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Introduction to Optics,9780131499331
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Introduction to Optics

by ; ;
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780131499331

ISBN10:
0131499335
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
4/7/2006
Publisher(s):
Addison-Wesley
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Summary

Comprehensive and fully updated, this reader-friendly introduction to optics provides clear, concise derivations and explanations of optical phenomena, avoiding extraneous material. Updates material related to laser systems. Updated chapters on Optical Interferometery, Fiber Optics, and Holography. Introduces a broad range of new applications throughout, including liquid crystal displays, CCD's, CD and DVD Technology. Features a more intensive exploration of communication systems than in previous editions. Provides approximately 50 new problems and 50 new or revised figures. A general reference for optical industry practitioners.

Table of Contents

Physical Constants xii
Preface xiii
Part I
Nature of Light
1(15)
Introduction
1(1)
A Brief History
2(2)
Particles and Photons
4(2)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
6(5)
Radiometry
11(5)
Problems
15(1)
Geometrical Optics
16(34)
Introduction
16(1)
Huygens' Principle
17(3)
Fermat's Principle
20(2)
Principle of Reversibility
22(1)
Reflection in Plane Mirrors
22(1)
Refraction Through Plane Surfaces
23(2)
Imaging by an Optical System
25(2)
Reflection at a Spherical Surface
27(5)
Refraction at a Spherical Surface
32(3)
Thin Lenses
35(4)
Vergence and Refractive Power
39(3)
Newtonian Equation for the Thin Lens
42(1)
Cylindrical Lenses
42(8)
Problems
46(4)
Optical Instrumentation
50(44)
Introduction
50(1)
Stops, Pupils, and Windows
50(8)
A Brief Look at Aberrations
58(2)
Prisms
60(9)
The Camera
69(6)
Simple Magnifiers and Eyepieces
75(4)
Microscopes
79(3)
Telescopes
82(12)
Problems
89(5)
Wave Equations
94(19)
Introduction
94(1)
One-Dimensional Wave Equation
94(2)
Harmonic Waves
96(3)
Complex Numbers
99(1)
Harmonic Waves as Complex Functions
100(1)
Plane Waves
100(2)
Spherical Waves
102(1)
Other Harmonic Waveforms
103(1)
Electromagnetic Waves
104(4)
Light Polarization
108(2)
Doppler Effect
110(3)
Problems
111(2)
Superposition of Waves
113(18)
Introduction
113(1)
Superposition Principle
113(1)
Superposition of Waves of the Same Frequency
114(5)
Random and Coherent Sources
119(1)
Standing Waves
120(3)
The Beat Phenomenon
123(2)
Phase and Group Velocities
125(6)
Problems
129(2)
Properties of Lasers
131(32)
Introduction
131(1)
Energy Quantization in Light and Matter
132(3)
Thermal Equilibrium and Blackbody Radiation
135(3)
Nonlaser Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation
138(5)
Einstein's Theory of Light-Matter Interaction
143(3)
Essential Elements of a Laser
146(3)
Simplified Description of Laser Operation
149(4)
Characteristics of Laser Light
153(5)
Laser Types and Parameters
158(5)
Problems
161(2)
Interference of Light
163(29)
Introduction
163(1)
Two-Beam Interference
163(6)
Young's Double-Slit Experiment
169(4)
Double-Slit Interference with Virtual Sources
173(2)
Interference in Dielectric Films
175(5)
Fringes of Equal Thickness
180(1)
Newton's Rings
181(1)
Film-Thickness Measurement by Interference
182(2)
Stokes Relations
184(1)
