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Introduction to Research : Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies

by
Edition:
3rd
ISBN13:

9780323028530

ISBN10:
0323028535
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
5/2/2005
Publisher(s):
Mosby

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This is the 3rd edition with a publication date of 5/2/2005.
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Summary

This clearly written, easy-to-understand book demystifies the research process and provides a rational foundation from which to critique and understand research designs and applications in health care and human service settings. Divided into five parts - Introduction, Thinking Processes, Design Approaches, Action Processes, and Improving Practice Through Inquiry - it explores multiple research strategies, proposing that naturalistic and experimental-type research strategies have equal value and contribute in complementary and distinct ways to the science of practice. Content in this edition has been significantly expanded and updated to reflect changes in the field, specifically in areas of ethics, informed consent, practice efficacy, and proposal-writing. Key terms, chapter outlines, and exercise ideas in each chapter strengthen understanding of important concepts. Detailed discussions of qualitative and quantitative methodologies offer a unique, balanced focus and comprehensive coverage of research. Specific design strategies for experimental, naturalistic, and mixed method enable readers to compare, contrast, and integrate different designs. Understandable, down-to-earth writing style makes the information more accessible and relevant. 3 new chapters comprehensively address patient boundaries, sharing research knowledge, and practice efficacy. A new appendix provides informed consent documents for use in the practice setting. New and expanded content added to chapters reflects emerging practices and hot-button issues such as ethical considerations, practical considerations, new naturalistic inquiry designs, and more. More case examples interspersed throughout the text are identified with new magnifying-glass icons to alert readers to research dilemmas or potential problems they might encounter.

