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Introduction to Optical Mineralogy,9780195149104
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Introduction to Optical Mineralogy

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780195149104

ISBN10:
0195149106
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/21/2003
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $143.94
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  • Introduction to Optical Mineralogy
    Introduction to Optical Mineralogy




Summary

The purpose of this book is to serve the needs of students in learning the procedures and theory required to use the petrographic microscope. In the second edition the book has been updated and there has been a number of changes.

Author Biography


WILLIAM D. NESSE is Professor of Geology at the University of Northern Colorado, where he has taught for more than 25 years. He is the author of Introduction to Mineralogy (OUP, 2000) and the Instructor's Manual for Putnam's Geology (OUP, 1989). He is a member of the Geological Society of America, the Mineralogical Society of America, the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, and the Colorado Scientific Society.

Table of Contents

Preface xi
CHAPTER 1: LIGHT 1(13)
The Nature of Light
1(1)
Electromagnetic Radiation
1(2)
Phase
3(1)
The Perception of Color
4(1)
Interaction of Light and Matter
5(5)
Transmitted Light
5(2)
Velocity
5(1)
Index of Refraction
5(2)
Reflection
7(1)
Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection
7(1)
Optical Class
8(1)
Dispersion
9(1)
Light Absorption and Color
10(1)
Polarized Light
10(4)
Polarization by Double Refraction
11(1)
Polarization by Reflection
12(1)
Polarization by Scattering
13(1)
CHAPTER 2: THE PETROOGRAPHIC MICROSCOPE 14(11)
Direction Conventions
14(1)
Examples
14(1)
Illuminator
15(1)
Substage Assembly
16(1)
Microscope Stage
17(1)
Objective Lenses
17(1)
Vertical Illuminator
18(1)
Upper Polarizer
18(1)
Bertrand Lens
19(1)
Ocular
19(1)
Focusing Mechanism
19(1)
Accessories
20(1)
Additional Equipment
20(1)
General Care of the Microscope
20(1)
Adjustment of the Microscope
21(3)
Adjusting the Oculars
21(1)
Focusing
22(1)
Adjusting the Illuminator
22(1)
Centering the Objectives
22(1)
Adjusting the Substage
23(1)
Alignment of Polarizers
23(1)
General Considerations
24(1)
CHAPTER 3: REFRACTOMETRY 25(9)
Relief
25(1)
Becke Line Method
25(5)
Dispersion Effects
28(2)
Oblique Illumination Method
30(1)
Practical Considerations
31(1)
Accuracy of the Immersion Method
32(1)
Determining Indices of Refraction in Thin Section
33(1)
CHAPTER 4: OPTICS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIALS 34(3)
Isotropic Indicatrix
34(1)
Distinguishing Between Isotropic and Anisotropic Minerals
34(1)
Identification of Isotropic Minerals
35(2)
Grain Mount
35(1)
Thin Section
36(1)
CHAPTER 5: OPTICS OF ANISOTROPIC MINERALS: INTRODUCTION 37(16)
Interference Phenomena
39(4)
Monochromatic Illumination
39(2)
Retardation
39(1)
Birefringence
40(1)
Interference of the Two Rays
40(1)
Polychromatic Illumination
41(2)
Orders of Interference Colors
43(1)
Anomalous Interference Colors
43(1)
Determining Thickness of a Sample
43(2)
Thin Section
43(1)
Grain Mount
44(1)
Determining Birefringence from the Color Chart
45(1)
Thin Section
45(1)
Grain Mount
45(1)
Recognizing the Different Orders of Interference Colors
45(1)
Extinction
45(2)
Categories of Extinction
46(1)
Use of the Accessory Plates
47(3)
Sign of Elongation
50(1)
Relief
51(1)
Pleochroism