Multiple-Beam Interference in a Parallel Plate
185(7)
Problems
189(3)
Optical Interferometry
192(32)
Introduction
192(1)
The Michelson Interferometer
193(3)
Applications of the Michelson Interferometer
196(2)
Variations of the Michelson Interferometer
198(1)
The Fabry-Perot Interferometer
199(2)
Fabry-Perot Transmission: The Airy Function
201(5)
Scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer
206(5)
Variable-Input-Frequency Fabry-Perot Interferometers
211(2)
Lasers and the Fabry-Perot Cavity
213(3)
Fabry-Perot Figures of Merit
216(1)
Gravitational Wave Detectors
217(7)
Problems
220(4)
Coherence
224(19)
Introduction
224(1)
Fourier Analysis
224(4)
Fourier Analysis of a Finite Harmonic Wave Train
228(2)
Temporal Coherence and Line Width
230(1)
Partial Coherence
231(6)
Spatial Coherence
237(1)
Spatial Coherence Width
238(5)
Problems
241(2)
Fiber Optics
243(24)
Introduction
243(1)
Applications
243(1)
Communications System Overview
244(2)
Bandwidth and Data Rate
246(1)
Optics of Propagation
246(3)
Allowed Modes
249(2)
Attenuation
251(2)
Distortion
253(7)
High-Bit-Rate Optical-Fiber Communications
260(7)
Problems
264(3)
Fraunhofer Diffraction
267(25)
Introduction
267(1)
Diffraction from a Single Slit
268(5)
Beam Spreading
273(1)
Rectangular and Circular Apertures
274(5)
Resolution
279(2)
Double-Slit Diffraction
281(3)
Diffraction from Many Slits
284(8)
Problems
289(3)
The Diffraction Grating
292(16)
Introduction
292(1)
The Grating Equation
292(1)
Free Spectral Range of a Grating
293(2)
Dispersion of a Grating
295(1)
Resolution of a Grating
296(2)
Types of Gratings
298(1)
Blazed Gratings
299(2)
Grating Replicas
301(1)
Interference Gratings
302(1)
Grating Instruments
303(5)
Problems
305(3)
Fresnel Diffraction
308(25)
Introduction
308(1)
Fresnel-Kirchhoff Diffraction Integral
308(3)
Criterion for Fresnel Diffraction
311(1)
The Obliquity Factor
312(1)
Fresnel Diffraction from Circular Apertures
312(4)
Phase Shift of the Diffracted Light
316(1)
The Fresnel Zone Plate
316(2)
Fresnel Diffraction from Apertures with Rectangular Symmetry
318(2)
The Cornu Spiral
320(4)
Applications of the Cornu Spiral
324(6)
Babinet's Principle
330(3)
Problems
331(2)
Matrix Treatment of Polarization
333(17)
Introduction
333(1)
Mathematical Representation of Polarized Light: Jones Vectors
334(7)
Mathematical Representation of Polarizers: Jones Matrices
341(9)
Problems
347(3)
Production of Polarized Light
350(22)
Introduction
350(1)
Dichroism: Polarization by Selective Absorption
350(3)
Polarization by Reflection from Dielectric Surfaces
353(2)
Polarization by Scattering
355(2)
Birefringence: Polarization with Two Refractive Indices
357(4)
Double Refraction
361(2)
Optical Activity
363(4)
Photoelasticity
367(5)
Problems
369(3)
Part II
Holography
372(14)
Introduction
372(1)
Conventional Versus Holographic Photography
372(1)
Hologram of a Point Source
373(2)
Hologram of an Extended Object
375(4)
Hologram Properties
379(1)
White-Light (Rainbow) Holograms
379(2)
Other Applications of Holography
381(5)
Problems
384(2)
Optical Detectors and Displays
386(10)
Introduction
386(1)
Thermal Detectors of Radiation
386(1)
Quantum Detectors of Radiation
387(2)
Image Detection
389(1)
Optical Detectors: Noise and Sensitivity
390(1)
Optical Displays
391(5)
Problems
394(2)
Matrix Methods in Paraxial Optics
396(23)
Introduction
396(1)
The Thick Lens
396(3)
The Matrix Method