Table of Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION
Research as an Important Way of Knowing
3(10)
Why Is Research Necessary?
4(2)
What Is Research?
6(5)
Research as Multiple Systematic Strategies
7(1)
Research as Thinking and Action Processes
7(3)
Research as Four Basic Characteristics
10(1)
Summary
11(2)
Essentials of Research
13(10)
Ten Essentials of Research
13(6)
Identify a Philosophical Foundation
15(1)
Frame a Research Problem
16(1)
Determine Supporting Knowledge
16(1)
Identify a Theory Base
17(1)
Develop a Specific Question or Query
17(1)
Select a Design Strategy
18(1)
Set Study Boundaries
18(1)
Obtain Information
19(1)
Analyze Information and Draw Conclusions
19(1)
Share and Use Research Knowledge
19(1)
Ethical Considerations
19(1)
Summary
20(3)
PART II THINKING PROCESSES
Philosophical Foundations
23(11)
Philosophical Foundation of Experimental-Type Research
24(1)
Philosophical Foundation of Naturalistic Inquiry
24(1)
Implications of Philosophical Differences for Design
25(1)
Research Traditions
26(1)
Experimental-Type Research
26(1)
Naturalistic Inquiry
27(1)
Integrating Two Research Traditions
27(4)
Selecting a Research Tradition and Design Strategy
31(1)
Purpose of Research
31(1)
Preference for Knowing
32(1)
Level of Knowledge Development
32(1)
Summary
32(2)
Framing the Problem
34(7)
Identifying a Topic
35(3)
Professional Experience
36(1)
Societal Trends
36(1)
Professional Trends
36(1)
Research Studies
37(1)
Existing Theory
37(1)
Framing a Research Problem
38(2)
Interest, Relevance, and Need
38(1)
Research Purpose
38(1)
Epistemology (Preferred Way of Knowing)
39(1)
Resources
40(1)
Summary
40(1)
Developing a Knowledge Base Through Review of the Literature
41(13)
Why Review the Literature?
42(3)
Determine What Research Has Been Conducted on the Topic of Inquiry
42(1)
Determine Level of Theory and Knowledge Development Relevant to Your Project
43(1)
Determine Relevance of the Current Knowledge Base to Your Problem Area
44(1)
Provide a Rationale for Selection of the Research Strategy
45(1)
How to Conduct a Literature Search
45(6)
Step 1: Determine When to Conduct a Search
46(1)
Step 2: Delimit What Is Searched
46(1)
Step 3: Access Databases for Periodicals, Books, and Documents
47(2)
Step 4: Organize Information
49(1)
Step 5: Critically Evaluate the Literature
50(1)
Step 6: Write the Literature Review
50(1)
Summary
51(3)
Theory in Research
54(10)
Why Is Theory Important?
54(1)
What Is Theory?
55(3)
Levels of Abstraction
56(2)
Role of Theory in Design Selection
58(1)
Theory in Experimental-Type Research
59(2)
Theory in Naturalistic Inquiry
61(2)
Summary
63(1)
Formulating Research Questions and Queries
64(12)
Research Questions in Experimental-Type Design
65(5)
Level 1: Questions That Seek to Describe Phenomena
65(2)
Level 2: Questions That Explore Relationships Among Phenomena
67(1)
Level 3: Questions That Test Knowledge
67(1)
Developing Experimental-Type Research Questions
68(1)
Hypotheses
68(2)
Research Queries in Naturalistic Inquiry
70(2)
Classic Ethnography
71(1)
Phenomenology
71(1)
Grounded Theory
72(1)
Developing Naturalistic Research Queries
72(1)
Integrating Research Approaches
72(2)
Summary
74(2)
Language and Thinking Processes
76(19)
Experimental-Type Language and Thinking Processes
77(10)
Sequence of Experimental-Type Research
78(1)
Structure of Experimental-Type Research
78(2)
Plan of Design
80(6)
Experimental-Type Design Summary
86(1)
Naturalistic Language and Thinking Processes
87(4)
Purpose
87(1)
Context Specificity
87(1)
Complexity and Pluralistic Perspective of Reality
87(1)
Transferability of Findings
88(1)
Flexibility
88(1)
Language
89(1)
Emic and Etic Perspectives
89(1)
Gathering Information and Analysis
90(1)
Naturalistic Design Summary
90(1)
Integrated and Mixed-Method Approaches
91(1)
Summary
91(4)
PART III DESIGN APPROACHES
Experimental-Type Designs
95(16)
True-Experimental Designs
96(2)
Randomization
97(1)
Control Group
98(1)
Manipulation
98(1)
True-Experimental Design Variations
98(4)
Posttest-Only Designs
99(1)
Solomon Four-Group Designs
99(1)
Factorial Designs
100(1)
Counterbalance Designs
101(1)
