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Introduction for Research in Education : Using Microcase Explorit,9780534246655
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Introduction for Research in Education : Using Microcase Explorit

by
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780534246655

ISBN10:
0534246656
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
7/16/2001
Publisher(s):
Cengage Learning
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Summary

Ary and Jacob's classic introduction to research and education provides an overview of the topics of research methods. This well respected author team strives to help students master the basic competencies needed for evaluating published research and conducting original research. The authors have also updated this popular book by further expanding their coverage of qualitative research. The book continues in the tradition of teaching students to become more competent consumers and producers of research.

Table of Contents

Preface xxv
PART ONE Foundations: The Scientific Approach in Education
The Nature of Scientific Inquiry
1(20)
Instructional Objectives
1(1)
Sources of Knowledge
2(8)
Experience
2(1)
Authority
3(1)
Deductive Reasoning
3(1)
Inductive Reasoning
4(2)
The Scientific Approach
6(1)
An Example of the Scientific Approrach
7(3)
The Nature of Science
10(6)
Assumptions That Scientists Make
10(1)
Attitudes of Scientists
11(1)
Scientific Theory
12(2)
Limitations of the Scientific Approach in the Social Sciences
14(2)
The Nature of Research
16(1)
Educational Research
17(1)
Summary
17(1)
References
18(3)
Key Concepts
18(1)
Exercises
18(1)
Answers
19(1)
InfoTrac College Education
20(1)
The Scientific Approach in Education
21(20)
Instructional Objectives
21(3)
Quantitative Research
24(1)
Experimental Research
24(1)
Nonexperimental Research
24(1)
Qualitative Research
25(4)
Ethnography
25(2)
Case Studies
27(1)
Document or Content Analysis
27(1)
Naturalistic Observation
27(1)
Focused Interviews
27(1)
Phenomenologic Studies
28(1)
Grounded Theory
28(1)
Historical Research
28(1)
Typical Stages in Research
29(1)
Questions That Educational Researchers Ask
30(1)
Theoretical Questions
30(1)
Practical Questions
31(1)
Basic and Applied Research
31(1)
The Language of Research
32(5)
Constructs
32(1)
Specification of Meaning
32(1)
Constitutive Definiton
33(1)
Operational Definition
33(1)
Variables
34(1)
Types of Variables
34(3)
Constants
37(1)
Summary
37(1)
References
38(3)
Key Concepts
38(1)
Exercises
38(2)
Answers
40(1)
InfoTrac College Education
40(1)
PART TWO Research Background
The Research Problem
41(22)
Instructional Objectives
41(1)
The Sources of Problems
42(6)
Experience
43(1)
Deductions from Theory
44(1)
Related Literature
45(2)
Noneducation Sources
47(1)
Evaluating the Problem
48(2)
Stating the Problem
50(2)
The Problem in Quantitative Research
51(1)
Identifying Population and Variables
52(5)
The Journal Article
55(2)
The Problem in Qualitative Research
57(2)
Sources of Qualitative Problems
58(1)
Criteria for a Qualitative Problem
59(1)
Summary
59(1)
References
59(4)
Key Concepts
60(1)
Exercises
60(2)
Answers
62(1)
InfoTrac College Education
62(1)
Reviewing the Literature
63(33)
Instructional Objectives
63(1)
The Role of Related Literature in a Research Project
64(2)
Reference Sources in Education
66(20)
Basic Guides
66(1)
Reviews of Education-Related Literature
67(2)
Periodical Indexes, Abstract Journals, and Citation Indexes
69(8)
Government Publications
77(1)
Test Sources
78(1)
Dictionaries
79(1)
Statistical Sources
79(1)
Other Periodical Indexes
80(1)
Using Electronic Indexes and Abstracts
81(2)
The Internet
83(2)
Authority
85(1)
Accuracy
86(1)
Timeliness
86(1)
Organizing the Related Literature
86(2)
Summary
88(1)
References
88(8)
Key Concepts
93(1)
Exercises
93(1)
Answers
94(1)
InfoTrac College Education
95(1)
The Hypothesis
96(21)
Instructional Objectives
96(2)
Purpose of the Hypothesis
98(1)
