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An Introduction to Policing,9780534546755
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An Introduction to Policing

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534546755

ISBN10:
0534546757
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
7/30/1998
Publisher(s):
Wadsworth Publishing
List Price: $95.00
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Summary

This text presents a remarkable balance between the practical and theoretical. Dempsey brings his 25 years of policing experience (as a ranking officer in the New York Police Department) together with the best and most contemporary research to illustrate both the formal and the real workings of the policing system. By focusing on the controversies and the problems within the system, including the newest statistical data, Dempsey creates a uniquely objective text. No other text melds real experiences with high-quality research and statistics as well as Dempsey.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I POLICE HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION 1(80)
Chapter 1 Police History
1(30)
Introduction
2(1)
Early Police
2(1)
English Policing: Our English Heritage
3(3)
Early History
3(1)
Seventeenth Century and Thief-Takers
4(1)
Henry Fielding
4(1)
Peel's Police
5(1)
American Policing: The Colonial Experience
6(1)
American Policing: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
7(6)
The Urban Experience
8(3)
The Frontier Experience
11(2)
American Policing: Twentieth Century
13(14)
Policing from 1900 to 1960
13(4)
Policing in the 1960s and 1970s
17(6)
Policing in the 1980s and 1990s
23(4)
Chapter Summary
27(4)
Chapter 2 Organizing Public and Private Security in the United States
31(26)
Introduction
32(1)
The U.S. Public and Private Safety Industry
32(2)
Local Law Enforcement
34(3)
Metropolitan Law Enforcement
35(1)
Country Law Enforcement
35(1)
Rural and Small Town Law Enforcement
36(1)
State Law Enforcement
37(1)
Federal Law Enforcement
38(7)
Department of Justice
39(2)
Treasury Department
41(2)
Department of the Interior
43(1)
Department of Defense
43(1)
General Services Administration
44(1)
U.S. Postal Service
44(1)
Department of Transportation
44(1)
Other Federal Enforcement Agencies
44(1)
Task Force Approach to Enforcement
44(1)
International Police
45(1)
Private Security
45(5)
What Is Private Security?
46(1)
History of Private Security
47(1)
Operations of Private Security Today
47(1)
Private Security and the Courts
48(1)
Current Problems of Private Security
48(1)
Licensing of Private Security
48(1)
Professionalization of Private Security
49(1)
Forecasts Regarding the Need for Private Security
49(1)
Private Employment of Public Police
50(2)
Community Self-Protection
52(1)
Target Hardening
53(1)
Neighborhood Watch Programs
53(1)
Impact of Recession on Police Agencies and Police Consolidation
53(1)
Chapter Summary
54(3)
Chapter 3 Organizing the Police Department
57(24)
Introduction
58(1)
Organizing the Department: Managerial Concepts
58(2)
Division of Labor
58(1)
Chain of Command (Hierarchy of Authority)
58(1)
Span of Control
58(1)
Delegation of Responsibility and Authority
59(1)
Unity of Command
59(1)
Rules, Regulations, and Discipline
59(1)
Organizing by Personnel
60(9)
The Civil Service System
60(1)
Quasi-Military Model of Police
61(1)
Sworn and Nonsworn (Civilian) Personnel
61(1)
Rank Structure
62(3)
Other Personnel
65(3)
Some Personnel Issues
68(1)
Organizing by Area
69(2)
Beats/Posts
69(2)
Sectors/Zones
71(1)
Precincts
71(1)
Organizing by Time
71(3)
The Three-Tour System
71(2)
Tour Conditions
73(1)
Steady (Fixed) Tours
73(1)
Organizing by Function or Purpose
74(4)
Line and Staff (Support) Functions
74(1)
Police Department Units
74(4)
Chapter Summary
78(3)
PART II THE PERSONAL SIDE OF POLICING 81(66)
Chapter 4 Becoming a Police Officer
81(30)
Introduction
82(1)
Finding Information on Jobs in Policing
82(1)
The Recruitment Process
83(3)
The Job Analysis
86(1)
The Selection Process
87(9)
Characteristics of Good Police Officers
88(2)
Guidelines for the Selection Process
90(1)
Written Entrance Examination
91(1)
Oral Interview
92(1)
Psychological Appraisal
93(1)
Polygraph Examination
93(2)
Medical Examination
95(1)
Physical Agility Test
95(1)
Background Investigation
95(1)
Standards in Police Selection
96(5)
Physical Requirements
96(1)
Age Requirements
97(1)
Education Requirements
98(2)
Prior Drug Use
100(1)
Criminal Record Restrictions
100(1)
Residency Requirements
100(1)
Sexual Orientation
101(1)
The Police Training Process
101(5)
Recruit Training
101(4)
In-Service, Management, and Specialized Training
105(1)
Training for the Police Corps
105(1)
Community Policing Training
106(1)
Probationary Period
106(1)
Chapter Summary
106(5)
Chapter 5 The Police Role and Police Discretion
111(16)
Introduction
112(1)
The Police Role
112(4)
Crime-Fighting Role
112(1)
Order Maintenance Role
113(1)
Ambiguity of the Police Role
114(2)
Goals and Objectives of Policing
116(1)
Primary Goals and Objectives
116(1)
Secondary Goals and Objectives
116(1)
Police Operational Styles
117(2)
Broderick's Police Operational Styles
117(1)
Wilson's Police Operational Styles
118(1)
Police Discretion
119(4)
What Is Discretion?
