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Introduction to Robotics in Cim Systems

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Edition:
5th
ISBN13:

9780130602435

ISBN10:
0130602434
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
3/8/2002
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
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Summary

Written from a manufacturing perspective, this book takes readers step-by-step through the theory and application techniques of designing and building a robot-driven automated work cellfrom selection of hardware through programming of the devices to economic justification of the project. All-inclusive in approach, it covers not only robot automation, but all the other technology needed in the automated work cell to integrate the robot with the work environment and with the enterprise data base. Robot and other required automation hardware and software are introduced in the order in which they would be selected in an actual industrial automation design. Includes system troubleshooting guides, case studies problems, and worked example problems.Robot Classification. Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems. End-of-Arm Tooling. Automation Sensors. Work-Cell Support Systems. Robot and System Integration. Work-Cell Programming. Justification and Applications of Work Cells. Safety. Human Interface: Operator Training, Acceptance, and Problems.For those interested in Robotics and Manufacturing Automation or Production Design.

Author Biography

James A. Rehg, CMfgE, is an associate professor of engineering at Penn State-Altoona. He earned a BS and MS in electrical engineering from St. Louis University and has completed additional graduate work at Wentworth Institute, University of Missouri, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, and Clemson University. Before moving to Penn State, he was director of the Computer Integrated Manufacturing project and department head of CAD/CAM and Machine Tool Technology at Tri-County Technical College, and previous to that he was director of Academic Computing and the Manufacturing Productivity Center at Trident Technical College. Professor Rehg also served as director of the Robotics Resource Center at Piedmont Technical College and department head of Electronic Engineering Technology at Forest Park Community College. His industrial experience includes work in instrumentation at McDonnell Douglas Corporation and consulting in the areas of computer-aided design, robotics, computer-integrated manufacturing, and programmable logic controllers.

