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Introduction to Optical Mineralogy,9780199846276
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Introduction to Optical Mineralogy

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780199846276

ISBN10:
0199846278
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/7/2012
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $157.81

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Summary

Introduction to Optical Mineralogy provides comprehensive coverage of the optical properties of minerals. It describes in detail more that 125 rock-forming minerals and a selection of common ore minerals. Revised chapters on optical theory discuss the petrographic microscope, the nature andproperties of light, the behavior of light in isotropic and anisotropic materials, and uniaxial and biaxial anisotropic optics. It is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in optical mineralogy, this accessible text is also an essential resource for petrology/petrographycourses.

Author Biography

William D. Nesse is Professor Emeritus of Geology in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado, where he has taught for more than 30 years.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Lightp. 1
The Nature of Lightp. 1
Electromagnetic Radiationp. 1
Phasep. 3
The Perception of Colorp. 5
Interaction of Light and Matterp. 5
Transmitted Lightp. 5
Velocityp. 5
Index of Refractionp. 6
Reflectionp. 7
Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflectionp. 8
Optical Classp. 8
Optical Indicatrixp. 9
Dispersionp. 9
Light Absorption and Colorp. 11
Polarized Lightp. 12
Polarization by Double Refractionp. 13
Polarization by Reflectionp. 14
Polarization by Scatteringp. 15
The Petrographic Microscopep. 16
Direction Conventionsp. 16
Samplesp. 16
Illuminatorp. 18
Substage Assemblyp. 18
Microscope Stagep. 19
Objective Lensesp. 19
Epi-Illuminatorp. 20
Upper Polarizerp. 21
Bertrand Lensp. 21
Ocularp. 21
Focusing Mechanismp. 22
Accessoriesp. 22
Additional Equipmentp. 22
General Care of the Microscopep. 23
Adjustment of the Microscopep. 24
Adjusting the Ocularsp. 24
Focusingp. 24
Adjusting the Illuminatorp. 24
Centering the Objectivesp. 24
Adjusting the Substagep. 25
Alignment of Polarizersp. 25
General Considerationsp. 26
Refractometryp. 27
Reliefp. 28
Becke Line Methodp. 28
Dispersion Effectsp. 30
Oblique Illumination Methodp. 32
Practical Considerationsp. 34
Accuracy of the Immersion Methodp. 34
Determining Indices of Refraction in Thin Sectionp. 35
Optics of Isotropic Materialsp. 36
Isotropic Indicatrixp. 36
Distinguishing Between Isotropic and Anisotropic Mineralsp. 37
Identification of Isotropic Mineralsp. 38
Grain Mountp. 38
Thin Sectionp. 38
Optics of Anisotropic Minerals: Introductionp. 40
Interference Phenomenap. 41
Monochromatic Illuminationp. 41
Retardationp. 41
Birefringencep. 42
Interference of the Two Raysp. 42
Polychromatic Illuminationp. 45
Orders of Interference Colorsp. 46
Anomalous Interference Colorsp. 46
Determining Thickness of a Samplep. 47
Thin Sectionp. 47
Grain Mountp. 47
Determining Birefringence from the Color Chartp. 48
Thin Sectionp. 48
Grain Mountp. 49
Recognizing the Different Orders of Interference Colorsp. 49
Extinctionp. 49
Categories of Extinctionp. 50
Use of the Accessory Platesp. 51
Sign of Elongationp. 54