51(2)
CHAPTER 6: UNIAXIAL OPTICS 53(23)
Optic Sign
53(1)
Crystallographic Considerations
54(1)
Uniaxial Indicatrix
55(3)
Use of the Indicatrix
56(2)
Birefringence and Interference Colors
58(2)
Extinction
60(4)
Tetragonal Minerals
61(1)
Hexagonal Minerals
61(4)
Rhombohedral Cleavage
61(2)
Prismatic and Pinacoidal Cleavage
63(1)
Pleochroism
64(1)
Interference Figure
65(7)
Optic Axis Interference Figure
65(4)
Formation of Isochromes
66(1)
Formation of Isogyres
67(1)
Determining Optic Sign
67(2)
Off-Center Optic Axis Figure
69(1)
Flash Figure
69(3)
Selecting Grains to Give Interference Figures
72(1)
Optic Axis Figure
72(1)
Flash Figure
72(1)
Determining Indices of Refraction
72(4)
Grain Mount
72(2)
Determining nw
72(1)
Determining ne
73(1)
Thin Section
74(1)
Spindle Stage
74(2)
CHAPTER 7: BIAXIAL OPTICS 76(34)
Biaxial Indicatrix
76(3)
Mathematical Relationships
78(1)
Use of the Indicatrix
79(4)
Normal Incidence Parallel to an Indicatrix Axis
81(1)
Normal Incidence Parallel to an Optic Axis
81(1)
Normal Incidence in a Random Direction
82(1)
Inclined Incidence
82(1)
Crystallographic Orientation of Indicatrix Axes
83(1)
Orthorhombic Minerals
83(1)
Monoclinic Minerals
84(1)
Triclinic Minerals
84(1)
Biaxial Interference Figure
84(7)
Acute Bisectrix Figure
85(3)
Formation of Isochromes
85(1)
Vibration Directions and Formation of Isogyres
86(2)
Centered Optic Axis Figure
88(1)
Obtuse Bisectrix Figure
89(1)
Optic Normal Figure
89(1)
Off-Center Figures
90(1)
Determining Optic Sign
91(4)
Acute Bisectrix Figure
91(3)
Obtuse Bisectrix Figure
94
Optic Axis Figure
91(1)
Flash Figures
91(4)
Determining 2V
95(4)
2V Versus 2E
95(1)
Mallard's Method
95(1)
Tobi's Method
96(1)
Kamb's Method
97(1)
Wright Method
98(1)
Selecting Grains to Produce Interference Figures
99(2)
Pleochroism
101(1)
Extinction
101(2)
Orthorhombic Minerals
101(1)
Monoclinic Minerals
102(1)
Triclinic Minerals
103(1)
Sign of Elongation
103(1)
Indices of Refraction
104(2)
Grain Mount
104(1)
Spindle Stage
104(2)
Dispersion in Biaxial Minerals
106(4)
Orthorhombic Minerals
106(1)
Monoclinic Minerals
107(1)
Triclinic Minerals
108(2)
CHAPTER 8: REFLECTED LIGHT OPTICS 110(12)
Physical Properties Observed with Polished Sections
110(4)
Crystal Form and Habit
110(1)
Hardness
111(3)
Observation in Plane Polarized Light
114(4)
Reflectance
114(1)
Bireflectance
115(2)
Measurement of Reflectance and Bireflectance
116(1)
Color and Pleochroism
117(1)
Isotropic Minerals
117(1)
Anisotropic Minerals
117(1)
Observations with Crossed Polarizers
118(2)
Polarization Colors
118(1)
Isotropic Minerals
118(1)
Anisotropic Minerals
118(1)
Internal Reflections
119(1)
Observations Related to Conoscopic Illumination
120(1)
Practical Considerations
120(2)
CHAPTER 9: IDENTIFICATION OFMINERALS 122(6)
Descriptive Features
122(1)
Cleavage
122(1)
Twinning
123(1)
Alteration
123(1)
Association
123(1)
Tactics for Mineral Identification
123(3)
Thin Section Identification
123(1)
Grain Mount Identification
124(1)
Polished Section Identification
125(1)
Use of the Identification Tables
125(1)
Nonminerals
126(1)
Problems in Paradise
126(2)
Inconsistencies in Crystallographic Settings
127(1)
Poor Data
127(1)
CHAPTER 10: FRAMEWORK SILICATES 128(36)
Silica Group
128(6)
Quartz
128(1)
Chalcedony
128(3)
Tridymite
131(1)
Cristobalite
132(1)
Opal
132(1)
Volcanic Glass
133(1)
Feldspars
134(17)
Plagioclase
135(9)
Thin Section
138(4)
Grain Mount
142(2)
Alkali Feldspars
144(4)
Sanidine
148(1)
Orthoclase
149(1)
Microcline
150(1)
Adularia
150(1)
Anorthoclase