Professor Rehg has written five texts on robotics and automation and many articles on subjects related to training in automation and robotics. His most recent text is Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 2nd ed., with coauthor Henry Kraebber of Purdue University, published by Prentice Hall in 2000. Professor Rehg has received numerous state awards for excellence in teaching, including the outstanding instructor in the nation by the Association of Community College Trustees and the Penn State Engineering Society Outstanding Teaching Award in 1998.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Industrial Robots
1(52)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
1(1)
Introduction
1(1)
Career Spotlight
2(1)
History of the Industry
2(3)
Fifty-year-old Industry
5(2)
Integrated Systems-Meeting the External and Internal Challenges
7(11)
External Challenges
7(3)
Internal Challenge
10(1)
Meeting the Internal Challenge
11(7)
The Problem and a Solution
18(1)
Definition of Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
19(2)
Manufacturing System Classification
21(4)
Project
21(2)
Job Shop
23(1)
Repetitive
23(1)
Line
23(1)
Continuous
23(2)
Robot Systems
25(7)
Robot Hardware
25(1)
Mechanical Arm
25(2)
Production Tooling
27(1)
External Power Source
27(2)
Robot Controller
29(1)
Teach Stations
30(1)
ABB Controller Interface
31(1)
Some Basic Terms
32(10)
Robot Safety Guidelines
42(4)
Work Cell Safety Design Requirements
43(1)
Guidelines for Safe Robot Use
43(3)
Robot Standards
46(1)
R15 Standards
46(1)
A15 Standards
47(1)
Summary
47(6)
Questions
49(1)
Problems
50(1)
Projects
51(2)
Robot Classification
53(66)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
53(1)
Career Spotlight
54(1)
Introduction
54(1)
Robot Arm Geometry
55(12)
Cartesian Geometry
55(3)
Cylindrical Geometry
58(2)
Spherical Geometry
60(3)
Articulated Geometry
63(3)
Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm (SCARA)
66(1)
Horizontally Base-jointed Arm
66(1)
Power Sources
67(6)
Hydraulic Power
67(3)
Pneumatic Power
70(1)
Electric Power
70(3)
Drive Systems
73(11)
Torque
73(1)
Belts
74(3)
Chains
77(1)
Gear Drives
77(4)
Gear Error
81(1)
Ball Screw Drives
81(2)
Harmonic Drives
83(1)
Application Areas
84(3)
Assembly
86(1)
Nonassembly
86(1)
Control Techniques
87(15)
Closed-loop Systems
87(1)
Position Sensors
88(10)
Open-loop Systems
98(4)
Path Control
102(7)
Stop-to-stop Path Control
104(1)
Point-to-point Control
104(3)
Controlled Path
107(1)
Continuous Path
108(1)
Design Guidelines
109(3)
Robot Selection Criteria
109(1)
Robot Survey
110(2)
Classification by the International Standards Organization (ISO)
112(1)
Sequenced
112(1)
Trajectory
112(1)
Adaptive
112(1)
Teleoperated
112(1)
Summary
112(7)
Questions
113(2)
Problems
115(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
116(3)
Automated Work Cells and CIM Systems
119(41)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
119(1)
Career Spotlight
120(1)
Introduction
120(1)
The CIM Implementation Process
121(8)
Step 1: Assessment of Enterprise Technology, Human Resources, and Systems
122(1)
Step 2: Simplification-Elimination of Waste
123(2)
Step 3: Implementation with Performance Measures
125(4)
Making the CIM Process Work
129(1)
Automated Production
130(2)
Flexible Automation
132(5)
Fixed Automation
137(1)
In-line Fixed Automation
137(1)
Rotary-type Fixed Automation
138(1)
Work-cell Design Checklist
138(1)
Implementing Automated Work Cells
139(2)
New versus Existing Production Machines
139(1)
Fixed versus Flexible Automation
140(1)
System Troubleshooting and Problem Solving
141(14)
Introduction to Troubleshooting
141(1)
Hardware versus Software Troubleshooting
142(1)
Troubleshooting Techniques
143(1)
Block Diagrams
144(2)
Bracketing
146(1)
Signal Flow
147(2)
Signal Flow Analysis
149(1)
Information Funneling
150(3)
Symptoms and Use of System Data
153(1)
Troubleshooting Sequence
154(1)
Multiple Failures
154(1)
Summary
155(5)
Questions
156(1)
Problems
157(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
158(2)
End-of-Arm Tooling
160(42)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
160(1)
Career Spotlight
161(1)
Introduction
161(1)
Standard Grippers
162(9)
Gripping Force
166(2)
Minimum Gripper Force
168(3)
Vacuum Grippers
171(6)
Lifting Capacity
171(3)
System Components
174(2)
Vacuum Surfaces
176(1)
Vacuum Suckers
176(1)
Magnetic Grippers
177(1)
Air-pressure Grippers
177(5)
Gripping Force
180(2)
Special-purpose Grippers
182(1)
Gripper Selection and System Intelligence
183(1)
Special-purpose Tools
183(1)
Robot Assembly
183(1)
Compliance
184(7)
Active Compliance
186(1)
Active Compliance Applications
187(1)
