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Introduction to Physical Science,9780395955703

Introduction to Physical Science

by Unknown
Edition:
9th
ISBN13:

9780395955703

ISBN10:
039595570X
Media:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/14/1999
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $108.00

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Table of Contents

Preface xi
Measurement
1(23)
The Senses
2(1)
Introduction to the Scientific Method
2(2)
Standard Units and Systems of Units
4(3)
More on the Metric System
7(3)
Derived Units and Conversion Factors
10(5)
Highlight: Who Put 5280 Feet in a Mile?
12(3)
Significant Figures
15(1)
Powers-of-10 (Scientific) Notation
16(2)
A Spotlight on: Fundamental Quantities
17(1)
Approach to Problem Solving
18(6)
Important Terms
19(1)
Important Equations
20(1)
Review Questions
20(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
21(1)
Exercises
21(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
23(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
23(1)
Motion
24(19)
Defining Motion
25(1)
Speed and Velocity
25(4)
Acceleration
29(5)
Highlight: Galileo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa
32(2)
Acceleration in Uniform Circular Motion
34(2)
Projectile Motion
36(7)
Important Terms
39(1)
Important Equations
39(1)
Review Questions
39(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
40(1)
Exercises
40(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
42(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
42(1)
Force and Motion
43(26)
Newton's First Law of Motion
44(3)
Highlight: Isaac Newton
46(1)
Newton's Second Law of Motion
47(4)
Newton's Third Law of Motion
51(2)
Newton's Law of Gravitation
53(6)
Highlight: The ``Fourth Law of Motion'': The Automobile Air Bag
54(3)
A Spotlight on: Newton's Laws of Motion
57(2)
Momentum
59(10)
Important Terms
64(1)
Important Equations
64(1)
Review Questions
64(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
65(1)
Exercises
66(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
67(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
68(1)
Work and Energy
69(23)
Work
70(2)
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
72(4)
Conservation of Energy
76(2)
Power
78(2)
Forms and Sources of Energy
80(12)
Highlight: Tidal Power
84(2)
Important Terms
86(1)
Important Equations
87(1)
Review Questions
87(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
89(1)
Exercises
89(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
91(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
91(1)
Temperature and Heat
92(29)
Temperature
93(2)
Heat
95(1)
Specific Heat and Latent Heat
96(7)
Highlight: Freezing from the Top Down
98(5)
Heat Transfer
103(2)
Phases of Matter
105(2)
The Kinetic Theory of Gases
107(3)
Highlight: Hot Gases: Aerosol Cans and Popcorn
110(1)
Thermodynamics
110(11)
Important Terms
115(1)
Important Equations
115(1)
Review Questions
116(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
118(1)
Exercises
118(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
120(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
120(1)
Waves
121(18)
Wave Properties
122(3)
Electromagnetic Waves
125(2)
Sound Waves
127(6)
Highlight: Noise Exposure Limits
132(1)
The Doppler Effect
133(1)
Standing Waves and Resonance
134(5)
Important Terms
136(1)
Important Equations
136(1)
Review Questions
136(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
137(1)
Exercises
138(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
138(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
138(1)
Wave Effects and Optics
139(33)
Reflection
140(1)
Refraction and Dispersion
141(9)
Highlight: The Rainbow: Dispersion and Internal Reflection
148(2)
Polarization
150(2)
Diffraction and Interference
152(6)
Highlight: Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs)
154(4)
Spherical Mirrors
158(5)
Lenses
163(9)
Important Terms
167(1)
Important Equations
167(1)
Review Questions
168(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
169(1)
Exercises
169(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
171(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
171(1)
Electricity and Magnetism
172(32)
Electric Charge and Current
173(5)
Highlight: Photocopiers
176(2)
Voltage and Electrical Power
178(3)
Simple Electric Circuits and Electrical Safety
181(6)
Highlight: Electrical Safety
186(1)
Magnetism
187(5)
Electromagnetism
192(12)
Important Terms
199(1)
Important Equations
