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An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure,9780865420786
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An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure

by ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780865420786

ISBN10:
0865420785
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
1/16/1991
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell

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Summary

An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes and Earth Structures is an introduction to seismology and its role in the earth sciences, and is written for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students.The fundamentals of seismic wave propagation are developed using a physical approach and then applied to show how refraction, reflection, and teleseismic techniques are used to study the structure and thus the composition and evolution of the earth. The book shows how seismic waves are used to study earthquakes and are integrated with other data to investigate the plate tectonic processes that cause earthquakes. Figures, examples, problems, and computer exercises teach students about seismology in a creative and intuitive manner. Necessary mathematical tools including vector and tensor analysis, matrix algebra, Fourier analysis, statistics of errors, signal processing, and data inversion are introduced with many relevant examples. The text also addresses the fundamentals of seismometry and applications of seismology to societal issues. Special attention is paid to help students visualize connections between different topics and view seismology as an integrated science.An Introduction to Seismology, Earthquakes, and Earth Structure gives an excellent overview for students of geophysics and tectonics, and provides a strong foundation for further studies in seismology. Multidisciplinary examples throughout the text - catering to students in varied disciplines (geology, mineralogy, petrology, physics, etc.). Most up to date book on the market - includes recent seismic events such as the 1999 Earthquakes in Turkey, Greece, and Taiwan). Chapter outlines - each chapter begins with an outline and a list of learning objectives to help students focus and study. Essential math review - an entire section reviews the essential math needed to understand seismology. This can be covered in class or left to students to review as needed. End of chapter problem sets - homework problems that cover the material presented in the chapter. Solutions to all odd numbered problem sets are listed in the back so that students can track their progress. Extensive References - classic references and more current references are listed at the end of each chapter. A set of instructor's resources containing downloadable versions of all the figures in the book, errata and answers to homework problems is available at: http://levee.wustl.edu/seismology/book/. Also available on this website are PowerPoint lecture slides corresponding to the first 5 chapters of the book.

Author Biography

Seth Stein is Professor of Geological Sciences at Northwestern University. He has received the James B Macelwane Medal of the American Geophysical Union, been elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and Geological Society of America, and named to the Institute for Scientific Information Highly Cited Researchers list. He served as Scientific Director of the University Navstar Consortium and on the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology's Executive Committee, and started Northwestern's Environmental Science program.


Michael Wysession is an Associate Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Washington University. He is the recipient of the Packard Foundation and NSF Presidential Faculty Fellowships for his research into the structure of the Earth's deep interior.