Passive Compliance
188(3)
Multiple End-effector Systems
191(4)
Wrist Interface
191(1)
Multiple-gripper Systems
192(3)
Collision Systems
195(2)
Breakable Link Devices
195(1)
Spring and Pneumatic Collision Devices
196(1)
Summary
197(5)
Questions
198(1)
Problems
198(2)
Projects and Case Study Problems
200(2)
Automation Sensors
202(48)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
202(1)
Career Spotlight
203(1)
Introduction
203(2)
Discrete Sensors
204(1)
Analog Sensors
205(1)
Contact Sensors
205(7)
Discrete Devices
205(2)
Dogs
207(3)
Artificial Skin
210(2)
Noncontact Sensors
212(24)
Proximity Sensors
212(5)
Inductive Sensor Operation
217(8)
Capacitive Sensors
225(1)
Photoelectric Sensors
226(10)
Sensor Selection Checklist
236(1)
Smart Sensor Systems
236(3)
DeviceNet Network
236(3)
Process Sensors
239(1)
Troubleshooting Sensor Systems
239(6)
Troubleshooting Tips for Proximity Sensors
241(2)
Troubleshooting Tips for Photoelectric Sensors
243(2)
Summary
245(5)
Questions
246(1)
Problems
247(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
248(2)
Work-Cell Support Systems
250(28)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
250(1)
Introduction
250(1)
Career Spotlight
251(1)
Machine Vision Systems
251(8)
Vision Standards
252(1)
Vision System Components
252(4)
Image Measurement
256(1)
Image Analysis
256(2)
Image Recognition
258(1)
Lighting for Machine Vision
259(3)
Selection of the Light Source
259(1)
Lighting Techniques
259(2)
Illumination Sources
261(1)
Material Handling
262(6)
Automated Transfer Systems
262(4)
Automatic Storage and Retrieval Systems
266(2)
Part Feeding
268(4)
Gravity Feeders
268(1)
Magazine Feeders
269(1)
Tape Feeders
269(1)
Waffle-tray Feeders
269(2)
Vibratory Feeders
271(1)
Inspection
272(1)
Automatic Tracking
272(3)
Summary
275(3)
Questions
276(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
277(1)
Robot and System Integration
278(28)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
278(1)
Career Spotlight
279(1)
Introduction
279(2)
System Overview
281(2)
Hardware Overview
282(1)
Software Overview
282(1)
Work-cell Architecture
283(2)
Cell Controllers
283(1)
Cell Control Software Structure
283(1)
Work-cell Management Software
284(1)
Programmable Logic Controllers
285(4)
PLC System Components
285(1)
Basic PLC System Operation
286(3)
Computer Numerical Control
289(1)
Controller Architecture
290(5)
Nonservo Robot Controllers
290(2)
Servo Robot Controllers
292(3)
Interfaces
295(5)
Simple Sensor Interface
295(1)
Simple Sensor Interface Design
296(2)
Complex Sensor Interface
298(2)
Enterprise Data Interface
300(1)
An Integrated System
300(4)
Machining Cell
302(1)
Assembly Cell
302(1)
Signal Types
302(1)
Work-cell Controller
303(1)
Programmable Logic Controller
303(1)
Summary
304(2)
Questions
304(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
305(1)
Work-Cell Programming
306(39)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
306(1)
Introduction
306(2)
Career Spotlight
307(1)
Work-Cell Controller Programming
308(3)
Software Developed In-house
309(1)
Enabler Software
309(1)
OSI Solution
310(1)
Programming Sequential Cell Activity
311(4)
PLC Programming
311(3)
Other Sequential Programming Options
314(1)
Robot Language Development
315(1)
Language Classification
316(3)
Joint-control Languages
316(1)
Primitive Motion Languages
317(1)
Structured Programming Languages
318(1)
Task-oriented Languages
318(1)
Robot Program Fundamentals
319(3)
Translation or Programmed Points
319(2)
Programmed Statements
321(1)
Translation or Position Points for Servo Robots
322(7)
Reference Frames
322(2)
Programming Servo Robot Translation Points
324(5)
Programming Nonservo Robot Translation Points
329(1)
Program Statements for Servo Robots
329(5)
Basic Program Structure-Step 1
329(1)
Process Analysis-Step 2
330(1)
Tasks and Subtasks-Step 3
330(1)
Task Point Graph-Step 4
331(1)
System Variables-Step 5
331(1)
Write and Enter the Program-Step 6
331(1)
Teach the Translation Points-Step 7
331(2)
Test and Debug the Program-Step 8
333(1)
On-line and Off-line Programming
333(1)
Programming a Servo Robot
334(7)
Command Modes
335(1)
Coordinate Systems
335(1)
Data Types
336(1)
Axis Control Commands
336(2)
I/O Control and Program Flow Commands
338(3)
Summary
341(4)
Questions
342(1)
Problems
343(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
344(1)
Justification and Applications of Work Cells
345(25)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
345(1)
Introduction
345(2)
Career Spotlight
346(1)
Capital Equipment Justification
347(3)
Return on Investment Method
348(1)
Cash Flow Method
348(1)
Time Value of Money
348(1)
Justifying Robotics Applications
