Preface 

ix  
Acknowledgments 

xi  


1  (28) 


1  (8) 


1  (4) 


5  (4) 


9  (20) 

Seismic hazards and risks 


11  (3) 

Engineering seismology and earthquake engineering 


14  (4) 

Highways, bridges, dams, and pipelines 


18  (1) 

Tsunamis, landslides, and soil liquefaction 


19  (1) 


20  (4) 


24  (2) 


26  (1) 

Nuclear monitoring and treaty verification 


26  (2) 


28  (1) 

Basic Seismological Theory 


29  (90) 


29  (1) 


29  (9) 


29  (2) 


31  (1) 

Reflection and transmission 


32  (3) 

Energy in a harmonic wave 


35  (1) 


36  (2) 


38  (15) 


38  (1) 


39  (2) 


41  (1) 


42  (1) 

Maximum shear stress and faulting 


43  (2) 


45  (1) 


46  (1) 


47  (1) 


48  (3) 


51  (1) 


52  (1) 


53  (9) 

The seismic wave equation 


53  (1) 


54  (1) 


55  (1) 


56  (5) 


61  (1) 


62  (13) 

The layered medium approximation 


62  (1) 

Plane wave potentials for a layered medium 


63  (2) 

Angle of incidence and apparent velocity 


65  (1) 


66  (1) 


67  (1) 


68  (1) 

Ray parameter and slowness 


69  (1) 


70  (1) 

Fermat's principle and geometric ray theory 


70  (2) 

Huygens' principle and diffraction 


72  (3) 

Plane wave reflection and transmission coefficients 


75  (11) 


75  (1) 

SH wave reflection and transmission coefficients 


76  (1) 

Energy flux for reflected and transmitted SH waves 


77  (1) 


78  (1) 

PSV waves at a free surface 


79  (2) 

Solidsolid and solidliquid interfaces 


81  (4) 


85  (1) 


86  (7) 


86  (1) 

Rayleigh waves in a homogeneous halfspace 


87  (3) 

Love waves in a layer over a halfspace 


90  (1) 


91  (2) 


93  (8) 


93  (1) 


94  (2) 

Surface wave dispersion studies 


96  (3) 


99  (2) 

Normal modes of the earth 


101  (18) 


101  (1) 


101  (2) 


103  (1) 


104  (2) 


106  (1) 

Modes and propagating waves 


106  (4) 


110  (1) 

Normal mode synthetic seismograms 


111  (1) 

Mode attenuation, splitting, and coupling 


111  (4) 


115  (1) 


116  (3) 

Seismology and Earth Structure 


119  (96) 


119  (1) 


120  (14) 


120  (3) 


123  (3) 

Advanced analysis methods 


126  (2) 


128  (4) 


132  (2) 


134  (23) 

Travel time curves for reflections 


134  (3) 

Interceptslowness formulation for travel times 


137  (3) 

Multichannel data geometry 


140  (1) 


141  (4) 


145  (3) 


148  (4) 


152  (4) 


156  (1) 

Seismic waves in a spherical earth 


157  (5) 

Ray paths and travel times 


157  (2) 


159  (2) 

Travel time curve inversion 


161  (1) 

Body wave travel time studies 


162  (15) 


163  (3) 


166  (3) 


169  (2) 


171  (3) 


174  (3) 

Anisotropic earth structure 


177  (8) 


177  (1) 

Transverse isotropy and azimuthal anisotropy 


177  (2) 

Anisotropy of minerals and rocks 


179  (1) 

Anisotropy of composite structures 


180  (1) 

Anisotropy in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere 


180  (2) 

Anisotropy in the mantle and the core 


182  (3) 

Attenuation and anelasticity 


185  (13) 


185  (2) 


187  (1) 


187  (2) 


189  (1) 


190  (2) 


192  (1) 


193  (1) 

Physical dispersion due to anelasticity 


194  (2) 

Physical models for anelasticity 


196  (1) 

Q from crust to inner core 


197  (1) 

Composition of the mantle and the core 


198  (17) 


199  (4) 


203  (1) 

Composition of the mantle 


204  (4) 


208  (1) 


209  (1) 

Seismology and planetary evolution 


210  (2) 


212  (1) 


212  (3) 


215  (71) 


215  (2) 


217  (12) 


217  (2) 


219  (1) 

Body wave radiation patterns 


220  (2) 

Stereographic fault plane representation 


222  (6) 

Analytical representation of fault geometry 


228  (1) 


229  (10) 


229  (1) 


230  (1) 


231  (4) 

Surface wave focal mechanisms 


235  (4) 

Once and future earthquakes 


239  (1) 


239  (12) 


239  (1) 


240  (1) 


241  (1) 


242  (1) 

Earthquake moment tensors 


242  (3) 

Isotropic and CLVD moment tensors 


245  (1) 


246  (3) 

Interpretation of moment tensors 


249  (2) 


251  (12) 