119(2)
How Is Discretion Exercised?
121(1)
Why Is Discretion Exercised?
121(1)
What Factors Influence Discretion?
121(2)
How Can Discretion Be Controlled?
123(1)
Chapter Summary
123(4)
Chapter 6 The Police Culture: Personality and Stress
127(20)
Introduction
128(1)
The Police Culture or Subculture
128(1)
The Police Personality
129(4)
What Is the Police Personality?
129(2)
Are They Born Like That, or Is It the Job?
131(2)
Police Cynicism
133(1)
The Dirty Harry Problem
133(2)
Police Stress
135(6)
What Is Stress?
135(1)
Nature of Stress in Policing
135(1)
Factors Causing Stress in Policing
136(1)
Effects of Stress on Police Officers
137(1)
Stress and Police Families
138(1)
Police Departments Dealing with Stress
139(1)
Testing for Ability to Handle Stress
140(1)
Police Suicide
141(1)
Chapter Summary
142(5)
PART III POLICE OPERATIONS 147(140)
Chapter 7 Police Operations: The Traditional Approach
147(24)
Introduction
148(1)
Traditional Methods of Police Work
148(1)
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Police Work
148(1)
Random Routine Patrol: The Kansas City Study
149(2)
The Kansas City Study in Brief
149(1)
Results of the Kansas City Study
150(1)
Critiques of the Kansas City Study
150(1)
Value of the Kansas City Study
151(1)
Rapid Response to Citizens' 911 Calls
151(2)
Early Studies of Rapid Response
152(1)
Later Studies of Rapid Response
152(1)
Retroactive Investigation of Past Crimes by Detectives
153(1)
Police Patrol Operations
154(9)
Activities of the Patrol Officer
154(1)
The Legacy of O.W. Wilson
155(1)
Academic Studies of the Police Patrol Function
155(4)
From the Foot Beat to the Patrol Car
159(2)
Return to Foot Patrol
161(1)
Why Walking Works Better Than Driving
162(1)
Detective Operations
163(2)
What Do Detectives Do?
