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Introduction to Philosophy : Classical and Contemporary Readings,9780195169249

Introduction to Philosophy : Classical and Contemporary Readings

by ; ;
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780195169249

ISBN10:
0195169247
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
9/28/2006
Publisher(s):
Oxford University Press
List Price: $83.14

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Summary

Introduction to Philosophy, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Building on the exceptionally successful tradition of previous editions, this edition for the first time incorporates the insights of a new coeditor, John Martin Fischer, and has been updated and revised to make it more accessible. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the text includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, knowledge and reality, the philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles and paradoxes. It presents seventy substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from the best and most influential works in philosophy, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary material. An extensive glossary of philosophical terms is also included. The fourth edition features fifteen new readings, including work by Albert Camus, Roderick M. Chisholm, Daniel Dennett, Harry G. Frankfurt, William Paley, Derek Parfit, John Perry, Richard Taylor, Peter Van Inwagen, Bernard Williams, and Susan Wolf. Part III, Knowledge and Reality, has been restructured and now includes Plato's Thaetetus, selections by Edmund L. Gettier and Robert Nozick, and an essay by Christopher Grau that explores the philosophical concepts presented in the popular film The Matrix. Two new ethics puzzles--"The Trolley Problem" and "Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others"--are also included. This edition incorporates Study Questions after each reading and is accompanied by an Instructor's CD and a Student Companion Website, both containing helpful resources.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Fourth Edition xi
Preface to the First Edition xiii
Introduction: On the Study of Philosophy 1(6)
PART I PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE
7(68)
The Value of Philosophy
9(3)
Bertrand Russell
The Province of Philosophy
12(9)
J. J. C. Smart
The Absurd
21(7)
Thomas Nagel
Apology: Defence of Socrates
28(15)
Plato
The Myth of Sisyphus
43(2)
Albert Camus
The Meaning of Human Existence
45(17)
Richard Taylor
The Meanings of Lives
62(13)
Susan Wolf
PART II GOD AND EVIL
75(82)
Introduction
75(3)
Why Believe?
The Ontological Argument
78(2)
Saint Anselm
The Existence of God
80(2)
Saint Thomas Aquinas
The Wager
82(4)
Blaise Pascal
Why I Am Not a Theist
86(5)
Bertrand Russell
The Problem of Evil
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion
91(34)
David Hume
God, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds
125(3)
Gottfried Leibniz
Natural Theology
128(5)
William Paley
Dialogue on Good, Evil, and the Existence of God
133(24)
John Perry
PART III KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY
157(118)
Introduction
157(4)
Plato and the Concept of Knowledge
Thaetetus
161(7)
Plato
Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?
168(3)
Edmund L. Gettier
Descartes and the Problems of Skepticism
Meditations on First Philosophy
171(24)
Rene Descartes
Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix
195(7)
Christopher Grau
Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations
202(9)
Robert Nozick
Hume's Problems and Some Solutions
Of Scepticism with Regard to the Senses
211(14)
David Hume
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
225(26)
David Hume
The Problem of Induction
251(24)
W. C. Salmon
PART IV MINDS, BODIES, AND PERSONS
275(206)
Introduction
275(10)
The Traditional Problem of Mind and Body
The Argument from Analogy for Other Minds
285(2)
Bertrand Russell
Descartes's Myth
287(8)
Gilbert Ryle
The Nature of Mind
295(7)
David M. Armstrong
Mad Pain and Martian Pain
302(6)
David Lewis
Intentional Systems
308(13)
Daniel Dennett
Eliminative Materialism
321(5)
Paul M. Churchland
Minds, Brains, and Machines
Turing Machines
326(2)
Hilary Putnam
Computing Machinery and Intelligence
328(13)
A. M. Turing
Minds, Brains, and Programs
341(13)
John R. Searle
Consciousness
What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
354(9)
Thomas Nagel
What Mary Didn't Know
363(3)
Frank Jackson
Knowing What It's Like
366(2)
David Lewis
Personal Identity
A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality
368(21)
John Perry
The Self and the Future
389(10)
Bernard Williams
Personal Identity
399(13)
Derek Parfit
Where Am I?
412(9)
Daniel Dennett
Freedom, Determinism, and Responsibility
Human Freedom and the Self
421(7)
Roderick M. Chisholm
The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will
428(12)
Peter van Inwagen
Of Liberty and Necessity
440(11)
David Hume
Freedom and Determinism
451(13)
Richard Taylor
Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility
464(6)
Harry G. Frankfurt
Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
470(11)
Harry G. Frankfurt
PART V ETHICS AND SOCIETY
481(300)
Introduction
481(8)
Utilitarianism
The Principle of Utility
489(3)
Jeremy Bentham
Utilitarianism
492(17)
John Stuart Mill
Criticisms of Utilitarianism
509(2)
E. F. Carritt
Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism
511(8)
J. J. C. Smart
Utilitarianism and Integrity
519(8)
Bernard Williams
Famine, Affluence, and Morality
527(9)
Peter Singer
Kantian Ethics
Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals
536(17)
Immanuel Kant
Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems
553(6)
Onora O'Neill
War and Massacre
559(13)
Thomas Nagel
Aristotelian Ethics
Nicomachean Ethics
572(16)
Aristotle
Aristotle on Eudaimonia
588(4)
Thomas Nagel
Virtue Theory and Abortion
592(15)
Rosalind Hursthouse
Justice and Equality
A Theory of Justice
607(13)
John Rawls
Justice and Entitlement
620(8)
Robert Nozick
Where the Action Is: On the Site of Distributive Justice
628(16)
G. A. Cohen
The Subjection of Women
644(5)
John Stuart Mill
Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor
649(14)
Debra Satz
Racisms
663(11)
Appiah Kwame Anthony
Challenges to Morality
Morality and Self-Interest
674(1)
The Republic
674(37)
Plato
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals
711(24)
David Hume
Morality and Advantage
735(8)
David Gauthier
The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution
743(6)
J. L. Mackie
Subjectivism, Relativism, and Skepticism
749(1)
The Subjectivity of Values
749(12)
J. L. Mackie
Ethics and Observation
761(4)
Gilbert Harman
Moral Explanations
765(16)
Nicholas L. Sturgeon
PART VI PUZZLES AND PARADOXES
781(14)
Introduction
781(1)
Zeno's Paradoxes
Achilles and the Tortoise
782(1)
The Racecourse
783(1)
The Argument Against Plurality
783(1)
Metaphysical and Epistemological Puzzles and Paradoxes
The Paradox of Identity
784(1)
The Paradox of the Heap
785(1)
The Surprise Examination
786(1)
Goodman's New Riddle of Induction
786(2)
Puzzles of Rational Choice
The Prisoner's Dilemma
788(1)
Newcomb's Problem
788(1)
Kavka's Toxin Puzzle
789(1)
Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer
790(1)
Paradoxes of Logic, Set Theory, and Semantics
The Paradox of the Liar
791(1)
Other Versions of the Liar
791(1)
Russell's Paradox
792(1)
Grelling's Paradox
792(1)
Puzzles of Ethics
The Trolley Problem
793(1)
Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others
794(1)
Glossary of Philosophical Terms 795


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