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Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare,9780534366988

Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare

by
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780534366988

ISBN10:
0534366988
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
6/18/1999
Publisher(s):
Brooks Cole
List Price: $81.00

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Summary

Comprehensive and modern, this new edition of Charles Zastrow's Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare, Seventh Edition is in step with the current state of social work in contemporary society. The issues that affect people in need are presented in the context of the values, ethics, and knowledge base of today's professional social worker. The book's up-to-date coverage and its social problems approach, along with Zastrow's easy-reading style, make it an enduring favorite in preparing students for the rewards and the challenges of the real world of social work. The Seventh Edition has been completely updated, and now features international perspectives as well as many new discussions of key trends in the field. Just some of the topics Zastrow covers include: Generalist Practice, Spirituality, The strengths perspective, Managed care, Child molestation, rape, and incest, Diversity, The criminal justice system, populations at risk, Ethnic-sensitive social work practice, Proposed welfare alternatives, Institutional racism, Depression in the Elderly, and The population crisis and the future. Using a social problems approach, the book presents useful tools for social work intervention that readers can use in helping to facilitate positive changes. As students come face to face with the harsh realities of today's social problems, they become familiar with the social services and programs they'll encounter in helping people overcome their troubles. As they learn more about the shortcomings and benefits of the social services, they begin to think critically about new ways to solve problems.

Author Biography

Charles Zastrow, MSW and PhD, is Professor in the Social Work Department, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Table of Contents

