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Water dominates our lives: we live on a planet with much water and our lives depend on it in many ways. Despite the seeming abundance of water on the planet - with over 70% being salt water - human activity and prevailing climate conditions are placing more pressure on our supply of water thanever before, however. With this pressure comes a need to understand the physical principles of hydrology - the study of the occurrence, movement, and physical properties of non-oceanic water on and below the earth's surface - an understanding that can then be applied to water management and relatedinnovations. Introduction to Physical Hydrology provides a solid grounding in the principles of the subject. Exploring the principal rules that govern the flow of water on the land, it considers the three major types of water: atmospheric, ground, and soil. It gives insights into the major hydrologicalprocesses, and shows how the principles of physical hydrology inform our understanding of climate and global hydrology - the large-scale study of hydrology with which we need to grapple to fully understand the impact of the climate on water supply.The study of physical properties is done most effectively through mathematical representations of concepts and processes. Introduction to Physical Hydrology includes a carefully-developed and class-tested learning framework: an extensive range of examples and exercises, and further maths support inthe form of a series of Maths Toolboxes help the reader engage with and understand the maths required to master the subject.With hydrology now being approached from environmental and social perspectives, in addition to the more traditional physical geography and civil engineering perspectives, there has never been a more important time to develop a sound understanding of the subject. Introduction to Physical Hydrology isthe perfect course companion while you develop this understanding. Online Resource CentreThe Online Resource Centre to accompany Introduction to Physical Hydrology features:For registered adopters of the book:DT Figures from the book, available to downloadFor students:DT A series of interactive spreadsheets related to topics introduced in the bookDT A selection of multiple-choice questions to help check your understanding of the key concepts covered.DT A library of web links
Martin Hendriks is Associate Professor of Physical Hydrology at Utrecht University, where he teaches hydrology and physical geography at all levels, and co-ordinates their MSc programme in Physical Geography and Hydrology.
Table of Contents
|Welcome to the book||p. xi|
|Table of SI units||p. xvii|
|Figure acknowledgements||p. xix|
|Major water types||p. 1|
|The hydrological cycle||p. 3|
|Drainage basin hydrological processes||p. 6|
|The water balance||p. 9|
|Atmospheric water||p. 14|
|Cloud formation||p. 14|
|Generation of precipitation||p. 20|
|Precipitation types||p. 21|
|Measuring precipitation||p. 27|
|Areal precipitation||p. 30|
|Evaporation types and measurement||p. 32|
|Estimating evaporation: Penman-Monteith||p. 34|
|Drilling a hole …||p. 51|
|Bernoulli to the aid||p. 52|
|Effective infiltration velocity and infiltration rate||p. 58|
|The soil as a wet sponge||p. 61|
|Brothers in science: Darcy and Ohm||p. 62|
|Refracting the water||p. 77|
|Keep it simple and confined||p. 80|
|Continuity and its consequences||p. 85|
|Going Dutch||p. 92|
|Flow nets||p. 96|
|Groundwater flow regimes and systems||p. 99|
|Fresh and saline: Ghijben Herzberg||p. 104|
|Groundwater hydraulics||p. 106|
|Soil water||p. 141|
|Negative water pressures||p. 142|
|Determining the total potential||p. 146|
|The soil as a dry filter paper or a wet sponge||p. 148|
|The soil moisture characteristic||p. 151|
|Drying and wetting: hysteresis||p. 160|
|Unsaturated water flow||p. 163|
|Moving up: capillary rise and evaporation||p. 167|
|Moving down: infiltration and percolation||p. 169|
|Preferential flow||p. 190|
|Surface water||p. 200|
|Bernoulli revisited||p. 202|
|Measuring stage, water velocity, and discharge||p. 225|
|Hydrograph analysis||p. 244|
|Conceptual rainfall-runoff models||p. 252|
|Variable source area hydrology||p. 263|
|Conceptual toolkit||p. 278|
|If You cannot do the maths||p. 280|
|Mathematical differentiation and integration||p. 290|
|Quick reference to some differentiation rules||p. 290|
|Mathematics toolboxes||p. 291|
|Confined aquifer: horizontal flow||p. 291|
|Unconfined aquifer: horizontal flow||p. 292|
|Leaky aquifer: inverse landscape||p. 293|
|Unconfined aquifer with recharge: canals with equal water levels||p. 296|
|Unconfined aquifer with recharge: streams with different water levels||p. 297|
|Confined aquifer: radial-symmetric flow||p. 299|
|Unconfined aquifer: radical-symmetric flow||p. 301|
|Derivation of the Richards equation||p. 303|
|Other forms of the Richards equation||p. 305|
|Open channel flow||p. 307|
|Answers to the exercise||p. 308|
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