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Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Fourth Edition, is a highly acclaimed topically organized anthology featuring eighty-four selections that cover five major areas of philosophy--theory of knowledge, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, freedom and determinism, and moral philosophy. Louis P. Pojman and new coeditor James Fieser enhance the text's topical organization by presenting opposing articles on each issue so that students can better understand different perspectives. Offering a unique feature for a collection of this depth, the editors also include accessible introductions to each part, subsection, and individual reading, providing context for the essays and summarizing their key themes. Beginning with the opening section, "What Is Philosophy?", the book focuses on a compelling sampling of classical material--including selections from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. It also incorporates some of philosophy's best contemporary work, offering articles by Harry Frankfurt, Richard Taylor, John Searle, Thomas Nagel, and others. The volume is enriched by helpful pedagogical features including "Questions for Further Reflection" after each selection; "Suggestions for Further Reading" at the end of the book; a glossary; and two appendices--"How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper" and "A Little Bit of Logic." The fourth edition includes the complete text of Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy and nine new selections: * Sextus Empiricus: "Skepticism and Tranquility" * Lorraine Code: "A Feminist Epistemology?" * Samuel Clarke and David Hume: "The Causal Argument for God" * Voltaire: "The Best of All Possible Worlds?" * Rene Descartes: "Interactive Dualism" * Anne Conway: "Mind and Body as a Continuum" * Epictetus: "Stoic Resignation to Fate" * David Hume: "Morality Not Derived from Reason" * Alfred Jules Ayer: "Emotivism and Prescriptivism"
Table of Contents
|What is Philosophy?|
|Philosophy as the Love of Truth versus Enthusiasm|
|The Value of Philosophy|
|Theory of Knowledge|
|Classical Theories on Certainty and the Sources of Knowledge|
|The Theory of Forms and Doctrine of Recollection|
|Skepticism and Tranquility|
|Meditations on First Philosophy (complete)|
|Knowledge through Experience|
|An Idealist Theory of Knowledge|
|Experience and the Limits of Human Reason|
|The Copernican Revolution in Knowledge|
|Contemporary Theories on the Limits of Knowledge|
|Science and Myth|
|Two Types of Knowledge|
|Epistemology without a Knowing Subject|
|Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity|
|Postmodernism and Truth|
|A Feminist Epistemology?|
|Philosophy of Religion|
|A Traditional Arguments for the Existence of God|
|The Five Ways|
|The Causal Argument for God|
|A Debate on the Argument from Contingency|
|The Watch and the Watchmaker|
|A Critique of the Teleological Argument|
|The Ontological Argument|
|A Debate on the Argument from Religious Experience|
|The Argument from Religious Experience|
|The Problem of Evil|
|The Best of All Possible Worlds?|
|Voluntary Action and Responsibility|
|Stoic Resignation to Fate|
|The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility|
|A Compatibilist Defense of Moral Responsibility|
|A Libertarian Defense of Moral Responsibility|
|The Right to Punish: Retributivism|
|Utilitarianism and Punishment|
|The Crime of Punishment: The Humanitarian Theory|
|Against the Humanitarian Theory of Rehabilitation|
|Two Concepts of Punishment|
|Socratic Morality: Crito|
|Custom Is King|
|In Defense of Moral Relativism|
|Ethical Relativism versus Ethical Objectivism|
|The Subjectivity of Values|
|A Critique of Mackie''s Theory of Moral Subjectivism|
|Why Is There Evil?|
|The Problem of Evil: Why Is There So Much Suffering?|
|A Theistic Response to the Problem of Evil|
|Faith and Reason|
|A Debate on Rationality and Religious Belief|
|Faith Is a Rational Wager|
|The Ethics of Belief|
|The Will to Believe|
|Religious Belief without Evidence|
|Philosophy of Mind|
|The Mind-Body Problem|
|Mind and Body as a Continuum|
|Consciousness and the Mind-Body Problem|
|A Critique of Dualism|
|On Functionalism and Materialism|
|What Is It Like to Be a Bat?|
|Against Materialism: Can Consciousness Be Reductively Explained?|
|Minds, Brains, and Computers|
|The Problem of Personal Identity|
|The Self as Psychological Properties|
|The Self as a Bundle of Perceptions|
|Brain Transplants and Personal Identity: A Dialogue|
|Personal Identity and Survival: Will I Survive My Death?|
|Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul|
|The Illusion of Immortality|
|In Defense of Life after Death|
|Freedom of the Will, Responsibility, and Punishment|
|Free Will and Determinism|
|A Defense of Determinism|
|Libertarianism: Defense of Free Will|
|Compatibilism: Free Will Is Consistent with Determinism|
|Determinism: Free Will and Psychoanalysis|
|Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person|
|Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.|