PART I INTRODUCTION: SOCIAL WELFARE AND SOCIAL WORK 1(124)
CHAPTER 1 Social Welfare: Its Business, History, and Future
3(41)
Goal of Social Welfare
4(1)
Social Welfare as an Institution and as a Discipline
5(1)
Social Welfare's Relationship to Sociology and to Other Academic Disciplines
6(1)
Social Welfare's Relationship to Social Work
7(3)
Social Welfare's Relationship to Other Institutions
10(1)
Social Welfare's Relationship to Human Services
10(1)
Residual View versus Institutional View of Social Welfare
11(1)
Liberalism versus Conservatism
12(2)
Developmental View of Social Welfare
14(2)
History of Social Welfare
16(9)
Early European History
16(1)
The Elizabethan Poor Law
16(1)
The Industrial Revolution
17(1)
Turn of the 20th Century
18(1)
The Great Depression and the Social Security Act
18(2)
The Great Society and War on Poverty
20(2)
Conservatism in the 1970s and 1980s
22(1)
A Move Toward Liberalism--and Back--in the 1990s
23(1)
The Devolution Revolution
23(1)
Where Do We Stand Today?
24(1)
The Future
25(1)
Dramatic Changes Foreseen in the American Family
26(15)
Biomedical Technology
26(8)
New Family Forms
34(6)
Concluding Comments
40(1)
Summary
41(1)
Notes
42(2)
CHAPTER 2 Social Work as a Profession and a Career
44(25)
A Brief History of Social Work
45(3)
A Multiskilled Profession
48(1)
A Problem-Solving Approach
48(1)
Generalist Social Work Practice
49(1)
Micro-, Mezzo-, and Macropractice
49(6)
Social Casework
49(1)
Case Management
49(4)
Group Work
53(1)
Group Therapy
53(1)
Family Therapy
54(1)
Community Organization
54(1)
Administration
54(1)
A Medical versus a Systems Model of Human Behavior
55(1)
An Ecological Model of Human Behavior
56(2)
Goals of Social Work Practice
58(2)
Goal 1: Enhance the Problem-Solving, Coping, and Developmental Capacities of People
58(1)
Goal 2: Link People with Systems That Provide Them with Resources, Services, and Opportunities
58(1)
Goal 3: Promote the Effectiveness and Humane Operation of Systems That Provide People with Resources and Services
58(1)
Goal 4: Develop and Improve Social Policy
58(1)
Goal 5: Empower Groups at Risk and Promote Social and Economic Justice
59(1)
Goal 6: Develop and Test Professional Knowledge and Skills in Social Work
59(1)
The Strenghts Perspective
60(1)
Social Work Stereotypes
61(1)
Employment Settings and Opportunities in Social Work
61(2)
Private Practice of Social Work
63(1)
International Social Work
63(1)
Self-Awareness and Identity Development
64(3)
Identity Formation
64(2)
Questions for Arriving at a Sense of Identity
66(1)
Summary
67(1)
Notes
67(2)
CHAPTER 3 Generalist Social Work Practice
69(56)
Generalist Social Work Practice Defined
70(1)
The Change Process
71(3)
Phase 1: Defining Issues
71(1)
Phase 2: Collecting and Assessing Data
72(1)
Phase 3: Planning and Contracting
72(1)
Phase 4: Identifying Alternative Interventions
72(1)
Phase 5: Selecting and Implementing Appropriate Courses of Action
73(1)
Phase 6: Using Appropriate Research to Monitor and Evaluate Outcomes
73(1)
Phase 7: Applying Appropriate Research-Based Knowledge and Technological Advances
73(1)
Phase 8: Termination
74(1)
A Variety of Roles
74(2)
Social Work with Individuals
76(1)
Social Work with Families
77(3)
Family Problems
77(1)
Satir's Family Therapy Approach
78(2)
Social Work with Groups
80(9)
Social Work with Organizations
89(5)
Social Work with the Community
94(6)
A Brief History of Community Practice
95(1)
Models of Community Practice
95(5)
Knowledge, Skills, and Values for Social Work Practice
100(18)
Knowledge Base
100(4)
Skill Base
104(3)
Value Base
107(11)
Social Work Education
118(3)
Two-Year Associate Programs
118(1)
Undergraduate Education
118(1)
Graduate Education
119(2)
Summary
121(1)
Notes
122(3)
PART II SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL SERVICES 125(493)
CHAPTER 4 Poverty and Public Welfare
127(33)
The Problem
128(1)
A Brief History of Our Response to the Poor