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction
1(28)
Introduction
1(8)
Overview
1(4)
Models in seismology
5(4)
Seismology and society
9(20)
Seismic hazards and risks
11(3)
Engineering seismology and earthquake engineering
14(4)
Highways, bridges, dams, and pipelines
18(1)
Tsunamis, landslides, and soil liquefaction
19(1)
Earthquake forecasting
20(4)
Earthquake prediction
24(2)
Real-time warnings
26(1)
Nuclear monitoring and treaty verification
26(2)
Further reading
28(1)
Basic Seismological Theory
29(90)
Introduction
29(1)
Waves on a string
29(9)
Theory
29(2)
Harmonic wave solution
31(1)
Reflection and transmission
32(3)
Energy in a harmonic wave
35(1)
Normal modes of a string
36(2)
Stress and strain
38(15)
Introduction
38(1)
Stress
39(2)
Stress as a tensor
41(1)
Principal stresses
42(1)
Maximum shear stress and faulting
43(2)
Deviatoric stresses
45(1)
Equation of motion
46(1)
Strain
47(1)
Constitutive equations
48(3)
Boundary conditions
51(1)
Strain energy
52(1)
Seismic waves
53(9)
The seismic wave equation
53(1)
Plane waves
54(1)
Spherical waves
55(1)
P and S waves
56(5)
Energy in a plane wave
61(1)
Snell's law
62(13)
The layered medium approximation
62(1)
Plane wave potentials for a layered medium
63(2)
Angle of incidence and apparent velocity
65(1)
Snell's law
66(1)
Critical angle
67(1)
Snell's law for SH waves
68(1)
Ray parameter and slowness
69(1)
Waveguides
70(1)
Fermat's principle and geometric ray theory
70(2)
Huygens' principle and diffraction
72(3)
Plane wave reflection and transmission coefficients
75(11)
Introduction
75(1)
SH wave reflection and transmission coefficients
76(1)
Energy flux for reflected and transmitted SH waves
77(1)
Postcritical SH waves
78(1)
P-SV waves at a free surface
79(2)
Solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces
81(4)
Examples
85(1)
Surface waves
86(7)
Introduction
86(1)
Rayleigh waves in a homogeneous halfspace
87(3)
Love waves in a layer over a halfspace
90(1)
Love wave dispersion
91(2)
Dispersion
93(8)
Phase and group velocity
93(1)
Dispersive signals
94(2)
Surface wave dispersion studies
96(3)
Tsunami dispersion
99(2)
Normal modes of the earth
101(18)
Motivation
101(1)
Modes of a sphere
101(2)
Spherical harmonics
103(1)
Torsional modes
104(2)
Spheroidal modes
106(1)
Modes and propagating waves
106(4)
Observing normal modes
110(1)
Normal mode synthetic seismograms
111(1)
Mode attenuation, splitting, and coupling
111(4)
Further reading
115(1)
Problems
116(3)
Seismology and Earth Structure
119(96)
Introduction
119(1)
Refraction seismology
120(14)
Flat layer method
120(3)
Dipping layer method
123(3)
Advanced analysis methods
126(2)
Crustal structure
128(4)
Rocks and minerals
132(2)
Reflection seismology
134(23)
Travel time curves for reflections
134(3)
Intercept-slowness formulation for travel times
137(3)
Multichannel data geometry
140(1)
Common midpoint stacking
141(4)
Signal enhancement
145(3)
Deconvolution
148(4)
Migration
152(4)
Data processing sequence
156(1)
Seismic waves in a spherical earth
157(5)
Ray paths and travel times
157(2)
Velocity distributions
159(2)
Travel time curve inversion
161(1)
Body wave travel time studies
162(15)
Body wave phases
163(3)
Core phases
166(3)
Upper mantle structure
169(2)
Lower mantle structure
171(3)
Visualizing body waves
174(3)
Anisotropic earth structure
177(8)
General considerations
177(1)
Transverse isotropy and azimuthal anisotropy
177(2)
Anisotropy of minerals and rocks
179(1)
Anisotropy of composite structures
180(1)
Anisotropy in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere
180(2)
Anisotropy in the mantle and the core
182(3)
Attenuation and anelasticity
185(13)
Wave attenuation
185(2)
Geometric spreading
187(1)
Multipathing
187(2)
Scattering
189(1)
Intrinsic attenuation
190(2)
Quality factor, Q
192(1)
Spectral resonance peaks
193(1)
Physical dispersion due to anelasticity
194(2)
Physical models for anelasticity
196(1)
Q from crust to inner core
197(1)
Composition of the mantle and the core
198(17)
Density within the earth
199(4)
Temperature in the earth
203(1)
Composition of the mantle
204(4)
Composition of D''
208(1)
Composition of the core
209(1)
Seismology and planetary evolution
210(2)
Further reading
212(1)
Problems
212(3)
Earthquakes
215(71)
Introduction
215(2)
Focal mechanisms
217(12)
Fault geometry
217(2)
First motions
219(1)
Body wave radiation patterns
220(2)
Stereographic fault plane representation
222(6)
Analytical representation of fault geometry
228(1)
Waveform modeling
229(10)
Basic model
229(1)
Source time function
230(1)
Body wave modeling
231(4)
Surface wave focal mechanisms
235(4)
Once and future earthquakes
239(1)
Moment tensors
239(12)
Equivalent forces
239(1)
Single forces
240(1)
Force couples
241(1)
Double couples
242(1)
Earthquake moment tensors
242(3)
Isotropic and CLVD moment tensors
245(1)