Reliefp. 54
Pleochroismp. 55
Uniaxial Opticsp. 56
Optic Signp. 57
Crystallographic Considerationsp. 57
Uniaxial Indicatrixp. 58
Use of the Indicatrixp. 59
Birefringence and Interference Colorsp. 61
Extinctiónp. 63
Tetragonal Mineralsp. 64
Hexagonal Mineralsp. 67
Rhombohedral Cleavagep. 67
Prismatic and Pinacoidal Cleavagep. 68
Pleochroismp. 68
Interference Figurep. 69
Optic Axis Interference Figurep. 69
Formation of Isochromesp. 69
Formation of Isogyresp. 70
Determining Optic Signp. 71
Off-Center Optic Axis Figurep. 72
Flash Figurep. 73
Selecting Grains to Give Interference Figuresp. 76
Optic Axis Figurep. 76
Flash Figurep. 76
Determining Indices of Refractionp. 76
Grain Mountp. 76
Determining n¿p. 76
Determining np. 77
Thin Sectionp. 78
Spindle Stagep. 78
Biaxial Opticsp. 80
Biaxial Indicatrixp. 80
Mathematical Relationshipsp. 82
Use of the Indicatrixp. 83
Normal Incidence Parallel to an Indicatrix Axisp. 85
Normal Incidence Parallel to an Optic Axisp. 85
Normal Incidence In a Random Directionp. 86
Inclined Incidencep. 86
Crystallographic Orientation of Indicatrix Axesp. 88
Orthorhombic Minteralsp. 88
Monoclininc Mineralsp. 88
Triclinic Mineralsp. 88
Biaxial Interference Figurep. 88
Acute Bisectrix Figurep. 88
Formation of Isochromesp. 90
Vibration Directions and Formation of Isogyresp. 90
Centered Optic Axis Figurep. 92
Obtuse Bisectrix Figurep. 94
Optic Normal Figurep. 94
Off-Center Figuresp. 95
Selecting Grains to Produce Interference Figuresp. 97
Determining Optic Signp. 98
Acute Bisectrix Figurep. 98
Obtuse Bisectrix Figurep. 99
Optic Axis Figurep. 100
Flash Figuresp. 100
Determining 2Vp. 100
2V Versus 2Ep. 100
Mallard's Methodp. 101
Tobi's Methodp. 101
Kamb's Methodp. 102
Wright Methodp. 104
Pleochroismp. 106
Extinctionp. 106
Orthorhombic Mineralsp. 106
Monoclinic Mineralsp. 107
Triclinic Mineralsp. 109
Sign of Elongationp. 109
Indices of Refractionp. 110
Grain Mountp. 110
Spindle Stagep. 110
Dispersion in Biaxial Mineralsp. 112
Orthorhombic Mineralsp. 112
Monoclinic Mineralsp. 113
Triclinic Mineralsp. 114
Reflected Light Opticsp. 115
Physical Properties Observed with Polished Sectionsp. 115
Crystal Form and Habitp. 115
Hardnessp. 116
Observation in Plane Polarized Lightp. 119
Reflectancep. 119
Bireflectancep. 120
Measurement of Reflectance and Bireflectancep. 122
Color and Pleochroismp. 122
Isotropic Mineralsp. 122
Anisotropic Mineralsp. 122
Observations with Crossed Polarizersp. 123
Polarization Colorsp. 123
Isotropic Mineralsp. 123
Anisotropic Mineralsp. 123
Internal Reflectionp. 125
Observations Related to Conoscopic Illuminationp. 125
Practical Considerationsp. 125
Identification of Mineralsp. 127
Descriptive Featuresp. 127
Cleavagep. 128
Twinningp. 128
Alterationp. 128
Associationp. 128
Tactics for Mineral Identificationp. 128
Thin Section Identificationp. 128
Grain Mount Identificationp. 129
Polished Section Identificationp. 130
Use of the Identification Tablesp. 130
Nonmineralsp. 131
Problems in Paradisep. 132
Inconsistencies in Crystallographic Settingsp. 132
Poor Datap. 132
Framework Silicatesp. 134
Silica Groupp. 134
Quartzp. 134
Chalcedonyp. 135
Tridymitep. 137
Cristobalitep. 138
Opalp. 138
Volcanic Glassp. 139
Feldsparsp. 140
Plagioclasep. 141
Thin Sectionp. 144
Grain Mountp. 148
Alkali Feldsparsp. 150
Sanidinep. 154
Orthodasep. 155
Microdinep. 156
Adulariap. 156