128(4)
The Rich and the Poor
132(1)
Defining Poverty Is a Policy Problem
133(3)
Who Are the Poor?
136(2)
Causes of Poverty
138(1)
The Culture of Poverty
138(2)
Functions of Poverty
140(1)
Social Insurance Programs
141(1)
Old Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI)
141(1)
Medicare
141(1)
Unemployment Insurance
142(1)
Workers' Compensation Insurance
142(1)
Public Assistance Programs
142(10)
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
144(1)
General Assistance
144(1)
Medicaid
144(1)
Food Stamps
145(1)
Housing Assistance
145(1)
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
145(3)
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
148(4)
Proposed Welfare Alternatives
152(2)
Offer Family Allowances
152(1)
Guarantee a Basic Annual Income
152(1)
Eliminate or Reduce the Causes of Poverty
153(1)
Social Work and Public Welfare
154(3)
Working with Discouraged People
155(1)
The Future
156(1)
Summary
157(1)
Notes
158(2)
CHAPTER 5 Emotional/Behavioral Problems and Counseling
160(38)
A Perspective on Emotional and Behavioral Problems
161(3)
Nature and Extent of Emotional and Behavioral Problems
164(1)
What Is Mental Illness?
164(8)
Medical Model
164(3)
Interactional Model
167(5)
Labeling as the Cause of Chronic "Mental Illness"
172(2)
Other Issues
174(5)
The Homeless
174(1)
Civil Rights
175(1)
Plea of Innocent by Reason of Insanity
176(1)
Use of Psychotropic Drugs
177(1)
Managed Mental Health Care
177(2)
Social Structure and Mental Illness
179(1)
Treatment
180(2)
Brief History
180(2)
Current Trends
182(1)
Treatment Facilities: Community Mental Health Centers
182(1)
Social Work and Mental Health
183(1)
Counseling
184(12)
How to Counsel
185(4)
Comprehensive and Specialized Counseling Approaches
189(7)
Summary
196(1)
Notes
196(2)
CHAPTER 6 Family Problems and Services to Families
198(38)
Diverse Family Forms
199(1)
The American Family: Past and Present
200(3)
The Family in Preindustrial Society
200(1)
The Family in Industrial Society
201(2)
Problems in the Family
203(29)
Divorce
203(6)
Empty-Shell Marriages
209(2)
Violence in Families
211(15)
Births Outside of Marriage
226(6)
Summary
232(1)
Notes
233(3)
CHAPTER 7 Sexual Orientation, Sex Variances, and Sex Counseling
236(33)
Sex in History and in Other Cultures
237(4)
Formal Study of Sex
241(2)
Sigmund Freud
241(1)
Alfred Kinsey
242(1)
William Masters and Virginia Johnson
243(1)
Variances Rather Than Sexual Problems
243(1)
Types of Sexual Variances
244(19)
Tolerated Sex Variance
244(1)
Structural Sex Variance: Homosexuality
245(8)
Asocial Sex Variance
253(10)
Personal Sexual Concerns
263(1)
Sex Counseling and Sex Therapy
263(3)
Summary
266(1)
Notes
267(2)
CHAPTER 8 Drug Abuse and Drug Treatment Programs
269(41)
Drugs and Drug Abuse
270(1)
A Brief History of Our Drug-Taking Society
271(1)
Sociological Theories of Drug Abuse
272(2)
Anomie Theory
272(1)
Labeling Theory
273(1)
Differential Association
274(1)
Drug Subcultures
274(1)
Facts About and Effects of Commonly Used Drugs
275(20)
Depressants
275(11)
Stimulants
286(3)
Narcotics
289(3)
Hallucinogens
292(1)
Tobacco
293(1)
Marijuana
294(1)
Anabolic Steroids
295(1)
Rehabilitation Programs
295(7)
Alcohol Treatment Programs
295(5)
Other Drug Treatment Programs
300(2)
Understanding and Treating Codependency
302(1)
Suggestions for Curbing Drug Abuse in the Future
302(5)
Educational Programs
303(1)
Prevention of Illegal Drug Trafficking Across Borders
304(1)
Employee Drug-Testing Programs
304(1)
Stricter Laws and Enforcement
305(1)
Decriminalization of Drug Use
305(1)
The British Approach
306(1)
Summary
307(1)
Notes
308(2)
CHAPTER 9 Crime, Juvenile Delinquency, and Correctional Services
310(46)
Nature and Extent of Crime
311(4)
What Is Crime?
311(1)
How Extensive Is Crime?
311(2)
Who Is Arrested?
313(1)
How Accurate Are Official Crime Statistics?
314(1)
Crime Causation Theories
315(8)
Early Theories
316(1)