199(1)
Review Questions
200(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
201(1)
Exercises
201(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
203(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
203(1)
Atomic Physics
204(28)
Early Concepts of the Atom
205(1)
The Dual Nature of Light
206(4)
Highlight: Albert Einstein
210(1)
Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
210(7)
Microwave Ovens, X-Rays, and Lasers
217(5)
Highlight: Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
220(2)
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
222(1)
Matter Waves
223(2)
The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
225(7)
A Spotlight on: The Changing Model of the Atom
227(1)
Important Terms
228(1)
Important Equations
228(1)
Review Questions
228(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
230(1)
Exercises
230(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
231(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
231(1)
Nuclear Physics
232(33)
Symbols of the Elements
233(1)
The Atomic Nucleus
233(6)
Radioactivity and Half-Life
239(7)
Highlight: The Discovery of Radioactivity
242(4)
Nuclear Reactions
246(3)
Nuclear Fission
249(5)
Highlight: The Origins of the Bomb
252(2)
Nuclear Fusion
254(4)
Biological Effects of Radiation
258(7)
Important Terms
260(1)
Important Equations
260(1)
Review Questions
260(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
262(1)
Exercises
262(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
264(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
264(1)
The Chemical Elements
265(28)
Classification of Matter
266(3)
Discovery of the Elements
269(2)
Highlight: The Tragedy of Lake Nyos
270(1)
Occurrence of the Elements
271(4)
The Periodic Table
275(6)
Highlight: Mendeleev and the Periodic Table
276(5)
Naming Compounds
281(2)
Groups of Elements
283(10)
A Spotlight On: Naming Compounds
285(3)
Important Terms
288(1)
Review Questions
288(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
290(1)
Exercises
290(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
292(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
292(1)
Chemical Bonding
293(28)
Law of Conservation of Mass
294(1)
Law of Definite Proportions
294(3)
Highlight: Lavoisier, The Father of Chemistry
296(1)
Dalton's Atomic Theory
297(1)
Ionic Bonding
298(7)
Covalent Bonding
305(9)
Highlight: The Varied Uses of Ammonia
308(6)
Hydrogen Bonding
314(7)
Important Terms
316(1)
Important Equations
316(1)
Review Questions
316(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
318(1)
Exercises
318(2)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
320(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
320(1)
Chemical Reactions
321(28)
Balancing Chemical Equations
322(3)
Energy and Rate of Reaction
325(6)
Highlight: The Chemistry of Heat Packs
330(1)
Acids and Bases
331(8)
Highlight: Chemistry and Teeth
336(3)
Single-Replacement Reactions
339(5)
A Spotlight On: Reaction Types
343(1)
Avogadro's Number
344(5)
Important Terms
345(1)
Review Questions
345(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
346(1)
Exercises
347(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
348(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
348(1)
Organic Chemistry
349(31)
Bonding in Organic Compounds
350(1)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
351(1)
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
352(7)
Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
359(10)
Highlight: Drugs, Dogs, and Body Odor
364(5)
Synthetic Polymers
369(11)
A Spotlight On: Hydrocarbons and Their Derivatives
371(2)
Important Terms
373(1)
Review Questions
373(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
375(1)
Exercises
375(4)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
379(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
379(1)
The Solar System
380(41)
The Solar System: An Overview
381(7)
The Planet Earth
388(4)
The Terrestrial Planets
392(6)
A Spotlight On: The Terrestrial Planets
396(2)
The Jovian Planets and Pluto
398(9)
Highlight: Space Flights in the Solar System
400(4)
A Spotlight On: The Jovian Planets
404(3)
Other Solar System Objects
407(4)
The Origin of the Solar System
411(2)
Other Planetary Systems
413(8)
Important Terms
416(1)
Important Equations
416(1)
Review Questions
416(3)
Applying Your Knowledge
419(1)
Exercises
419(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
420(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