Suggestions for Deriving Hypotheses
99(4)
Inductive Hypotheses
99(1)
Deductive Hypotheses
100(1)
Theory
101(1)
Going from Theory to Hypothesis
101(2)
Characteristics of a Usable Hypothesis
103(4)
A Hypothesis Must State the Expected Relationship between Variables
103(1)
A Hypothesis Must Be Testable
104(1)
A Hypothesis Should Be Consistent with the Existing Body of Knowledge
105(1)
A Hypothesis Should Be Stated as Simply and Concisely as Possible
105(2)
Types of Hypotheses
107(1)
The Research Hypothesis
107(1)
The Null Hypothesis
107(1)
Testing the Hypothesis
108(2)
A Classroom Example of Testing a Hypothesis
109(1)
The Research Plan
110(1)
The Pilot Study
111(1)
Summary
111(1)
References
112(5)
Key Concepts
112(1)
Exercises
112(2)
Answers
114(2)
InfoTrac College Education
116(1)
PART THREE Statistical Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
117(44)
Instructional Objectives
117(2)
Scales of Measurement
119(4)
Nominal Scale
119(1)
Ordinal Scale
120(1)
Interval Scale
121(1)
Ratio Scale
122(1)
Organizing Research Data
123(3)
Frequency Distributions
123(1)
Graphic Presentations
123(3)
Measures of Central Tendency
126(5)
The Mode
126(1)
The Median
126(2)
The Mean
128(1)
Comparison of the Three Indexes of Central Location
129(2)
Measures of Variability
131(4)
Range
131(1)
Variance and Standard Deviation
132(3)
Measures of Relative Position
135(5)
Stanine Scores
137(1)
Other Standard Scores
138(1)
Percentile Rank
139(1)
The Normal Curve
140(2)
Correlation
142(9)
Scattergrams
143(1)
Correlation Coefficients
144(2)
The Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation
146(5)
Effect Size
151(1)
Meta-Analysis
152(2)
Calculators and Computer Programs for Statistics
154(1)
Summary
154(2)
References
156(5)
Key Concepts
156(1)
Exercises
157(2)
Answers
159(1)
InfoTrac College Education
160(1)
Sampling and Inferential Statistics
161(53)
Instructional Objectives
161(1)
Sampling
162(13)
Rationale of Sampling
163(1)
Steps in Sampling
164(1)
Probability Sampling
165(4)
Nonprobability Sampling
169(1)
The Size of the Sample (Fundamentals)
170(1)
The Concept of Sampling Error
171(1)
The Lawful Nature of Sampling Errors
172(3)
The Strategy of Inferential Statistics
175(3)
The Null Hypothesis
175(1)
Type I and Type II Errors
176(2)
Level of Significance
178(5)
Directional and Nondirectional Tests
179(2)
The Size of the Sample (Calculation)
181(2)
The t-Test
183(10)
Degrees of Freedom
184(1)
The t-Test for Independent Samples
185(4)
The Logic of the t-Test
189(1)
The t-Test for Dependent Samples
189(3)
The t-Test for Pearson r Correlation Coefficients
192(1)
Analysis of Variance
193(10)
Computing the F-Ratio (Simple Analysis of Variance)
193(4)
Multifactor Analysis of Variance
197(6)
The Chi-Square Test of Significance
203(4)
The One-Variable Chi-Square (Goodness of Fit)
203(2)
The Two-Variable Chi-Square (Chi-Square Test of Independence)
205(2)
Assumptions of Chi-Square
207(1)
Using Computers in Statistics
207(1)
Summary
207(1)
References
208(6)
Key Concepts
209(1)
Exercises
209(3)
Answers
212(1)
InfoTrac College Education
213(1)
PART FOUR Fundamentals
Tools of Research
214(27)
Instructional Objectives
214(2)
Tests
216(6)
Achievement Tests
216(2)
Test Performance Range
218(2)
Performance Assessments
220(1)
Aptitude Tests
221(1)
Measures of Personality
222(1)
Inventories
222(1)
Projective Techniques
223(1)
Attitude Scales
223(9)
Likert Scales: Method of Summated Ratings
224(3)
Validity
227(1)
Reliability
227(1)
Semantic Differential Scales
228(2)
Rating Scales
230(2)
Errors in Rating
232(1)
Direct Observation
232(4)
Devices for Recording Observations
233(2)
Evaluation of Direct Observation
235(1)
Contrived Observations
236(1)
Data Collection in Qualitative Research
236(1)
Summary
237(1)
References
237(4)
Key Concepts
238(1)
Exercises
239(1)
Answers
239(1)
InfoTrac College Education
240(1)
Validity and Reliability
241(34)
Instructional Objectives
241(1)
Validity
242(7)
Evidential Basis of Test Interpretation
243(6)