Physical and Mental Trait Theories
317(1)
Psychological Theories
317(2)
Sociological Theories
319(4)
Usefulness of Theories
323(1)
Types of Crime
323(10)
Organized Crime
323(2)
White-Collar Crime
325(3)
Victimless Crimes
328(1)
Sex Offenses
329(1)
Homicide and Assault
329(1)
Theft
330(2)
Juvenile Delinquency
332(1)
The Criminal Justice System
333(9)
The Police
334(1)
The Courts
335(2)
Correctional Systems
337(5)
How to Reduce Crime and Delinquency
342(5)
Increasing or Decreasing Sentences
342(3)
Reforming the Correctional System
345(2)
Preventing Crime
347(1)
Social Work and the Criminal Justice System
347(6)
Role of Social Work
347(2)
Factors Influencing Treatment
349(4)
Summary
353(1)
Notes
354(2)
CHAPTER 10 Problems in Education and School Social Work
356(29)
Problematic Areas in Education
357(7)
The Question of Quality
357(2)
Equal Access to Quality Education
359(3)
Confusion About the Goals of Education
362(1)
Intolerable Working Conditions for Some Teachers
363(1)
Strategies to Improve Education
364(5)
Increase Incentives for Teachers
365(1)
Improve the Curriculum
365(3)
Allow Parental Choice of Schools
368(1)
Extend the School Year
368(1)
Toward Equal Educational Opportunity
369(3)
Reform of School Financing
369(1)
Compensatory Education
370(1)
Effective Integration
371(1)
School Social Workers: A Response to Crisis
372(10)
The Nature of Behavior
372(1)
Traditional School Social Work Roles
373(3)
Newer Social Work Roles
376(6)
Summary
382(1)
Notes
383(2)
CHAPTER 11 Work-Related Problems and Social Work in the Workplace
385(29)
A Brief History of Work
386(1)
Trends in the American Work Force
387(5)
Increase in White-Collar Workers
388(1)
Emergence of an Employee Society
388(1)
Specialization
388(2)
Changes in the Sex and Age of the Labor Force
390(1)
Emphasis on Intrinsic Rewards
390(1)
Emphasis on High Technology
390(1)
The Growth of Low-Paying Jobs
391(1)
Outsourcing in a Global Factory
391(1)
Problems in the Work Setting
392(14)
Alienation
392(6)
Unemployment
398(6)
Occupational Health Hazards
404(2)
Social Work in the Workplace
406(5)
A Brief History
407(1)
The Present Status of Social Work in the Workplace
408(1)
Employee Assistance Programs
409(2)
Summary
411(1)
Notes
412(2)
CHAPTER 12 Racism, Ethnocentrism, and Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justice
414(38)
Ethnic Groups and Ethnocentrism
415(1)
Race and Racism
415(1)
Prejudice, Discrimination, and Oppression
416(7)
Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes
417(1)
Racial and Ethnic Discrimination
418(1)
Race as a Social Concept
418(1)
Institutional Racism and Institutional Discrimination
419(2)
Causes of Racial Discrimination and Oppression
421(2)
The Effects and Costs of Discrimination and Oppression
423(1)
Background of Racial Groups
424(11)
African Americans
425(4)
Latinos
429(3)
Native Americans
432(2)
Asian Americans
434(1)
Strategies for Advancing Social and Economic Justice
435(7)
Mass Media Appeals
435(1)
Greater Interaction Among the Races
435(1)
Civil Rights Laws
436(1)
Activism
436(1)
School Busing
436(2)
Affirmative Action Programs
438(2)
Confrontation of Racist and Ethnic Remarks and Actions
440(1)
Minority-Owned Businesses
440(1)
Confrontation of the Problems in Inner Cities
440(2)
Grassroots Organizations
442(1)
Ethnic-Sensitive Social Work Practice
442(5)
Empowerment
444(1)
Strengths Perspective
445(2)
The Future of American Race and Ethnic Relations
447(1)
Summary
448(1)
Notes
449(3)
CHAPTER 13 Sexism and Efforts for Achieving Equality
452(33)
History of Sex Roles and Sexism
453(5)
Sexual Harassment
458(2)
Traditional Sex-Role Expectations
460(1)
Is There a Biological Basis for Sexism?
461(1)
Sex-Role Socialization
462(3)
Consequences of Sexism
465(5)
Effects on Occupation and Income
466(1)
Effects on Human Interactions
467(3)
Recent Developments and a Look to the Future
470(2)
Sexism and Social Work
472(8)
Social Work's Response to Women's Issues