True-Experimental Design Summary
101(1)
Quasi-Experimental Designs
102(2)
Nonequivalent Control Group Designs
102(1)
Interrupted Time Series Designs
103(1)
Combined Design
103(1)
Quasi-Experimental Design Summary
103(1)
Pre-Experimental Designs
104(1)
One-Shot Case Study
104(1)
Pretest-Posttest Design
104(1)
Static Group Comparison
104(1)
Pre-Experimental Design Summary
105(1)
Nonexperimental Designs
105(1)
Survey Designs
105(1)
Passive Observation Designs
105(1)
Ex Post Facto Designs
105(1)
Nonexperimental Design Summary
106(1)
Experimental-Type Meta-Analysis
106(1)
Criteria for Selecting Appropriate and Adequate Designs
107(2)
Summary
109(2)
Naturalistic Inquiry
111(16)
Endogenous Research
112(1)
Participatory Action Research
113(2)
Critical Theory
115(1)
Phenomenology
116(1)
Heuristic Research
116(1)
Ethnography
117(1)
Narrative Inquiry
118(2)
Life History
120(1)
Grounded Theory
121(1)
Naturalistic Meta-Analysis
121(1)
Summary
122(5)
PART IV ACTION PROCESSES
Setting the Boundaries of a Study
127(6)
Why Set Boundaries to a Study?
127(2)
Implications of Boundary Setting
129(1)
Specifying Who Participates and Who Does Not Participate
130(1)
General Guidelines for Bounding Studies
131(1)
Subjects, Respondents, Informants, or Participants
132(1)
Summary
132(1)
Protecting the Boundaries
133(12)
Principles for Protecting Human Subjects
134(2)
Full Disclosure
134(1)
Confidentiality
134(2)
Voluntary Participation
136(1)
Belmont Report
136(1)
Institutional Review Board
137(2)
Three Levels of Review
138(1)
Informed Consent Process
139(1)
Study Approval and Monitoring
140(1)
Developing an Informed Consent Document
141(1)
Involving Vulnerable Populations
141(1)
Specialized Oversight of Experimental-Type Designs
142(1)
Summary
143(2)
Boundary Setting in Experimental-Type Designs
145(12)
Sampling Process
146(2)
Probability Sampling
148(4)
Simple Random Sampling
150(1)
Systematic Sampling
151(1)
Stratified Random Sampling
151(1)
Cluster Sampling
152(1)
Nonprobability Methods
152(2)
Convenience Sampling
153(1)
Purposive Sampling
153(1)
Snowball Sampling
153(1)
Quota Sampling
153(1)
Comparing Sample to Population
154(1)
Determining Sample Size
154(2)
Summary
156(1)
Boundary Setting in Naturalistic Designs
157(10)
Ways of Setting Boundaries
158(3)
Geographical Location
158(1)
Cultural Groups
159(1)
Personal Experience
159(1)
Concepts
160(1)
Involving Research Participants
161(3)
Maximum Variation
162(1)
Homogeneous Selection
162(1)
Theory-Based Selection
162(1)
Confirming and Disconfirming Cases
162(1)
Extreme or Deviant Case
163(1)
Typical Case
163(1)
How Many Study Participants?
163(1)
Process of Setting Boundaries and Selecting Informants
164(1)
Ethical Considerations
165(1)
Summary
166(1)
Collecting Information
167(7)
Principles of Information Collection
168(1)
Watching, Listening, and Recording
168(1)
Asking
169(2)
Interviews
169(1)
Questionnaires
170(1)
Obtaining and Examining Materials
171(1)
Unobtrusive Methodology
171(1)
Secondary Data Analysis
172(1)
Artifact Review
172(1)
Summary
172(2)
Measurement in Experimental-Type Research
174(17)
Measurement Process
175(1)
Levels of Measurement
176(3)
Nominal
177(1)
Ordinal
177(1)
Interval
178(1)
Ratio
178(1)
Determining Appropriate Level
178(1)
Measurement Scales
179(1)
Likert-Type Scale
179(1)
Guttman Scale
179(1)
Semantic Differential Scale
180(1)
Confidence in Instruments
180(5)
Reliability
180(3)
Validity
183(2)
Considerations in Selecting a Measure
185(3)
Purpose of Assessment
185(1)
Psychometric Properties
186(1)
Population
186(1)
Information Sources
187(1)
Item Selection
188(1)
Response Set
188(1)
Constructing an Instrument
188(1)
Administering the Instrument
189(1)
Summary
189(2)
Gathering Information in Naturalistic Inquiry
191(19)
Four Information-Gathering Principles
192(3)
Investigator Involvement
192(1)
Information Collection and Analysis
193(1)
Time Commitment in the Field
193(1)
Multiple Information-Gathering Strategies
194(1)
Overview of Principles
195(1)
Information-Gathering Process
195(3)
Selecting the Context
195(1)
Gaining Access
196(1)
``Learning the Ropes,''
197(1)
Information-Gathering Strategies
198(4)