Reliability
249(18)
Theory of Reliability
250(2)
Equations for Reliability
252(2)
Approaches to Reliability
254(1)
The Reliability Coefficients
254(2)
Internal-Consistency Measures of Reliability
256(4)
Interpretation of Reliability Coefficients
260(2)
Standard Error of Measurement
262(2)
Reliability of Criterion-Referenced Tests
264(2)
Reliability of Observational Data
266(1)
Validity and Reliability Compared
267(1)
Summary
267(1)
References
268(7)
Key Concepts
269(1)
Exercises
269(3)
Answers
272(2)
InfoTrac College Education
274(1)
PART FIVE Research Methods
Experimental Research
275(59)
Instructional Objectives
275(2)
Characteristics of Experimental Research
277(2)
Control
277(2)
Manipulation
279(1)
Observation
279(1)
Experimental Comparison
279(1)
Experimental Design
280(9)
Internal Validity of Research Designs
281(8)
Dealing with Threats to Internal Validity
289(7)
Random Assignment
289(1)
Randomized Matching
290(2)
Homogeneous Selection
292(1)
Building Variables into the Design
292(1)
Analysis of Covariance
292(1)
Using Subjects as Their Own Controls
293(1)
Controlling Situational Differences
294(2)
External Validity of Research Designs
296(6)
Population External Validity
297(1)
Ecological External Validity
298(2)
External Validity of Operations
300(1)
Dealing with Threats to External Validity
301(1)
Classifying Experimental Designs
302(25)
Preexperimental Designs
303(2)
True Experimental Designs
305(6)
Factorial Designs
311(4)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
315(5)
Time Series Designs
320(2)
Validity Problems with Experimental Designs
322(1)
Single-Subject Experimental Designs
322(4)
Comparison of Single-Subject and Group Designs
326(1)
Summary
327(1)
References
328(6)
Key Concepts
328(1)
Exercises
329(2)
Answers
331(2)
InfoTrac College Education
333(1)
Ex Post Facto Research
334(19)
Instructional Objectives
334(1)
Ex Post Facto and Experimental Approaches Compared
335(3)
Conducting an Ex Post Facto Research Study
338(6)
Alternative Explanations in Ex Post Facto Research
340(3)
An Application of Alternative Explanations
343(1)
Partial Control in Ex Post Facto Research
344(4)
Matching
345(1)
Homogeneous Groups
346(1)
Building Extraneous Variables into the Design
347(1)
Analysis of Covariance
347(1)
Partial Correlation
348(1)
The Role of Ex Post Facto Research
348(1)
Summary
349(1)
References
350(3)
Key Concepts
350(1)
Exercises
351(1)
Answers
351(1)
InfoTrac College Education
352(1)
Correlational Research
353(20)
Instructional Objectives
353(2)
Uses of Correlation
355(2)
Determining Relationships
355(1)
Assessing Consistency
356(1)
Prediction
356(1)
Design of Correlational Studies
357(1)
Correlation Coefficients
358(1)
Pearson's Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation
358(1)
Spearman's Rho-Coefficient of Correlation
358(1)
The Phi Coefficient
359(1)
Considerations for Interpreting a Correlation Coefficient
359(3)
Absolute Size and Predictive Validity
359(1)
Correlation to Effect Size
360(1)
Comparison as Other Correlations
360(1)
Statistical Significance
361(1)
Practical Utility
361(1)
Correlation and Causation
362(1)
Partial and Multiple Correlation
363(1)
Discriminant Analysis
364(1)
Factor Analysis
365(1)
Cannonical Correlation
366(1)
Path Analysis
366(1)
Summary
367(1)
References
368(5)
Key Concepts
368(1)
Exercises
368(3)
Answers
371(1)
InfoTrac College Education
372(1)
Survey Research
373(47)
Instructional Objectives
373(2)
Types of Surveys
375(5)
Surveys Classified According to Focus and Scope
375(3)
Surveys Classified According to the Time Dimension
378(2)
The Survey Technique
380(6)
The Six Basic Steps Involved in Survey Research
380(1)
Data Gathering Techniques
381(5)
Selecting the Sample
386(3)
Sample Size
386(1)
Margin of Error
386(1)
Calculating Sample Size
387(2)
Constructing the Instrument
389(6)
Format of Questions
389(2)
Structure of Questions
391(1)
Writing Survey Questions
392(3)
Conducting the Interview
395(1)
Training the Interviewer
396(1)