473(1)
The Feminist Perspective on Therapy
474(6)
Future Directions of the Women's Movement
480(2)
Summary
482(1)
Notes
482(3)
CHAPTER 14 Aging and Gerontological Services
485(34)
An Overview
486(1)
A "Recently Discovered" Minority Group
486(2)
Definitions of Later Adulthood
488(3)
An Increasing Elderly Population
490(1)
The "Old Old"--The Fastest-Growing Age Group
490(1)
Problems Faced by the Elderly
491(18)
Low Status
491(4)
Early Retirement
495(2)
Societal Emphasis on Youth
497(1)
Health Problems and Costs of Health Care
498(1)
Financial Problems
498(1)
Loss of Family and Friends
499(3)
Substandard Housing
502(1)
Transportation
503(1)
Crime Victimization
503(1)
Sexuality in Later Adulthood
503(1)
Malnutrition
504(1)
Depression and Other Emotional Problems
504(1)
Death
505(3)
Parent Abuse
508(1)
Current Services
509(3)
Older Americans Act of 1965
510(1)
Nursing Homes
510(2)
Social Work and the Elderly
512(1)
The Emergence of the Elderly as a Powerful Political Force
513(1)
Development of Social Roles for the Elderly
514(1)
Preparation for Later Adulthood
515(1)
Summary
516(1)
Notes
517(2)
CHAPTER 15 Health Problems and Medical Social Services
519(34)
Physical Illnesses and the Health-Care System
520(1)
Problems in Health Care
521(16)
Service Orientation versus Profit Orientation
521(1)
Emphasis on Treatment Rather Than on Prevention
522(4)
Unequal Access to Health Services
526(1)
Low-Quality Health Care for the Elderly
526(2)
AIDS
528(6)
Unnecessary or Harmful Care
534(1)
Controversy over the Use of Life-Sustaining Equipment
535(1)
The High Cost of Medical Care
536(1)
Financing Medical Care
537(2)
Medicaid
537(1)
Medicare
538(1)
Private Insurance
538(1)
Improving the Current System
539(4)
Holding Down Costs
539(1)
Preventative Medicine and Managed Care
539(2)
Additional Health-Care Proposals
541(1)
Establishing a National Health Insurance Program in the United States
541(2)
Medical Social Work
543(4)
Counseling the Terminally Ill
547(3)
Summary
550(1)
Notes
551(2)
CHAPTER 16 Physical and Mental Disabilities and Rehabilitation
553(27)
History of Rehabilitation Practices
554(3)
Developmental Disabilities
557(5)
Autism
557(1)
Cognitive Disability
558(4)
Society's Reactions to Disabilities
562(1)
Current Services
563(3)
Rehabilitation Centers
563(1)
Educational Programs
564(1)
Residential Programs
564(1)
Home Services
565(1)
Federal and State Assistance Programs
565(1)
Roles of Social Workers
566(5)
Counseling Clients
567(1)
Counseling Families
567(1)
Taking Social Histories
567(1)
Serving as Case Manager
567(1)
Serving as Liaison Between the Family and the Agency
567(4)
Being a Broker
571(1)
Doing Discharge Planning
571(1)
Reactions to Having a Disability
571(6)
The Grieving Process
571(5)
Facilitating the Grieving Process
576(1)
Summary
577(1)
Notes
578(2)
CHAPTER 17 Overpopulation, Misuse of the Environment, and Family Planning
580(38)
The Population Crisis
581(12)
Doubling Time and Population Growth
581(1)
Doubling Time and Developing Countries
581(2)
An Optimal Population Size
583(1)
Problems of Overpopulation
584(5)
The Theory of Demographic Transition
589(1)
Problem Attitudes and Values
590(1)
Two Countries with Severe Population Problems
590(3)
Environmental Problems
593(7)
Despoilment of the Land
593(2)
Waste Disposal
595(1)
Air Pollution
595(2)
Radioactive Leaks from Nuclear Power Plants
597(1)
Nuclear War
597(2)
Water Pollution
599(1)
Acid Rain
599(1)
General Pollutants
599(1)
What Needs to Be Done
600(11)
Confronting Overpopulation
601(1)
The Abortion Controversy
602(4)
Providing Family Planning Services
606(3)
Confronting Environmental Problems
609(2)
Social Work and Family Planning
611(3)
Your Future in Combating Human Problems
614(1)
Summary
614(2)
Notes
616(2)
APPENDIX Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers 618(17)
Photo Credits 635(1)
Index 636


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