Anorthoclasep. 157
Feldspathoidsp. 157
Nephelinep. 157
Sodalite Groupp. 159
Leucitep. 159
Cancrinite-Vishnevitep. 160
Zeolitesp. 161
Analcime (Analcite)p. 162
Natrolitep. 164
Thomsonitep. 165
Stilbitep. 166
Chabazitep. 166
Heulanditep. 167
Laumontitep. 168
Other Framework Silicatesp. 169
Scapolitep. 169
Sheet Silicatesp. 171
TO Layer Silicatesp. 173
Kaolinitep. 173
Serpentinep. 173
TOT Layer Silicatesp. 174
Pyrophyllitep. 174
Talcp. 175
TOT + Interlayer Cation Layer Silicatesp. 176
Muscovitep. 176
Biotitep. 178
Lepidolitep. 180
Glauconitep. 181
Margaritep. 182
Clintonitep. 182
TOT + O Layer Silicatesp. 183
Chloritep. 183
Clay Mineralsp. 185
Other Sheet Silicatesp. 187
Stilpnomelanep. 187
Prehnitep. 188
Apophyllitep. 189
Chain Silicatesp. 191
Pyroxenesp. 191
Enstatite-Ferrosilite (Orthopyroxene)p. 194
Pigeonitep. 197
Calcic Clinopyroxene (Augite)p. 199
Aegirine, Aegirine-Augitep. 201
Omphacitep. 203
Jadeitep. 204
Spodumenep. 205
Amphibolesp. 206
Anthophyllitep. 209
Gedritep. 211
Cummingtonite-Gruneritep. 212
Tremolite-Actinolite-Ferro-actinolitep. 214
Hornblendep. 215
"Oxyhornblende"p. 217
Kaersutitep. 218
Richteritep. 219
Arfvedsonite and Eckermannitep. 220
Glaucophane-Riebedtite Seriesp. 222
Pyroxenoidsp. 224
Wollastonitep. 224
Rhodonitep. 225
Pectolitep. 226
Other Chain Silicatesp. 227
Sapphirinep. 227
Disilicates and Ring Silicatesp. 230
Disilicatesp. 230
Lawsonitep. 230
Pumpellyitep. 231
Melilitep. 233
Vesuvianite (Idocrase)p. 234
Epidote Groupp. 234
Zoisitep. 235
Clinozoisite-Epidotep. 236
Piemontitep. 239
Allanitep. 240
Ring Silicatesp. 241
Tourmalinep. 241
Axinitep. 243
Berylp. 244
Cordieritep. 245
Orthosilicatesp. 248
Olivinep. 248
Monticellitep. 250
Hurnite Groupp. 251
Garnet Groupp. 253
Andalusitep. 255
Sillimanitep. 257
Kyanitep. 259
Staurolitep. 260
Chloritoidp. 262
Titanite (Sphene)p. 263
Topazp. 264
Zirconp. 266
Dumortieritep. 267
Carbonates, Borates, Sulfates, and Phosphatesp. 269
Carbonatesp. 269
Calritep. 271
Magnesitep. 272
Sideritep. 273
Rhodochrositep. 274
Dolomite-Ankeritep. 275
Aragonitep. 277
Strontianitep. 278
Witheritep. 279
Malachitep. 280
Azuritep. 280
Boratesp. 281
Boraxp. 281
Colemanitep. 282
Sulfatesp. 284
Baritep. 284
Celestine (Celestite)p. 285
Gypsump. 286
Anhydritep. 287
Alunitep. 288
Phosphatesp. 289
Apatitep. 289
Monazitep. 292
Xenotimep. 293
Native Elements, Sulfides, Halides, Oxides, and Hydroxidesp. 295
Native Elementsp. 295
Sulfurp. 295
Graphitep. 296
Goldp. 296
Silverp. 297
Copperp. 297
Sulfides and Related Mineralsp. 298
Pyritep. 303
Marcasitep. 305
Sphaleritep. 305
Galenap. 306
Pyrrhotitep. 307
Chakopyritep. 307
Halidesp. 308
Halitep. 308
Sylvitep. 309
Fluoritep. 309
Oxidesp. 310
Periclasep. 310
Cupritep. 310
Rutilep. 311
Anatasep. 312
Cassiteritep. 313
Corundump. 314
Hematitep. 315
Ilmenitep. 316
Perovskitep. 317
The Spinel Groupp. 318
Spinel Seriesp. 318
Magnetitep. 319
Chromitep. 320
Chrysoberylp. 321
Hydroxidesp. 321
Brucitep. 321
Gibbsitep. 322
Diasporep. 323
Böhmite (Boehmite)p. 324
Goethitep. 325
Lepidocrocitep. 326
Limonitep. 327
Sample Preparationp. 329
Grain Mountp. 329
Thin Sectionp. 329
Spindle Stagep. 330
Polished Sectionp. 331
Identification Tablesp. 333
Mineral Associationsp. 349
Mineral Indexp. 353
Subject Indexp. 357
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.


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