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Preface | |
Fundamentals | |
Introduction | |
What Is a Robot? | |
Classification of Robots | |
What Is Robotics? | |
History of Robotics | |
Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots | |
Robot Components | |
Robot Degrees of Freedom | |
Robot Joints | |
Robot Coordinates | |
Robot Reference Frames | |
Programming Modes | |
Robot Characteristics | |
Robot Workspace | |
Robot Languages | |
Robot Applications | |
Other Robots and Applications | |
Social Issues | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Kinematics of Robots: Position Analysis | |
Introduction | |
Robots as Mechanisms | |
Conventions | |
Matrix Representation | |
Homogeneous Transformation Matrices | |
Representation of Transformations | |
Inverse of Transformation Matrices | |
Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots | |
Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position | |
Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Orientation | |
Forward and Inverse Kinematic Equations: Position and | |
Orientation | |
Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic | |
Equations of Robots | |
The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots | |
Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots | |
Degeneracy and Dexterity | |
The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg | |
Representation | |
Design Projects | |
Robot | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Differential Motions and Velocities | |
Introduction | |
Differential Relationships | |
Jacobian | |
Differential versus Large-Scale Motions | |
Differential Motions of a Frame versus a Robot | |
Differential Motions of a Frame | |
Interpretation of the Differential Change | |
Differential Changes between Frames | |
Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame | |
Calculation of the Jacobian | |
How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator | |
Inverse Jacobian | |
Design Projects | |
Robot | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Dynamic Analysis and Forces | |
Introduction | |
Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview | |
Effective Moments of Inertia | |
Dynamic Equations for Multiple DOF Robots | |
Static Force Analysis of Robots | |
Transformation of Forces and Moments between Coordinate Frames | |
Design Project | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Trajectory Planning | |
Introduction | |
Path Trajectory | |
Joint-Space versus Cartesian-Space Descriptions | |
Basics of Trajectory Planning | |
Joint-Space Trajectory Planning | |
Cartesian-Space Trajectories | |
Continuous Trajectory Recording | |
Design Project | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Motion Control Systems | |
Introduction | |
Basic Components and Terminology | |
Block Diagrams | |
System Dynamics | |
The Laplace Transform | |
The Inverse Laplace Transform | |
Transfer Function | |
Block Diagram Algebra | |
Characteristics of First Order Transfer Functions | |
Characteristics of Second Order Transfer Functions | |
Characteristic Equation: Pole/Zero Mapping | |
Steady-State Error | |
Root Locus Method | |
Proportional Controllers | |
Proportional-plus-Integral Controllers | |
Proportional-plus-Derivative Controllers | |
Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller (PID) | |
Lead and Lag Compensators | |
The Bode Diagram and Frequency Domain Analysis | |
Open-Loop versus Closed-Loop Applications | |
Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output Systems | |
State-Space Control Methodology | |
Digital Control | |
Nonlinear Control Systems | |
Electromechanical Systems Dynamics: Robot Actuation and Control | |
Design Projects | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Actuators and Drive Systems | |
Introduction | |
Characteristics of Actuating Systems | |
Comparison of Actuating Systems | |
Hydraulic Actuators | |
Pneumatic Devices | |
Electric Motors 279 | |
Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors | |
Magnetostrictive Actuators | |
Shape-Memory Type Metals | |
Electroactive Polymer Actuators (EAP) | |
Speed Reduction | |
Other Systems | |
Design Projects | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems 317 | |
Sensors | |
Introduction | |
Sensor Characteristics | |
Sensor Utilization | |
Position Sensors | |
Velocity Sensors | |
Acceleration Sensors | |
Force and Pressure Sensors | |
Torque Sensors | |
Microswitches | |
Visible Light and Infrared Sensors | |
Touch and Tactile Sensors | |
Proximity Sensors | |
Range Finders | |
Sniff Sensors | |
Taste Sensors | |
Vision Systems | |
Voice Recognition Devices | |
Voice Synthesizers | |
Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device | |
Design Project | |
Summary | |
References | |
Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems | |
Introduction | |
Basic Concepts | |
Fourier Transform and Frequency Content of a Signal | |
Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges | |
Resolution and Quantization | |
Sampling Theorem | |
Image-Processing Techniques | |
Histogram of Images | |
Thresholding | |
Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask | |
Connectivity | |
Noise Reduction | |
Edge Detection | |
Sharpening an Image | |
Hough Transform | |
Segmentation 388 | |
Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting | |
Binary Morphology Operations | |
Gray Morphology Operations | |
Image Analysis | |
Object Recognition by Features | |
Depth Measurement with Vision Systems | |
Specialized Lighting | |
Image Data Compression | |
Color Images | |
Heuristics | |
Applications of Vision Systems | |
Design Project | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Fuzzy Logic Control | |
Introduction | |
Fuzzy Control: What Is Needed | |
Crisp Values versus Fuzzy Values | |
Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth | |
Fuzzification | |
Fuzzy Inference Rule Base | |
Defuzzification | |
Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller | |
Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics | |
Design Project | |
Summary | |
References | |
Problems | |
Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review | |
Calculation of an Angle from Its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent | |
Problems | |
Image Acquisition Systems | |
Vidicon Camera | |
Digital Camera | |
References | |
Root Locus and Bode Diagram with MatlabTM | |
Root Locus | |
Bode Diagram | |
Simulation of Robots with Commercial Software | |
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