163(1)
The Detective Mystique
164(1)
Police Traffic Operations
165(1)
Police Special Operations
165(2)
SWAT Teams
165(1)
Emergency Service Units
166(1)
Chapter Summary
167(4)
Chapter 8 Police Operations: A New Approach
171(24)
Introduction
172(1)
Alternatives to Random Routine Patrol and Rapid Response to Citizens' 911 Calls
172(3)
Directed Patrol
172(2)
Split Force Patrol
174(1)
Differential Response to Calls for Service
174(1)
Alternatives to Retroactive Investigation of Past Crimes by Detectives
175(3)
Improved Investigation of Past Crimes
176(2)
Repeat Offender Programs (ROPS)
178(1)
New, Proactive Tactics
178(8)
Uniformed Tactical Operations
178(4)
Decoy Operations
182(1)
Stakeout Operations
183(1)
Sting Operations
183(1)
Civil Liability and Code Enforcement Teams
184(1)
Efforts against Drunk Drivers
184(2)
Undercover Operations
186(4)
Police Undercover Investigations
186(1)
Federal Undercover Investigations
186(1)
Private Security Undercover Investigations
186(3)
Drug Undercover Investigations
189(1)
Entrapment
190(1)
Chapter Summary
191(4)
Chapter 9 Police and the Community
195(34)
Introduction
196(1)
The Need for Proper Police-Community Relationships
196(1)
Human Relations, Public Relations, Community Relations
197(1)
Public Opinion and the Police
198(2)
Police and Minority Communities
200(4)
Multiculturalism
200(1)
The African-American Community
201(1)
The Hispanic-American Community
202(1)
The Asian-American Community
203(1)
Native Americans
203(1)
Women
203(1)
The Gay Community
203(1)
New Immigrants
204(1)
Police and Special Populations
204(13)
Senior Citizens' Programs
204(4)
Programs for Young People
208(6)
Assistance for the Homeless
214(2)
Help for Crime Victims
216(1)
Help for Disabled People
216(1)
Community Crime Prevention Programs
217(5)
Neighborhood Watch Programs
217(1)
Crime Stoppers
218(1)
Citizen Patrols
218(1)
Citizen Marches
219(1)
Citizen Volunteer Programs
219(1)
Home Security Surveys and Operation Identification
220(1)
National Night Out
220(1)
Police Storefront Stations or Ministations
221(1)
Mass Media Campaigns
221(1)
Citizen Police Academies
222(1)
Other Police-Sponsored Crime Prevention Programs
222(1)
Police and Business Cooperation
222(1)
AmeriCorps and Policing
222(2)
Chapter Summary
224(5)
Chapter 10 Community Policing: The Debate Continues
229(24)
Introduction
230(1)
Corporate Strategies for Policing
230(1)
The Philosophy of Community Policing and Problem-Solving Policing
231(2)
Community Policing
233(4)
Problem-Solving Policing
237(2)
Current Ways of Doing Community Policing
239(6)
Resident Officer Programs--The Ultimate in Community Policing?
242(3)
The Federal Government and Community Policing
245(2)
The Crime Bill
245(1)
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS)
245(2)
Community Policing Consortium
247(1)
Some Accomplishments of Community Policing
247(1)
Not All Agree with Community Policing
248(1)
Chapter Summary
249(5)
Chapter 11 Police and the Law
253(34)
Introduction
254(1)
Crime in the United States
254(2)
How Do We Measure Crime?
254(1)
How Much Crime Occurs in the United States?
255(1)
Arrests in the United States
256(1)
The Police and the U.S. Constitution
256(7)
Bill of Rights and the Fourteenth Amendment
256(2)
Role of the Supreme Court in Regulating the Police
258(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
259(4)
Impact of the Exclusionary Rule on the Police
263(1)
The Police and Arrest
263(3)
Probable Cause
264(1)
Reasonable and Deadly Force in Making Arrests
264(1)
Stopping Vehicles
265(1)
The Police and Search and Seizure
266(8)
The Warrant Requirement and the Search Warrant
266(1)
Exceptions to the Warrant Requirement
267(7)
The Police and Custodial Interrogation
274(8)
The Path to Miranda
274(2)
The Miranda Ruling
276(2)
The Erosion of Miranda
278(2)
1990s and Miranda
280(2)
Miranda in Retrospect
282(1)
The Police and Identification Procedures
282(2)
Lineups, Showups, and Photo Arrays
282(2)
Other Identification Procedures
284(1)
Chapter Summary
284(3)
PART IV CRITICAL ISSUING IN POLICING 287(102)
Chapter 12 Police Ethics and Police Deviance
287(24)
Introduction
288(1)
Ethics and the Police
288(2)
The Dilemma of Law Versus Order
290(1)
Review of the Police
290(1)
Police Corruption
291(7)
Corruption Makes Good Books and Films
291(1)
Examples of Police Corruption
292(1)
Types and Forms of Corruption
293(3)
Effects of Police Corruption
296(1)
Reasons for Police Corruption
296(1)
Responses to Police Corruption
297(1)
Other Police Misconduct
298(2)
Drug Abuse and Trafficking
298(1)
Drinking and Alcohol Abuse
298(1)
Cooping
299(1)
Police Deception
299(1)
Abuse of Authority
299(1)
Police Brutality
300(6)
Tradition of Police Brutality
300(1)
Examples of Police Brutality
300(2)
Is Brutality Really the Problem?