349(1)
Justification Spreadsheet
349(1)
Automation Applications
350(16)
Material Handling
350(4)
Machine Tending
354(1)
Assembly
355(4)
Process
359(1)
Welding
359(4)
Paint Spraying
363(3)
Summary
366(4)
Questions
367(1)
Problems
368(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
369(1)
Safety
370(37)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
370(1)
Introduction
370(1)
Career Spotlight
371(1)
Safety Standards
371(2)
Robot Systems and Integrated Work Cells
372(1)
Corporate Standards
372(1)
Governmental and Other Organizations
372(1)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
373(1)
American National Standards Institute/Robotic Industries Association Standard for Robot Safety
373(1)
Safeguarding a Work Cell
374(2)
Safeguarding Devices
374(1)
Safety Hardware
375(1)
Presence Sensing Devices
376(8)
Proximity Sensing Devices
376(2)
Light Curtain Introduction
378(1)
Light Curtain Operation
378(2)
Light Curtain Applications
380(2)
Calculating Safe Curtain Distance
382(1)
Presence Sensing Mats
383(1)
Sensing Mat Operation
383(1)
Interlock Devices
384(8)
Interlock Switch Operation
384(1)
Interlock Positive Mode Operation
385(1)
Forms of Interlock Devices
385(1)
Power Interlocking
386(1)
Control Interlocking
386(1)
Calculating Safe Guard Distance
386(1)
Mechanical Interlock Devices
387(2)
Non-contact Interlock Devices
389(2)
Interlock Switches with Guard Locking
391(1)
Unconditional Guard Unlocking
391(1)
Conditional Guard Unlocking
391(1)
Safeguarding the Operator
392(1)
Safeguarding the Programmer
392(1)
Safeguarding Maintenance and Repair Personnel
392(1)
Developing a Safety Strategy
393(7)
Risk Assessment
393(3)
Risk Estimation
396(1)
Risk Assessment-Three Steps
396(2)
Final Assessment Rating
398(1)
Hazard Reduction
399(1)
Personnel Protection Equipment
400(1)
Design Guidelines
400(1)
Safety Justification
401(1)
Summary
402(5)
Questions
403(1)
Problems
404(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
405(2)
Human Interface: Operator Training, Acceptance, and Problems
407(10)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
407(1)
Introduction
407(1)
Career Spotlight
408(1)
General Training
408(2)
General Training Program
409(1)
Operator Training
410(1)
Maintenance Training
410(1)
Team-based Manufacturing
411(1)
Description of a Self-directed Work Team
411(1)
Making Work Teams Work
412(1)
Resistance
412(1)
Organized Labor
413(1)
Impact of 24-7
414(1)
Summary
415(2)
Questions
416(1)
Projects and Case Study Problems
416(1)
Work-Cell Design Case Study
417(49)
Chapter Goals and Objectives
417(1)
Career Spotlight
417(1)
Introduction
418(1)
Company Profile
418(1)
Introduction to CIM Automation at West-Electric
418(4)
West-Electric Automation Team
419(1)
The First Meeting
420(2)
Turbine Blade Production
422(8)
Step 1: Raw Material Inspection
423(1)
Step 2: Production of Slugs
424(1)
Step 3: Slug Lubrication
424(1)
Step 4: Extrusion
424(1)
Step 5: Upset Forging
425(2)
Step 6: Block Forge
427(1)
Step 7: Final Forge and Trim
427(1)
Step 8: Alternate Process for Small Airfoils
427(1)
Step 9: Deburring
428(1)
Step 10: Heat-treating
429(1)
Step 11: Measuring Airfoil Cross-section
429(1)
Step 12: Chemical Milling
429(1)
Step 13: Machining Base
429(1)
Additional Data on the Blade Production Line
430(1)
CDM Improvement Process
430(2)
Five-step Design Process
431(1)
The Automation Plan
432(3)
Selection Criteria
435(5)
Work-cell Technical Design Checklist
436(1)
Robot Selection Checklist
437(3)
Performance Measures
440(2)
Technical Issues
442(5)
Performance Requirements
442(1)
Layout Requirements
442(1)
Production Characteristics
442(1)
Equipment Modifications
443(1)
Process Modifications
443(1)
Robot Specifications
444(2)
Oven Modifications
446(1)
Work-cell Simulation
447(1)
Automation Cell Integration
447(5)
Work-cell Control
452(1)
Cell Programming
452(3)
Cost Justification
455(1)
Safety Plan
456(5)
Operational Overview
456(2)
Work-cell Safety
458(3)
Final Performance Measures
461(1)
Case Study Problems
462(4)
Sections 12-1 to 12-4
462(1)
Sections 12-5 to 12-8
462(1)
Sections 12-8 to 12-9
463(1)
Section 12-10
463(1)
Section 12-11
464(1)
Section 12-12
464(1)
Section 12-13
464(1)
Sections 12-14 to 12-15
465(1)
Appendix A: Hardware Specifications 466(17)
Appendix B: Internet Resources 483(3)
Thomas Register
484(1)
Web Search Engines
484(1)
Standard Organizations
484(1)
Robot Vendors
484(1)
Automation Sensors
484(1)
Automation Support Components
485(1)
Programmable Logic Controllers
485(1)
Work-cell Control Software
485(1)
Material Handling Systems
485(1)
Appendix C: Justification Program 486(5)
Appendix D: Glossary 491(12)
Index 503