Using a Mailed Questionnaire
396(13)
Directions
397(1)
Order of Questions
397(1)
Matrix Sampling
398(1)
Format of the Questionnaire
398(2)
Recording Answers
400(2)
Field-Testing
402(2)
Preparing the Cover Letter
404(2)
Monetary Incentive
406(1)
Follow-Ups
407(1)
Dealing with Nonresponse
407(2)
Validity
409(1)
Reliability
409(1)
Statistical Analysis in Surveys
410(4)
Controlling Variables in a Survey Analysis
411(2)
Statistics for Crosstabs
413(1)
Summary
414(1)
References
414(6)
Key Concepts
416(1)
Exercises
416(2)
Answers
418(1)
InfoTrac College Education
419(1)
Qualitative Research
420(44)
Instructional Objectives
420(1)
Qualitative Inquiry
421(3)
Distinguishing Qualitative Inquiry from Quantitative Inquiry
421(3)
Major Characteristics of Qualitative Research
424(2)
Concern for Context
424(1)
Natural Setting
424(1)
Human Instrument
424(1)
Descriptive Data
425(1)
Emergent Design
425(1)
Inductive Analysis
425(1)
Designing Qualitative Research
426(4)
Choosing a Problem
427(1)
Choosing and Becoming Part of a Site
428(1)
Sampling
428(2)
Data Collection Methods
430(7)
Observation
430(1)
Field Notes
431(3)
Interviews
434(1)
Focus Groups
434(1)
Documents
435(1)
Strategies Used in Qualitative Inquiry
435(2)
Ethical Considerations in Qualitative Research
437(3)
Types of Qualitative Research
440(11)
Naturalistic Observation
440(1)
Case Studies
440(2)
Content or Document Analysis
442(2)
Focused Interviews
444(1)
Ethnographic Research
444(3)
Phenomenological Studies
447(1)
Grounded Theory
448(1)
Historical Research
449(1)
Primary and Secondary Sources
450(1)
External and Internal Criticism
450(1)
Validity and Reliability of Qualitative Research
451(6)
Validity/Credibility in Qualitative Research
451(1)
Evidence of Credibility in Qualitative Research
452(2)
Transferability/External Validity
454(1)
Dependability/Reliability
455(1)
Confirmability/Objectivity
456(1)
Summary
457(1)
References
458(6)
Key Concepts
461(1)
Exercises
461(1)
Answers
462(1)
InfoTrac College Education
463(1)
Qualitative Research: Data Analysis and Reporting
464(27)
Instructional Objectives
464(1)
Analyzing Data
465(6)
Organizing
465(4)
Summarizing
469(1)
Interpreting
470(1)
Reporting
471(2)
Abstract
472(1)
Introduction
472(1)
Research Design
472(1)
Methods
472(1)
Outcomes
473(1)
Implications
473(1)
References
473(1)
Appendix
473(1)
Writing Qualitative Research Reports
473(2)
Evaluating Qualitative Studies
475(1)
Summary
476(1)
Example of a Qualitative Research Study
476(13)
References
489(2)
Key Concepts
489(1)
Exercises
489(1)
Answers
490(1)
InfoTrac College Education
490(1)
PART SIX Communicating Research
Guidelines for Writing Research Proposals
491(25)
Instructional Objectives
491(1)
Writing a Research Proposal
492(10)
Qualitative Research Proposal
492(1)
Quantitative Research Proposal
492(10)
Critiquing the Proposal
502(1)
The Importance of Completing the Proposal Before Collecting the Data
503(1)
Ethical and Legal Considerations
503(9)
Obligation to Subjects
504(1)
Obligation to the Profession
505(1)
Legal Obligations
506(6)
Summary
512(1)
References
513(3)
Key Concepts
514(1)
Exercises
514(1)
Answers
515(1)
InfoTrac College Education
515(1)
Analyzing, Interpreting, and Reporting Results of Quantitative Research
516(19)
Instructional Objectives
516(1)
Interpreting and Reporting Quantitative Research
517(1)
Writing the Final Report
518(5)
The Results
518(1)
The Discussion
519(3)
Conclusions and Summary
522(1)
Putting It All Together
523(5)
The Thesis or Dissertation
524(1)
Preliminary Pages
525(1)
Text
526(1)
Supplementary Pages
526(1)
The Journal Article
526(1)
The Professional Convention Paper
527(1)
Poster Session Presentations
528(1)
Checklist for Evaluating Quantitative Research Reports
528(2)
Style Manuals
530(1)
Summary
530(1)
References
531(4)
Key Concepts
531(1)
Exercises
531(1)
Answers
532(1)
InfoTrac College Education
533(2)
Appendix 535(20)
Glossary 555(16)
Index 571


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