302(1)
Police Department Responses to Police Brutality
303(2)
Citizen Oversight
305(1)
Chapter Summary
306(5)
Chapter 13 Women and Minorities in Policing
311(22)
Introduction
312(1)
Discrimination in Policing
312(4)
Discrimination against Women
312(2)
Discrimination against Racial and Ethnic Minorities
314(2)
Discrimination against Gay Officers
316(1)
How Did Women and Minorities Achieve Equality?
316(3)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
316(1)
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
317(1)
Federal Courts and Job Discrimination
317(1)
Affirmative Action Programs
318(1)
White Male Backlash
319(1)
Can Women and Minorities Do the Job?
320(3)
Academic Studies of Female Officers
320(3)
Academic Studies of African-American Officers
323(1)
Women and Minorities in Policing Today
323(3)
Female Representation Today
324(1)
African-American and Other Minority Representation Today
325(1)
Problems Persist for Women and Minorities in Policing
326(3)
Problems for Women
326(2)
Problems for African-Americans and Other Minorities
328(1)
Chapter Summary
329(4)
Chapter 14 Technology in Policing
333(30)
Introduction
334(1)
Computers in Policing
334(8)
Computer-Aided Dispatch (CAD)
334(3)
Automated Databases
337(1)
Automated Crime Analysis
338(1)
Computer-Aided Investigation
338(2)
Computer-Assisted Instruction
340(1)
Administrative Uses of Computers
340(1)
Computer Networks/The Internet
341(1)
Innovations in Fingerprinting
342(3)
Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems
343(2)
Other Fingerprinting Innovations
345(1)
Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
345(2)
Chemical Irritant Sprays
346(1)
The TASER and Other Stun Devices
346(1)
Safety and Effectiveness of Less-Than-Lethal Weapons
346(1)
Surveillance Technology
347(1)
Surveillance Vans
348(1)
Night Vision Devices
348(1)
Advanced Photographic Techniques
348(2)
Mug Shot Imaging
348(1)
Age Progression Photographs
349(1)
Composite Sketches
349(1)
Modern Forensic or Criminalistic Techniques
350(4)
The Modern Crime Lab
352(1)
Crime Lab Accreditation
352(1)
Some New Laboratory Criminalistic Techniques
353(1)
DNA Profiling
354(4)
The Blooding
355(1)
The Castro Case
356(1)
The Frye Test
356(1)
The Debate Goes On
356(2)
Videotaping
358(1)
Robots
358(1)
Fear of Technology by Civil Libertarians
358(1)
Chapter Summary
359(4)
Chapter 15 Specific Police Problems and Issues
363(26)
Introduction
364(1)
Police and Danger
364(6)
Officers Killed in the Line of Duty
364(4)
Officers Assaulted in the Line of Duty
368(1)
Police and AIDS
369(1)
Police Shootings: Use of Deadly Force
370(4)
Number of Citizens Shot by the Police
370(1)
Police Shooting Rates by City, Region, and State
370(1)
Do Police Discriminate with Their Trigger Fingers?
370(1)
Departure from the "Fleeing Felon" Rule
371(3)
Police Automobile Pursuits
374(2)
Studies Involving Police Pursuits
374(1)
Establishment of Police Pursuit Policies
375(1)
Police and Domestic Violence
376(2)
Traditional Police Response to Domestic Violence
376(1)
Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment
376(1)
Police Response to Domestic Violence Today
377(1)
Police and Radical and Hate Groups
378(3)
Police Civil and Criminal Liability
381(3)
State Liability
382(1)
Federal Liability
382(1)
Reasons for Suing Police Officers
382(1)
Effects of Lawsuits on Police Departments and Officers
383(1)
Chapter Summary
384(5)
Appendix A Sources of Employment Information in Law Enforcement 389(4)
Appendix B The "Law Enforcement Code of Ethics" and "The Police Code of Conduct" 393(4)
Appendix C The National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial, Washington, D.C. 397(2)
Appendix D Police-Related Associations and Organizations 399(6)
Bibliography 405(10)
Index 415(15)
Photo Credits 430


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