Excerpts

INTRODUCTION An industrial robot is just another industrial machine. This statement has been used frequently by those in education and industry to calm fears about mass worker displacement or to encourage corporate management to adopt flexible automation. Like the numerical control turning center or the lathe that preceded it, the industrial robot is a machine designed to increase productivity, improve quality, and reduce direct labor cost, but the robot is notjust another industrial machine. Robots are versatile: They can be used in every industry that provides goods and services; they can be adapted to numerous job functions; they can change job functions easily; and they work with uncanny skill and unmatched endurance. Robots are different from any industrial machine in the history of automated production. The potential of the robot as an agent of change in manufacturing and in our daily lives has not been fully realized. Employment in the robotics area has changed significantly from the early days of robots. Engineers and technicians working in the robotics field do not concentrate on just robot technology as they did when robots were first introduced. Today the engineer and technician must be capable of working on the entire production system, which often includes robot technology. The job might be in an automation system design company that designs, builds, and installs robot-based automation for other companies, or in an automation design department in a large manufacturing company that designs automation systems for its plants. The automotive industry is a good example of companies in the latter category. Engineers and technicians with robot and automation systems skills are also needed by companies using the technology to produce products. In these companies, they work either individually or in teams to make the automation system perform to specifications. This includes work on robots, programmable logic controllers, and computer numerical machines; system controller programming; troubleshooting system and production problems; performing system upgrades; and training operators on the proper use of the technology. Positions for robot technicians are not plentiful; however, the need for engineers and technicians who can design, develop, implement, and support automated production systems with robots is significant and expanding. Although robots are unique, they share one element with other automated production equipment; namely, to be effective, they must be integrated into the total solution. Education in robotics must reflect this emphasis on the total system as well. The first edition of this text focused on the robot as part of an integrated production cell. The interfaces between the robot and cell devices were emphasized. In the second through fourth editions, the integration of the robot-automated cell with the computer-integrated enterprise was introduced. Now this edition takes the integration of the robot with the automated cell and system to another level. While robots remain the primary focus of the text, additional emphasis is placed on the hardware, software, and programming that support the implementation of automated work cells and manufacturing systems. CHANGES TO THE FIFTH EDITION Major additions and changes to the fifth edition include the addition of chapter goals and objectives at the beginning of every chapter. A Career Spotlightsection was added at the start of every chapter as well. The Career Spotlight focuses on the career opportunities for the technology areas covered in the chapter. A major change in Chapter 1 was the addition of a robot safety section at the end. Safety is an important issue in robotics and in all manufacturing. While safety is addressed in great detail in Chapter 10, I was encouraged by users of the text to stress safety early. Another important skill for both engineers and technicians is the ability to troubleshoot technical systems. To help in learning these important skills, an introduction to troubleshooting was added to Chapter 3. That was followed with a discussion on troubleshooting sensor system at the end of Chapter 5. In addition, the sensor information in the chapter was revised and updated. Major updates and additions were made to the programmable logic controller and robot programming topics in Chapter 8. A full section was added covering the program commands for the Yaskawa robot. The chapter presentation gives students detailed information about the most frequently used commands and shows them how to translate a task point graph into a robot program using Yaskawa code. In addition, a number of new figures were added to help illustrate important concepts, and the text was changed at numerous places to make it easier to read and understand. I hope you find these changes useful and helpful. FOR THE STUDENTS More graduates of engineering and engineering technology programs are working in manufacturing automation because production systems have become increasingly complex and highly automated. As a result, students need to understand the theory and operation of robotics and automation as they apply to production systems in industry. The primary goal for this text was to create a clear and comprehensive text for students in two- and four-year engineering and engineering technology programs to learn industrial robotics and automation systems. Every effort was made to present the material in a logical order, to express the concepts in a fashion that a first-time reader could understand, and to keep the needs of the student foremost in every part of the text development. Authors often use technical terms to describe a new concept that have not been previously defined or that are not common knowledge for the students. A special effort was made in this text to not use any terms or technical language that were not introduced or defined earlier in the text. The text can be used in semester and quarter length courses. I hope this text helps you build a comprehensive understanding of the concepts that embody industrial robotics and automation systems. I have a friend and former student who once said, "There are things that I know and things that I know I know." This is an interesting observation on learning, and I asked him what he meant by "know I know." He said that certain lessons were presented in such a way that he could remember some of the concepts only as they were being presented. The lesson material was never internalized, though; he only knew it as it was presented. However, after working example problems and spending time thinking about a concept, he understood that idea in a new way. He had internalized the concept, theorem, or algorithm so that he could use it to solve problems that were different from the one in which it was originally presented. His depth of understanding meant that he would never forget the material. The concept just made sense; it was like remembering his name. To reach this level of understanding of a subject takes effort and time, and it often takes revisiting the concept numerous times. I hope you will reach that level of knowing you knowsome of the concepts presented in this text. If the presentations of some material help you get by previous learning barriers, I would like to know. Please e-mail me at jamesa@rehg.organd share the learning experience. On the other hand, if you think that some area could be presented more clearly, I would like to know about that as well. I hope you enjoy the text and find it useful; it was written for you. CHAPTER CONTENT Industrial robots and the concept of a work-cell system are introduced in Chapter 1.A brief history of robots is included along with a rationale for the renewed interest in robot applications in the 1990s and in the new century. The definition of an industrial robot, a description of a basic


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