151(1)
Feldspathoids
151(4)
Nepheline
151(2)
Sodalite Group
153(1)
Leucite
153(1)
Cancrinite-Vishnevite
154(1)
Zeolites
155(7)
Analcime (Analcite)
156(1)
Natrolite
157(1)
Thomsonite
158(1)
Stilbite
159(1)
Chabazite
159(1)
Heulandite
160(1)
Laumontite
161(1)
Other Minerals and Mineraloids
162(2)
Scapolite
162(2)
CHAPTER 11: SHEET SILICATES 164(20)
TO Layer Silicates
166(1)
Kaolinite
166(1)
Serpentine
166(1)
TOT Layer Silicates
167(2)
Pyrophyllite
167(1)
Talc
168(1)
TOT + Interlayer Cation Layer Silicates
169(7)
Muscovite
169(2)
Biotite
171(2)
Lepidolite
173(1)
Glauconite
174(1)
Margarite
175(1)
Clintonite
175(1)
TOT + O Layer Silicates
176(2)
Chlorite
176(2)
Clay Minerals
178(2)
Other Sheet Silicates
180(4)
Stilpnomelane
180(1)
Prehnite
181(1)
Apophyllite
182(2)
CHAPTER 12: CHAIN SILICATES 184(39)
Pyroxenes
185(14)
Enstatite-Ferrosilite (Orthopyroxene)
187(3)
Pigeonite
190(2)
Calcic Clinopyroxene (Augite)
192(2)
Aegirine, Aegirine-Augite
194(2)
Omphacite
196(1)
Jadeite
197(1)
Spodumene
198(1)
Amphiboles
199(18)
Anthophyllite
202(2)
Gedrite
204(1)
Cummingtonite-Grunerite
205(2)
Tremolite-Actinolite-Ferro-Actinolite
207(1)
Hornblende
208(2)
Oxyhornblende
210(1)
Kaersutite
211(1)
Richterite
212(1)
Arfvedsonite and Eckermannite
213(2)
Glaucophane-Riebeckite Series
215(2)
Pyroxenoids
217(3)
Wollastonite
217(1)
Rhodonite
218(1)
Pectolite
219(1)
Other Chain Silicates
220(3)
Sapphirine
220(3)
CHAPTER 13: DISILICATES AND RING SILICATES 223(18)
Disilicates
223(11)
Lawsonite
223(1)
Pumpellyite
224(2)
Melilite
226(1)
Vesuvianite (Idocrase)
227(1)
Epidote Group
227(1)
Zoisite
228(1)
Clinozoisite-Epidote
229(3)
Piemontite
232(1)
Allanite
233(1)
Ring Silicates
234(7)
Tourmaline
234(2)
Axinite
236(1)
Beryl
237(1)
Cordierite
238(3)
CHAPTER 14: ORTHOSILICATES 241(21)
Olivine
241(2)
Monticellite
243(1)
Humite Group
244(2)
Garnet Group
246(2)
Andalusite
248(2)
Sillimanite
250(2)
Kyanite
252(1)
Staurolite
253(2)
Chloritoid
255(1)
Titanite (Sphene)
256(1)
Topaz
257(2)
Zircon
259(1)
Dumortierite
260(2)
CHAPTER 15: CARBONATES, BORATES, SULFATES, AND PHOSPHATES 262(23)
Carbonates
262(11)
Calcite
264(2)
Magnesite
266(1)
Sidente
266(1)
Rhodochrosite
267(1)
Dolomite-Ankerite
268(2)
Aragonite
270(1)
Strontianite
271(1)
Witherite
272(1)
Borates
273(2)
Borax
273(2)
Colemanite
275(1)
Sulfates
275(5)
Barite
275(1)
Celestine (Celestite)
276(1)
Gypsum
277(1)
Anhydrite
278(1)
Alunite
279(1)
Phosphates
280(5)
Apatite
280(2)
Monazite
282(1)
Xenotime
283(2)
CHAPTER 16: NATIVE ELEMENTS, SULFIDES, HALIDES, OXIDES, AND HYDROXIDES 285(31)
Native Elements
285(3)
Sulfur
285(1)
Graphite
286(1)
Gold
286(1)
Silver
287(1)
Copper
287(1)
Sufides and Related Minerals
288(9)
Pyrite
293(1)
Marcasite
294(1)
Sphalerite
295(1)
Galena
296(1)
Pyrrhotite
296(1)
Chalcopyrite
297(1)
Halides
297(2)
Halite
297(1)
Sylvite
298(1)
Fluorite
299(1)
Oxides
299(8)
Periclase
299(1)
Cuprite
300(1)
Rutile
300(1)
Anatase
301(1)
Cassiterite
302(1)
Corundum
303(1)
Hematite
304(1)
Ilmenite
305(1)
Perovskite
306(1)
The Spinel Group
307(2)
Spinel Series
307(1)
Magnetite
308(1)
Chromite
309(1)
Hydroxides
309(7)
Brucite
309(1)
Gibbsite
310(1)
Diaspore
311(1)
Böhmite (Boehmite)
312(1)
Goethite
313(1)
Lepidocrocite
314(1)
Limonite
315(1)
Appendix A: Sample Preparation 316(3)
Grain Mount
316(1)
Thin Section
316(1)
Spindle Stage
317(1)
Polished Section
317(2)
Appendix B: Identification Tables 319(16)
Appendix C: Mineral Associations 335(4)
Mineral Index 339(4)
Subject Index 343


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