices
Effective Ionic Radii of the Elements
Determinative Tables
Non-metallic minerals with white, gray, or other pale colored streak
Non-metallic minerals with distinctly colored streak
Minerals with metallic and submetallic luster
Specific gravity
Minerals that may fluoresce
Color of minerals in thin section and grain mount
Indices of refraction of isotropic minerals
Indices of refraction of uniaxial minerals
Indices of refraction of biaxial negative minerals arranged in order of increasing n?
Indices of refraction of biaxial positive minerals arranged in order of increasing n?
Minerals that produce pleochroic halos in surrounding minerals
Colors exhibited by opaque minerals in polished section viewed in air
Opaque or nearly opaque minerals that display internal reflections with reflected light
Mineral Associations
Mineralogy of Common Igneous Rocks
Mineralogy of Sedimentary Rocks
Mineralogy of Common Metamorphic Rocks
Mineralogy of Hydrothermal Sulfide Deposits
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.


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