9780195311617

Introduction to Philosophy Classical and Contemporary Readings

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780195311617

  • ISBN10:

    0195311612

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 12/11/2007
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

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Summary

Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Fourth Edition, is a highly acclaimed topically organized anthology featuring eighty-four selections that cover five major areas of philosophy--theory of knowledge, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, freedom and determinism, and moral philosophy. Louis P. Pojman and new coeditor James Fieser enhance the text's topical organization by presenting opposing articles on each issue so that students can better understand different perspectives. Offering a unique feature for a collection of this depth, the editors also include accessible introductions to each part, subsection, and individual reading, providing context for the essays and summarizing their key themes. Beginning with the opening section, "What Is Philosophy?", the book focuses on a compelling sampling of classical material--including selections from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant. It also incorporates some of philosophy's best contemporary work, offering articles by Harry Frankfurt, Richard Taylor, John Searle, Thomas Nagel, and others. The volume is enriched by helpful pedagogical features including "Questions for Further Reflection" after each selection; "Suggestions for Further Reading" at the end of the book; a glossary; and two appendices--"How to Read and Write a Philosophy Paper" and "A Little Bit of Logic." The fourth edition includes the complete text of Descartes' Meditations on First Philosophy and nine new selections: * Sextus Empiricus: "Skepticism and Tranquility" * Lorraine Code: "A Feminist Epistemology?" * Samuel Clarke and David Hume: "The Causal Argument for God" * Voltaire: "The Best of All Possible Worlds?" * Rene Descartes: "Interactive Dualism" * Anne Conway: "Mind and Body as a Continuum" * Epictetus: "Stoic Resignation to Fate" * David Hume: "Morality Not Derived from Reason" * Alfred Jules Ayer: "Emotivism and Prescriptivism"

Table of Contents

Preface
What is Philosophy?
Socratic Wisdom
Philosophy as the Love of Truth versus Enthusiasm
The Value of Philosophy
Theory of Knowledge
Classical Theories on Certainty and the Sources of Knowledge
The Theory of Forms and Doctrine of Recollection
Skepticism and Tranquility
Meditations on First Philosophy (complete)
Knowledge through Experience
An Idealist Theory of Knowledge
Experience and the Limits of Human Reason
The Copernican Revolution in Knowledge
Contemporary Theories on the Limits of Knowledge
Science and Myth
Two Types of Knowledge
Epistemology without a Knowing Subject
Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity
Postmodernism and Truth
A Feminist Epistemology?
Philosophy of Religion
A Traditional Arguments for the Existence of God
The Five Ways
The Causal Argument for God
A Debate on the Argument from Contingency
The Watch and the Watchmaker
A Critique of the Teleological Argument
The Ontological Argument
A Debate on the Argument from Religious Experience
The Argument from Religious Experience
The Problem of Evil
The Best of All Possible Worlds?
Moral Responsibility
Voluntary Action and Responsibility
Stoic Resignation to Fate
The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility
A Compatibilist Defense of Moral Responsibility
A Libertarian Defense of Moral Responsibility
Punishment
The Right to Punish: Retributivism
Utilitarianism and Punishment
The Crime of Punishment: The Humanitarian Theory
Against the Humanitarian Theory of Rehabilitation
Two Concepts of Punishment
Moral Philosophy
Socratic Morality: Crito
Moral Relativism
Custom Is King
In Defense of Moral Relativism
Ethical Relativism versus Ethical Objectivism
The Subjectivity of Values
A Critique of Mackie''s Theory of Moral Subjectivism
Why Is There Evil?
The Problem of Evil: Why Is There So Much Suffering?
A Theistic Response to the Problem of Evil
Faith and Reason
A Debate on Rationality and Religious Belief
Faith Is a Rational Wager
The Ethics of Belief
The Will to Believe
Religious Belief without Evidence
Philosophy of Mind
The Mind-Body Problem
Interactive Dualism
Mind and Body as a Continuum
Consciousness and the Mind-Body Problem
A Critique of Dualism
On Functionalism and Materialism
What Is It Like to Be a Bat?
Against Materialism: Can Consciousness Be Reductively Explained?
Minds, Brains, and Computers
The Problem of Personal Identity
The Self as Psychological Properties
The Self as a Bundle of Perceptions
Brain Transplants and Personal Identity: A Dialogue
Personal Identity and Survival: Will I Survive My Death?
Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul
The Illusion of Immortality
In Defense of Life after Death
Freedom of the Will, Responsibility, and Punishment
Free Will and Determinism
A Defense of Determinism
Libertarianism: Defense of Free Will
Compatibilism: Free Will Is Consistent with Determinism
Determinism: Free Will and Psychoanalysis
Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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