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Introduce your students to philosophy with the most widely used, trusted, and comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary readings available.
Easy to use for both students and instructors, Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings incorporates boldfaced key terms (listed after each reading and defined in the glossary), a "Logical Toolkit," and a guide to writing philosophy papers.
The seventh edition features eleven new readings, including eight by contemporary women philosophers, bringing the total number of essays by women to twelve. It is also accompanied by a robust support package that includes a more extensive test bank, available on the new online Ancillary Resource Center, and expanded self-quizzes for students on the Companion Website.
John Perry is Henry Waldgrave Stuart Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Stanford University and Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of California, Riverside.
Michael Bratman is U.G. and Abbie Birch Durfee Professor in the School of Humanities and Sciences and Professor of Philosophy at Stanford University.
John Martin Fischer is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Riverside.
Table of Contents
*=New to this Edition Preface PART I: PHILOSOPHY Introduction Logical Toolkit Writing Philosophy Papers 1. Bertrand Russell, "The Value of Philosophy" 2. Plato, "Apology: Defence of Socrates" PART II: GOD AND EVIL A. Why Believe? 3. St. Anselm, "The Ontological Argument" 4. St. Thomas Aquinas, "The Existence of God" 5. William Paley, "Natural Theology" 6. Blaise Pascal, "The Wager" B. The Problem of Evil 7. David Hume, "Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion" 8. Gottfried Leibniz, "God, Evil, and the Best of All Possible Worlds" 9. John Perry, "Dialogue on Good, Evil, and the Existence of God" * 10. Marilyn Adams, "Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God" * 11. Stewart Sutherland, "Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God" * 12. Eleonore Stump, "The Mirror of Evil" * 13. Louise Antony, "For the Love of Reason" PART III: KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY A. Descartes and the Problems of Skepticism 14. René Descartes, "Meditations on First Philosophy" 15. Christopher Grau, "Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix" 16. Robert Nozick, "Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations" B. Hume's Problems and Some Solutions 17. David Hume, "Of Scepticism with Regard to the Senses" 18. David Hume, "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding" 19. W. C. Salmon, "The Problem of Induction" PART IV: MINDS, BODIES, AND PERSONS A. The Traditional Problem of Mind and Body 20. Bertrand Russell, "The Argument from Analogy for Other Minds" 21. Gilbert Ryle, "Descartes's Myth" 22. David M. Armstrong, "The Nature of Mind" 23. Paul M. Churchland, "Eliminative Materialism" 24. Frank Jackson, "What Mary Didn't Know" B. Minds, Brains, and Machines 25. A. M. Turing, "Computing Machines and Intelligence" 26. John R. Searle, "Minds, Brains, and Programs" C. Personal Identity 27. John Perry, "A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality" 28. Bernard Williams, "The Self and the Future" 29. Derek Parfit, "Personal Identity" 30. J. David Velleman, "So It Goes" 31. Daniel Dennett, "Where Am I?" D. Freedom, Determinism, and Responsibility 32. Roderick M. Chisholm, "Human Freedom and the Self" 33. Peter van Inwagen, "The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will" 34. David Hume, "Of Liberty and Necessity" 35. Harry G. Frankfurt, "Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility" 36. John Martin Fischer, "Responsiveness and Moral Responsibility" 37. Harry G. Frankfurt, "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person" * 38. Gary Watson," Free Agency" * 39. Susan Wolf, "Sanity and the Metaphysics of Responsibility" PART V: ETHICS AND SOCIETY A. Utilitarianism 40. Jeremy Bentham, "The Principle of Utility" 41. John Stuart Mill, "Utilitarianism" 42. E. F. Carritt, "Criticisms of Utilitarianism" 43. J. J. C. Smart, "Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism" 44. Bernard Williams, "Utilitarianism and Integrity" 45. Peter Singer, "Famine, Affluence, and Morality" B. Kantian Ethics 46. Immanuel Kant, "Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals" 47. J. David Velleman, "A Brief Introduction to Kantian Ethics" 48. Onora O'Neill, "Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems" C. Aristotelian Ethics 49. Aristotle, "Nicomachean Ethics" 50. Rosalind Hursthouse, "Right Action" D. Justice and Equality 51. John Rawls, "A Theory of Justice" 52. Robert Nozick, "Justice and Entitlement" 53. G. A. Cohen, "Where the Action Is: On the Site of Distributive Justice" 54. John Stuart Mill, "The Subjection of Women" * 55. Annette Baier, "The Need for More than Justice" E. Contemporary Moral Problems * 56. Judith Jarvis Thomson, "A Defense of Abortion" * 57. Rosalind Hursthouse, "Thomson's Arguments" 58. Debra Satz, "Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor" 59. Kwame Anthony Appiah, "Racisms" * 60. Linda Martin Alcoff, "Racism and Visible Race" F. Challenges to Morality 61. Plato, "The Republic" 62. David Hume, "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals" 63. David Gauthier, "Morality and Advantage" 64. J. L. Mackie, "The Subjectivity of Values" 65. Gilbert Harmon, "Ethics and Observation" 66. Nicholas L. Sturgeon, "Moral Explanations" PART VI: EXISTENTIAL ISSUES 67. Albert Camus, "The Myth of Sisyphus" 68. Thomas Nagel, "The Absurd" 69. Richard Taylor, "The Meaning of Human Existence" 70. Susan Wolf, "The Meanings of Lives" 71. Thomas Nagel, "Death" 72. Anthony L. Brueckner and John Martin Fischer, "Why Is Death Bad?" * 73. Dan Moller, "Love and Death" PART VII: PUZZLES AND PARADOXES A. Zeno's Paradoxes Achilles and the Tortoise The Racecourse The Argument Against Plurality B. Metaphysical and Epistemological Puzzles and Paradoxes The Paradox of Identity The Paradox of the Heap The Surprise Examination Goodman's New Riddle of Induction C. Puzzles of Rational Choice The Prisoner's Dilemma Newcomb's Problem Kavka's Toxin Puzzle Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer D. Paradoxes of Logic, Set Theory, and Semantics The Paradox of the Liar Other Versions of the Liar Russell's Paradox Grelling's Paradox E. Puzzles of Ethics The Trolley Problem Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others Glossary of Philosophical Terms