Watching and Listening
198(1)
Asking
199(1)
Four Components of Asking Strategies
200(2)
Examining Materials
202(1)
Recording Information
202(3)
Field Notes
202(1)
Voice Recording
203(1)
Video Imaging
204(1)
Accuracy in Collecting Information
205(2)
Multiple Data Gatherers
205(1)
Triangulation (Crystallization)
205(1)
Saturation
205(1)
Member Checking
206(1)
Reflexivity
206(1)
Audit Trail
207(1)
Peer Debriefing
207(1)
Summary
207(3)
Preparing and Organizing Data
210(9)
Managing Data in Experimental-Type Research
211(3)
Managing Data in Naturalistic Inquiry
214(3)
Practical Considerations
217(1)
Summary
217(2)
Statistical Analysis for Experimental-Type Research
219(22)
What Is Statistical Analysis?
220(1)
Level 1: Descriptive Statistics
221(10)
Frequency Distribution
222(2)
Measures of Central Tendency
224(2)
Measures of Variability
226(3)
Bivariate Descriptive Statistics
229(2)
Level 2: Drawing Inferences
231(7)
Action 1: State the Hypothesis
233(1)
Action 2: Select a Significance Level
233(1)
Action 3: Compute a Calculated Value
234(3)
Action 4: Obtain a Critical Value
237(1)
Action 5: Reject or Fail to Reject the Null Hypothesis
238(1)
Level 3: Association and Relationships
238(1)
Summary
239(2)
Analysis in Naturalistic Inquiry
241(12)
Strategies and Stages in Naturalistic Analysis
242(1)
Stage One: Analysis in the Field
243(4)
Engaging in Thinking Process
244(1)
Developing Categories
244(2)
Developing Taxonomies
246(1)
Discovering Underlying Themes
246(1)
Stage Two: Formal Report Preparation
247(1)
Examples of Analytical Processes
247(2)
Grounded Theory
247(1)
Ethnography
248(1)
Accuracy and Rigor in Analysis
249(2)
Triangulation (Crystallization)
250(1)
Saturation
250(1)
Member Checking
250(1)
Reflexivity
251(1)
Audit Trail
251(1)
Peer Debriefing
251(1)
Summary
251(2)
Sharing Research Knowledge Before the Study
253(12)
Reasons for Sharing Before Field Engagement
253(1)
Where to Seek Support for a Research Idea
254(2)
Who Reads a Proposal?
256(1)
Writing a Research Proposal
256(7)
Basic Principles
256(1)
Common Elements of a Research Proposal
257(6)
Special Considerations
263(1)
Preparing an Experimental-Type Proposal
263(1)
Preparing a Naturalistic Proposal
263(1)
Preparing a Mixed-Method Proposal
264(1)
Summary
264(1)
Sharing Research Knowledge During and After the Study
265(12)
Writing Guidelines
266(1)
Clarity
266(1)
Purpose
266(1)
Multiple Audiences
266(1)
Citations
267(1)
Writing an Experimental-Type Report
267(2)
Writing a Naturalistic Report
269(2)
Ethnography
270(1)
Phenomenology
270(1)
Writing an Integrated Report
271(1)
Accessibility
271(1)
Linguistic Sensitivity
271(1)
Dissemination
272(1)
Sharing Written Reports
272(1)
Publishing Your Work
272(1)
Sharing Your Research Through Other Methods
272(1)
Summary
273(4)
PART V IMPROVING PRACTICE THROUGH INQUIRY
Case Study Designs
277(7)
What Is a Case Study?
277(1)
Structure of Case Studies
278(1)
Structural Dimension
279(1)
Number of Cases
279(1)
Design Sequence
279(3)
Experimental-Type Approach
280(2)
Naturalistic Approach
282(1)
Mixed-Method Approach
282(1)
Summary
282(2)
Practice Efficacy
284(10)
Evidence-Based Practice
284(4)
Definitions and Models
285(1)
Approaches to Identifying Evidence
286(1)
Limitations of Evidence-Based Practice
287(1)
Clinical Trial Methodology
288(3)
Phases of Clinical Trials
288(1)
Binding (Masking)
289(1)
Randomization Scheme
290(1)
Treatment Fidelity
290(1)
Evaluation Practice
291(1)
Problem and Need Clarification
291(1)
Reflexive Intervention
291(1)
Outcome Assessment
292(1)
Summary
292(2)
Stories from the Field
294(5)
Just Beginning
294(1)
``I'll Do It for You, Sweetie,''
295(1)
In Search of Significance!
295(1)
Is Health Care Effective?
295(1)
Elevator Insight
295(1)
A ``Good'' Research Subject
295(1)
A ``Bad'' Research Subject
296(1)
Native American?
296(1)
The Pearson, or the Moral of the Coding, Story
296(1)
If You Can't Deliver, Don't Ask
297(1)
Don't Ask if You're Not Prepared to Answer
297(1)
No Detail Too Small
297(1)
Wow, You Got It!
297(2)
Appendix
Informed Consent Documents 299(18)
Glossary 317


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