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Introduction to Physical Hydrology,9780199296842
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Introduction to Physical Hydrology



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Oxford University Press
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Water dominates our lives: we live on a planet with much water and our lives depend on it in many ways. Despite the seeming abundance of water on the planet - with over 70% being salt water - human activity and prevailing climate conditions are placing more pressure on our supply of water thanever before, however. With this pressure comes a need to understand the physical principles of hydrology - the study of the occurrence, movement, and physical properties of non-oceanic water on and below the earth's surface - an understanding that can then be applied to water management and relatedinnovations. Introduction to Physical Hydrology provides a solid grounding in the principles of the subject. Exploring the principal rules that govern the flow of water on the land, it considers the three major types of water: atmospheric, ground, and soil. It gives insights into the major hydrologicalprocesses, and shows how the principles of physical hydrology inform our understanding of climate and global hydrology - the large-scale study of hydrology with which we need to grapple to fully understand the impact of the climate on water supply.The study of physical properties is done most effectively through mathematical representations of concepts and processes. Introduction to Physical Hydrology includes a carefully-developed and class-tested learning framework: an extensive range of examples and exercises, and further maths support inthe form of a series of Maths Toolboxes help the reader engage with and understand the maths required to master the subject.With hydrology now being approached from environmental and social perspectives, in addition to the more traditional physical geography and civil engineering perspectives, there has never been a more important time to develop a sound understanding of the subject. Introduction to Physical Hydrology isthe perfect course companion while you develop this understanding. Online Resource CentreThe Online Resource Centre to accompany Introduction to Physical Hydrology features:For registered adopters of the book:DT Figures from the book, available to downloadFor students:DT A series of interactive spreadsheets related to topics introduced in the bookDT A selection of multiple-choice questions to help check your understanding of the key concepts covered.DT A library of web links

Author Biography

Martin Hendriks is Associate Professor of Physical Hydrology at Utrecht University, where he teaches hydrology and physical geography at all levels, and co-ordinates their MSc programme in Physical Geography and Hydrology.

Table of Contents

Welcome to the bookp. xi
Table of SI unitsp. xvii
Figure acknowledgementsp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Major water typesp. 1
The hydrological cyclep. 3
Drainage basin hydrological processesp. 6
The water balancep. 9
Summaryp. 12
Atmospheric waterp. 14
Introductionp. 14
Cloud formationp. 14
Generation of precipitationp. 20
Precipitation typesp. 21
Measuring precipitationp. 27
Areal precipitationp. 30
Evaporation types and measurementp. 32
Estimating evaporation: Penman-Monteithp. 34
Summaryp. 47
Groundwaterp. 49
Introductionp. 49
Misconceptionsp. 51
Drilling a hole …p. 51
Bernoulli to the aidp. 52
Aqui…p. 55
Effective infiltration velocity and infiltration ratep. 58
The soil as a wet spongep. 61
Brothers in science: Darcy and Ohmp. 62
Refracting the waterp. 77
Keep it simple and confinedp. 80
Continuity and its consequencesp. 85
Going Dutchp. 92
Flow netsp. 96
Groundwater flow regimes and systemsp. 99
Fresh and saline: Ghijben Herzbergp. 104
Groundwater hydraulicsp. 106
Summaryp. 138
Soil waterp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Negative water pressuresp. 142
Determining the total potentialp. 146
The soil as a dry filter paper or a wet spongep. 148
The soil moisture characteristicp. 151
Drying and wetting: hysteresisp. 160
Unsaturated water flowp. 163
Moving up: capillary rise and evaporationp. 167
Moving down: infiltration and percolationp. 169
Preferential flowp. 190
Summaryp. 196
Surface waterp. 200
Introductionp. 202
Bernoulli revisitedp. 202
Measuring stage, water velocity, and dischargep. 225
Hydrograph analysisp. 244
Conceptual rainfall-runoff modelsp. 252
Variable source area hydrologyp. 263
Summaryp. 274
Epiloguep. 277
Conceptual toolkitp. 278
If You cannot do the mathsp. 280
Mathematical differentiation and integrationp. 290
Quick reference to some differentiation rulesp. 290
Mathematics toolboxesp. 291
Confined aquifer: horizontal flowp. 291
Unconfined aquifer: horizontal flowp. 292
Leaky aquifer: inverse landscapep. 293
Unconfined aquifer with recharge: canals with equal water levelsp. 296
Unconfined aquifer with recharge: streams with different water levelsp. 297
Confined aquifer: radial-symmetric flowp. 299
Unconfined aquifer: radical-symmetric flowp. 301
Derivation of the Richards equationp. 303
Other forms of the Richards equationp. 305
Open channel flowp. 307
Answers to the exercisep. 308
Referencesp. 317
Indexp. 323
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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