420(1)
Place and Time
421(22)
Cartesian Coordinates
422(1)
Latitude and Longitude
422(3)
Time
425(7)
Highlight: The Concept of Time
426(6)
The Seasons
432(3)
Precession of Earth's Axis
435(1)
The Calendar
436(7)
A Spotlight On: Place and Time
437(2)
Important Terms
439(1)
Review Questions
439(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
441(1)
Exercises
441(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
442(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
442(1)
The Moon
443(23)
General Features
444(2)
Composition and History of the Moon
446(3)
Highlight: The Origin of the Moon
448(1)
Lunar Motions
449(1)
Phases of the Moon
450(4)
Eclipses
454(3)
Ocean Tides
457(9)
A Spotlight On: The Moon
460(2)
Important Terms
462(1)
Review Questions
462(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
464(1)
Exercises
464(1)
Solution to Confidence Exercise
465(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
465(1)
The Universe
466(34)
The Sun
467(5)
Highlight: Neutrinos
470(2)
The Celestial Sphere
472(2)
Stars
474(8)
Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
482(2)
Galaxies
484(5)
Quasars
489(1)
Cosmology
490(10)
Highlight: Other Cosmologies
494(1)
Important Terms
495(1)
Important Equations
495(1)
Review Questions
495(3)
Applying Your Knowledge
498(1)
Exercises
498(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
499(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
499(1)
The Atmosphere
500(30)
Composition and Structure
501(4)
Atmospheric Energy Content
505(3)
Highlight: Blue Skies and Red Sunsets
508(1)
Atmospheric Measurements and Observations
508(10)
Highlight: The Greenhouse Effect
510(8)
Air Motion
518(4)
Clouds
522(8)
A Spotlight On: Cloud Families and Types
523(3)
Important Terms
526(1)
Important Equations
526(1)
Review Questions
526(2)
Applying Your Knowledge
528(1)
Exercises
528(1)
Solution to Confidence Exercise
529(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
529(1)
Atmospheric Effects
530(27)
Condensation and Precipitation
531(2)
Air Masses
533(3)
Storms
536(9)
Highlight: El Nino and La Nina
538(6)
Highlight: Naming Hurricanes
544(1)
Atmospheric Pollution
545(5)
Pollution and Climate
550(7)
Highlight: The Ozone Hole
552(2)
Important Terms
554(1)
Review Questions
555(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
556(1)
Exercises
556(1)
Solution to Confidence Exercise
556(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
556(1)
Minerals and Rocks
557(30)
Minerals
558(4)
Highlight: Rare Beauties: Gems
562(1)
Rocks
562(3)
Igneous Rocks
565(4)
Igneous Activity
569(7)
Sedimentary Rocks
576(5)
Metamorphic Rocks
581(6)
Important Terms
584(1)
Review Questions
585(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
586(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
586(1)
Structural Geology
587(26)
Continental Drift and Seafloor Spreading
588(3)
Plate Tectonics
591(4)
Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
595(10)
A Spotlight On: Plate Tectonics--The Engine that Drives Crustal Processes
597(5)
Highlight: Deadly Tsunamis
602(3)
Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building
605(8)
Important Terms
610(1)
Review Questions
610(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
611(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
612(1)
Surface Processes
613(20)
Weathering
614(2)
Erosion
616(8)
Highlight: The Great Mississippi Flood of 1993
618(6)
Groundwater
624(3)
Shoreline and Seafloor Topography
627(6)
Important Terms
631(1)
Review Questions
631(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
632(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
632(1)
Geologic Time
633(1)
Fossils
634(2)
Relative Geologic Time
636(4)
Radiometric Dating
640(4)
The Age of Earth
644(2)
The Geologic Time Scale
646(1)
A Spotlight On: The Geologic Time Scale
647(3)
Highlight: The K-T Event: The Disappearance of Dinosaurs
650(1)
Important Terms
651(1)
Review Questions
651(1)
Applying Your Knowledge
652(1)
Exercises
653(1)
Solutions to Confidence Exercises
654(1)
Answers to Multiple-Choice Review Questions
654
Appendixes
I The Seven Base Units of the International System of Units (SI)
1(1)
II Solving Mathematical Problems in Science
1(1)
III Equation Rearrangement
2(4)
IV Analysis of Units
6(1)
V Positive and Negative Numbers
7(1)
VI Powers-of-10 Notation
8(2)
VII Significant Figures
10(2)
VIII Psychrometric Tables
12(2)
Glossary 14(17)
Photo Credits 31
Index 1


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