399(1)
The Translation Matrix
400(1)
The Refraction Matrix
400(1)
The Reflection Matrix
401(1)
Thick-Lens and Thin-Lens Matrices
402(2)
System Ray-Transfer Matrix
404(2)
Significance of System Matrix Elements
406(2)
Location of Cardinal Points for an Optical System
408(2)
Examples Using the System Matrix and Cardinal Points
410(2)
Ray Tracing
412(7)
Problems
416(3)
Optics of the Eye
419(19)
Introduction
419(1)
Biological Structure of the Eye
419(2)
Photometry
421(3)
Optical Representation of the Eye
424(1)
Functions of the Eye
425(3)
Vision Correction with External Lenses
428(6)
Surgical Vision Correction
434(4)
Problems
436(2)
Aberration Theory
438(20)
Introduction
438(1)
Ray and Wave Aberrations
439(1)
Third-Order Treatment of Refraction at a Spherical Interface
440(4)
Spherical Aberration
444(3)
Coma
447(2)
Astigmatism and Curvature of Field
449(2)
Distortion
451(1)
Chromatic Aberration
451(7)
Problems
456(2)
Fourier Optics
458(18)
Introduction
458(1)
Optical Data Imaging and Processing
459(12)
Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy
471(5)
Problems
474(2)
Theory of Multilayer Films
476(15)
Introduction
476(1)
Transfer Matrix
477(4)
Reflectance at Normal Incidence
481(2)
Two-Layer Antireflecting Films
483(3)
Three-Layer Antireflecting Films
486(1)
High-Reflectance Layers
486(5)
Problems
489(2)
Fresnel Equations
491(19)
Introduction
491(1)
The Fresnel Equations
491(6)
External and Internal Reflections
497(2)
Phase Changes on Reflection
499(3)
Conservation of Energy
502(2)
Evanescent Waves
504(2)
Complex Refractive Index
506(1)
Reflection from Metals
507(3)
Problems
508(2)
Nonlinear Optics and the Modulation of Light
510(25)
Introduction
510(1)
The Nonlinear Medium
511(2)
Second Harmonic Generation and Frequency Mixing
513(4)
Electro-optic Effects
517(7)
The Faraday Effect
524(2)
The Acousto-optic Effect
526(3)
Optical Phase Conjugation
529(2)
Optical Nonlinearities in Fibers
531(4)
Problems
533(2)
Optical Properties of Materials
535(14)
Introduction
535(1)
Polarization of a Dielectric Medium
535(4)
Propagation of Light Waves in a Dielectric
539(5)
Conduction Current in a Metal
544(1)
Propagation of Light Waves in a Metal
544(1)
Skin Depth
545(1)
Plasma Frequency
546(3)
Problems
548(1)
Laser Operation
549(33)
Introduction
549(1)
Rate Equations
549(4)
Absorption
553(4)
Gain Media
557(4)
Steady-State Laser Output
561(3)
Homogeneous Broadening
564(3)
Inhomogeneous Broadening
567(2)
Time-Dependent Phenomena
569(2)
Pulsed Operation
571(4)
Some Important Laser Systems
575(2)
Diode Lasers
577(5)
Problems
579(3)
Characteristics of Laser Beams
582(25)
Introduction
582(1)
Three-Dimensional Wave Equation and Electromagnetic Waves
582(1)
Gaussian Beams
583(3)
Spot Size and Radius of Curvature of a Gaussian Beam
586(1)
Characteristics of Gaussian Beams
587(4)
Modes of Spherical Mirror Cavities
591(2)
Laser Propagation Through Arbitrary Optical Systems
593(7)
Higher-Order Gaussian Beams
600(7)
Problems
605(2)
Selected Modern Applications
607
Introduction
607(1)
Overview of Laser Applications
607(1)
Lasers in Medicine
608(4)
Remote Sensing
612(1)
Ultrashort Pulse Production and Applications
613(2)
Laser Cooling and Trapping
615(2)
Optical Parametric Oscillators
617(3)
Near-Field Microscopy
620
Problems
621
References 1(1)
Answers to Selected Problems 1(1)
Index 1


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