Moment tensor inversion
246(3)
Interpretation of moment tensors
249(2)
Earthquake geodesy
251(12)
Measuring ground deformation
251(3)
Coseismic deformation
254(2)
Joint geodetic and seismological earthquake studies
256(3)
Interseismic deformation and the seismic cycle
259(4)
Source parameters
263(11)
Magnitudes and moment
263(3)
Source spectra and scaling laws
266(3)
Stress drop and earthquake energy
269(5)
Earthquake statistics
274(12)
Frequency--magnitude relations
274(3)
Aftershocks
277(1)
Earthquake probabilities
278(4)
Further reading
282(1)
Problems
282(4)
Seismology and Plate Tectonics
286(83)
Introduction
286(4)
Plate kinematics
290(8)
Relative plate motions
290(3)
Global plate motions
293(2)
Space-based geodesy
295(1)
Absolute plate motions
296(2)
Spreading centers
298(9)
Geometry of ridges and transforms
298(1)
Evolution of the oceanic lithosphere
299(6)
Ridge and transform earthquakes and processes
305(2)
Subduction zones
307(19)
Thermal models of subduction
308(4)
Earthquakes in subducting slabs
312(9)
Interplate trench earthquakes
321(5)
Oceanic intraplate earthquakes and tectonics
326(7)
Locations of oceanic intraplate seismicity
326(2)
Forces and stresses in the oceanic lithosphere
328(3)
Constraints on mantle viscosity
331(2)
Continental earthquakes and tectonics
333(13)
Continental plate boundary zones
334(5)
Seismic, aseismic, transient, and permanent deformation
339(3)
Continental intraplate earthquakes
342(4)
Faulting and deformation in the earth
346(23)
Rheology
346(2)
Rock fracture and friction
348(7)
Ductile flow
355(2)
Strength of the lithosphere
357(2)
Earthquakes and rock friction
359(5)
Earthquakes and regional deformation
364(2)
Further reading
366(1)
Problems
367(2)
Seismograms as Signals
369(46)
Introduction
369(1)
Fourier analysis
369(8)
Fourier series
369(2)
Complex Fourier series
371(1)
Fourier transforms
372(2)
Properties of Fourier transforms
374(1)
Delta functions
375(2)
Linear systems
377(8)
Basic model
377(2)
Convolution and deconvolution modeling
379(1)
Finite length signals
380(3)
Correlation
383(2)
Discrete time series and transforms
385(6)
Sampling of continuous data
385(2)
The discrete Fourier transform
387(2)
Properties of DFTs
389(1)
The fast Fourier transform (FFT)
389(1)
Digital convolution
390(1)
Stacking
391(7)
Random errors
392(3)
Stacking examples
395(3)
Seismometers and seismological networks
398(17)
Introduction
398(1)
The damped harmonic oscillator
398(2)
Earth noise
400(1)
Seismometers and seismographs
400(5)
Digital recording
405(2)
Types of networks
407(1)
Global networks
407(2)
Arrays
409(1)
Regional networks
410(2)
Further reading
412(1)
Problems
412(3)
Inverse Problems
415(28)
Introduction
415(1)
Earthquake location
416(8)
Theory
416(3)
Earthquake location for a homogeneous medium
419(1)
Errors
420(2)
Earthquake location for more complex geometries
422(2)
Travel time tomography
424(10)
Theory
424(2)
Generalized inverse
426(1)
Properties of the generalized inverse solution
427(2)
Variants of the solution
429(1)
Examples
430(4)
Stratified earth structure
434(5)
Earth structure from normal modes
434(2)
Parameter and data space inversions
436(1)
Features of the solutions
437(2)
Inverting for plate motions
439(4)
Method
439(1)
Testing the results with X2 and F-ration tests
440(1)
Further reading
441(1)
Problems
442(1)
Appendix: Mathematical and Computational Background 443(33)
A.1 Introduction
443(1)
A.2 Complex numbers
443(2)
A.3 Scalars and vectors
445(5)
A.3.1 Definitions
445(1)
A.3.2 Elementary vector operations
446(1)
A.3.3 Scalar products
446(1)
A.3.4 Vector products
447(1)
A.3.5 Index notation
448(1)
A.3.6 Vector spaces
449(1)
A.4 Matrix algebra
450(4)
A.4.1 Definitions
450(1)
A.4.2 Determinant
451(1)
A.4.3 Inverse
452(1)
A.4.4 Systems of linear equations
452(1)
A.4.5 Solving systems of equations on a computer
453(1)
A.5 Vector transformations
454(4)
A.5.1 Coordinate transformations
455(1)
A.5.2 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
456(2)
A.5.3 Symmetric matrix eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonalization, and decomposition
458(1)
A.6 Vector calculus
458(4)
A.6.1 Scalar and vector fields
458(1)
A.6.2 Gradient
459(1)
A.6.3 Divergence
459(1)
A.6.4 Curl
460(1)
A.6.5 Laplacian
461(1)
A.7 Spherical coordinates
462(4)
A.7.1 The spherical coordinate system
462(1)
A.7.2 Distance and azimuth
463(2)
A.7.3 Choice of axes
465(1)
A.7.4 Vector operators in spherical coordinates
465(1)
A.8 Scientific programming
466(10)
A.8.1 Example: synthetic seismogram calculation
466(3)
A.8.2 Programming style
469(1)
A.8.3 Representation of numbers
470(1)
A.8.4 A few pitfalls
471(1)
A.8.5 Some philosophical points
472(1)
Further reading
473(1)
Problems
473(3)
References 476(10)
Solutions to selected odd-numbered problems 486(3)
Index 489


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