Preface | |

Fundamentals | |

Introduction | |

What Is a Robot? | |

Classification of Robots | |

What Is Robotics? | |

History of Robotics | |

Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots | |

Robot Components | |

Robot Degrees of Freedom | |

Robot Joints | |

Robot Coordinates | |

Robot Reference Frames | |

Programming Modes | |

Robot Characteristics | |

Robot Workspace | |

Robot Languages | |

Robot Applications | |

Other Robots and Applications | |

Social Issues | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Kinematics of Robots: Position Analysis | |

Introduction | |

Robots as Mechanisms | |

Conventions | |

Matrix Representation | |

Homogeneous Transformation Matrices | |

Representation of Transformations | |

Inverse of Transformation Matrices | |

Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots | |

Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position | |

Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation | |

Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and | |

Orientation | |

Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic | |

Equations of Robots | |

The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots | |

Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots | |

Degeneracy and Dexterity | |

The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg | |

Representation | |

Design Projects | |

Robot | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Differential Motions and Velocities | |

Introduction | |

Differential Relationships | |

Jacobian | |

Differential versus Large-Scale Motions | |

Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot | |

Differential Motions of a Frame | |

Interpretation of the Differential Change | |

Differential Changes between Frames | |

Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame | |

Calculation of the Jacobian | |

How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator | |

Inverse Jacobian | |

Design Projects | |

Robot | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Dynamic Analysis and Forces | |

Introduction | |

Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview | |

Effective Moments of Inertia | |

Dynamic Equations for Multiple DOF Robots | |

Static Force Analysis of Robots | |

Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames | |

Design Project | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Trajectory Planning | |

Introduction | |

Path Trajectory | |

Joint-Space versus Cartesian-Space Descriptions | |

Basics of Trajectory Planning | |

Joint-Space Trajectory Planning | |

Cartesian-Space Trajectories | |

Continuous Trajectory Recording | |

Design Project | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Motion Control Systems | |

Introduction | |

Basic Components and Terminology | |

Block Diagrams | |

System Dynamics | |

The Laplace Transform | |

The Inverse Laplace Transform | |

Transfer Function | |

Block Diagram Algebra | |

Characteristics of First Order Transfer Functions | |

Characteristics of Second Order Transfer Functions | |

Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping | |

Steady-State Error | |

Root Locus Method | |

Proportional Controllers | |

Proportional-plus-Integral Controllers | |

Proportional-plus-Derivative Controllers | |

Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID) | |

Lead and Lag Compensators | |

The Bode Diagram and Frequency Domain Analysis | |

Open-Loop versus Closed-Loop Applications | |

Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Systems | |

State-Space Control Methodology | |

Digital Control | |

Nonlinear Control Systems | |

Electromechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control | |

Design Projects | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Actuators and Drive Systems | |

Introduction | |

Characteristics of Actuating Systems | |

Comparison of Actuating Systems | |

Hydraulic Actuators | |

Pneumatic Devices | |

Electric Motors 279 | |

Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors | |

Magnetostrictive Actuators | |

Shape-Memory Type Metals | |

Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP) | |

Speed Reduction | |

Other Systems | |

Design Projects | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems 317 | |

Sensors | |

Introduction | |

Sensor Characteristics | |

Sensor Utilization | |

Position Sensors | |

Velocity Sensors | |

Acceleration Sensors | |

Force and Pressure Sensors | |

Torque Sensors | |

Microswitches | |

Visible Light and Infrared Sensors | |

Touch and Tactile Sensors | |

Proximity Sensors | |

Range Finders | |

Sniff Sensors | |

Taste Sensors | |

Vision Systems | |

Voice Recognition Devices | |

Voice Synthesizers | |

Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device | |

Design Project | |

Summary | |

References | |

Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems | |

Introduction | |

Basic Concepts | |

Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal | |

Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges | |

Resolution and Quantization | |

Sampling Theorem | |

Image-Processing Techniques | |

Histogram of Images | |

Thresholding | |

Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask | |

Connectivity | |

Noise Reduction | |

Edge Detection | |

Sharpening an Image | |

Hough Transform | |

Segmentation 388 | |

Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting | |

Binary Morphology Operations | |

Gray Morphology Operations | |

Image Analysis | |

Object Recognition by Features | |

Depth Measurement with Vision Systems | |

Specialized Lighting | |

Image Data Compression | |

Color Images | |

Heuristics | |

Applications of Vision Systems | |

Design Project | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Fuzzy Logic Control | |

Introduction | |

Fuzzy Control: What Is Needed | |

Crisp Values versus Fuzzy Values | |

Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth | |

Fuzzification | |

Fuzzy Inference Rule Base | |

Defuzzification | |

Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller | |

Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics | |

Design Project | |

Summary | |

References | |

Problems | |

Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review | |

Calculation of an Angle from Its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent | |

Problems | |

Image Acquisition Systems | |

Vidicon Camera | |

Digital Camera | |

References | |

Root Locus and Bode Diagram with MatlabTM | |

Root Locus | |

Bode Diagram | |

Simulation of Robots with Commercial Software | |

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