Measuring ground deformation 


251  (3) 


254  (2) 

Joint geodetic and seismological earthquake studies 


256  (3) 

Interseismic deformation and the seismic cycle 


259  (4) 


263  (11) 


263  (3) 

Source spectra and scaling laws 


266  (3) 

Stress drop and earthquake energy 


269  (5) 


274  (12) 

Frequencymagnitude relations 


274  (3) 


277  (1) 


278  (4) 


282  (1) 


282  (4) 

Seismology and Plate Tectonics 


286  (83) 


286  (4) 


290  (8) 


290  (3) 


293  (2) 


295  (1) 


296  (2) 


298  (9) 

Geometry of ridges and transforms 


298  (1) 

Evolution of the oceanic lithosphere 


299  (6) 

Ridge and transform earthquakes and processes 


305  (2) 


307  (19) 

Thermal models of subduction 


308  (4) 

Earthquakes in subducting slabs 


312  (9) 

Interplate trench earthquakes 


321  (5) 

Oceanic intraplate earthquakes and tectonics 


326  (7) 

Locations of oceanic intraplate seismicity 


326  (2) 

Forces and stresses in the oceanic lithosphere 


328  (3) 

Constraints on mantle viscosity 


331  (2) 

Continental earthquakes and tectonics 


333  (13) 

Continental plate boundary zones 


334  (5) 

Seismic, aseismic, transient, and permanent deformation 


339  (3) 

Continental intraplate earthquakes 


342  (4) 

Faulting and deformation in the earth 


346  (23) 


346  (2) 

Rock fracture and friction 


348  (7) 


355  (2) 

Strength of the lithosphere 


357  (2) 

Earthquakes and rock friction 


359  (5) 

Earthquakes and regional deformation 


364  (2) 


366  (1) 


367  (2) 


369  (46) 


369  (1) 


369  (8) 


369  (2) 


371  (1) 


372  (2) 

Properties of Fourier transforms 


374  (1) 


375  (2) 


377  (8) 


377  (2) 

Convolution and deconvolution modeling 


379  (1) 


380  (3) 


383  (2) 

Discrete time series and transforms 


385  (6) 

Sampling of continuous data 


385  (2) 

The discrete Fourier transform 


387  (2) 


389  (1) 

The fast Fourier transform (FFT) 


389  (1) 


390  (1) 


391  (7) 


392  (3) 


395  (3) 

Seismometers and seismological networks 


398  (17) 


398  (1) 

The damped harmonic oscillator 


398  (2) 


400  (1) 

Seismometers and seismographs 


400  (5) 


405  (2) 


407  (1) 


407  (2) 


409  (1) 


410  (2) 


412  (1) 


412  (3) 


415  (28) 


415  (1) 


416  (8) 


416  (3) 

Earthquake location for a homogeneous medium 


419  (1) 


420  (2) 

Earthquake location for more complex geometries 


422  (2) 


424  (10) 


424  (2) 


426  (1) 

Properties of the generalized inverse solution 


427  (2) 


429  (1) 


430  (4) 

Stratified earth structure 


434  (5) 

Earth structure from normal modes 


434  (2) 

Parameter and data space inversions 


436  (1) 

Features of the solutions 


437  (2) 

Inverting for plate motions 


439  (4) 


439  (1) 

Testing the results with X2 and Fration tests 


440  (1) 


441  (1) 


442  (1) 
Appendix: Mathematical and Computational Background 

443  (33) 


443  (1) 


443  (2) 


445  (5) 


445  (1) 

A.3.2 Elementary vector operations 


446  (1) 


446  (1) 


447  (1) 


448  (1) 


449  (1) 


450  (4) 


450  (1) 


451  (1) 


452  (1) 

A.4.4 Systems of linear equations 


452  (1) 

A.4.5 Solving systems of equations on a computer 


453  (1) 

A.5 Vector transformations 


454  (4) 

A.5.1 Coordinate transformations 


455  (1) 

A.5.2 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors 


456  (2) 

A.5.3 Symmetric matrix eigenvalues, eigenvectors, diagonalization, and decomposition 


458  (1) 


458  (4) 

A.6.1 Scalar and vector fields 


458  (1) 


459  (1) 


459  (1) 


460  (1) 


461  (1) 

A.7 Spherical coordinates 


462  (4) 

A.7.1 The spherical coordinate system 


462  (1) 

A.7.2 Distance and azimuth 


463  (2) 


465  (1) 

A.7.4 Vector operators in spherical coordinates 


465  (1) 

A.8 Scientific programming 


466  (10) 

A.8.1 Example: synthetic seismogram calculation 


466  (3) 


469  (1) 

A.8.3 Representation of numbers 


470  (1) 


471  (1) 

A.8.5 Some philosophical points 


472  (1) 


473  (1) 


473  (3) 
References 

476  (10) 
Solutions to selected oddnumbered problems 

486  (3) 
Index 

489  