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Introduction to Special Education : Teaching in an Age of Opportunity,9780205292226
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Introduction to Special Education : Teaching in an Age of Opportunity

by
Edition:
4th
ISBN13:

9780205292226

ISBN10:
0205292224
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
11/1/2000
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

Introduction to Special Education provides an applied approach to children with disabilities by using specific and well-grounded research and suggestions to focus on how the educational practices impact the lives of children, their families, and their teachers. The Fourth Edition retains the overall organization that was perfected in its previous editions, with a basic overview of the field provided in the early chapters, and then the categories of disability and giftedness covered in order of incidence. This edition also introduces a new and unique way of looking at the field of special education in the new millennium, seeking to both examine its history and present the challenges and opportunities for its future.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
The Context of Special Education: The Legacy of the Twentieth Century and the Promise of the Millennium
2(36)
A Personal Perspective: An Opportunity to Share My Perspective
3(2)
Advance Organizers
5(2)
The Essence of Disabilities
7(4)
What Is a Disability?
7(1)
Is Having a Disability Necessarily a Handicap?
8(1)
Disability Does Not Equal Handicap: The Case of Martha's Vineyard
9(1)
Is the Notion of Disabilities a Modern-Day Invention?
10(1)
How Have People with Disabilities Been Treated Over the Course of History?
10(1)
Origins of Special Education
11(4)
Is Special Education a New Idea?
11(1)
The Origins of Special Education: The Story of Itard and Victor
12(1)
Were Special Educational Opportunities Consistently Available?
13(2)
Necessity for National Intervention
15(5)
Why Did Congress Pass a National Special Education Law?
15(1)
1975 Congressional Findings: The Justification for a National Special Education Law
16(1)
Was a Special Education Law Sufficient to End Discrimination Against People with Disabilities?
17(1)
Have the Protections of National Laws Made a Difference in the Lives of People with Disabilities?
18(2)
Why Did the Courts Have to Further Interpret and Define IDEA?
20(1)
The Legacy of the Twentieth Century
20(12)
Is the Federal Government the Only Voice Heard About the Rights of People with Disabilities?
20(3)
Has Society Increased Its Sensitivity Regarding People with Disabilities and Their Needs?
23(1)
Getting It Right: Talking About People with Disabilities
24(1)
What Is Special Education?
25(1)
Special Education in 1891: As Defined by Its Teachers
26(1)
What IDEA'97 Says About Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
27(1)
What Do Many People See as Problems of Special Education?
27(4)
What IDEA'97 Says About The Stay-Put Provision and Discipline
31(1)
The Development of Informed and Effective Solutions---The Opportunity of the New Millennium
32(2)
Conclusion
34(2)
Supplementary Resources
36(2)
Individualized Educational Programs: Planning and Delivering Services
38(38)
A Personal Perspective: A Changing Vision of Special Education
39(3)
Advance Organizers
42(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
43(1)
Special Education Services
44(9)
Service Delivery Options
44(5)
Special Education and Related Service Professionals
49(1)
Participation in the General Education Curriculum
49(3)
What IDEA'97 Says About Access to the General Education Curriculum
52(1)
Individualized Special Education Programs
53(18)
Critical Features of Special Education Programs
53(6)
What IDEA'97 Says About Procedural Safeguards
59(1)
The IEP Process
60(3)
What IDEA'97 Says About IEP Team Members
63(1)
The Individualized Education Plans
64(7)
What IDEA'97 Says About Transition Services
71(1)
Concepts and Controversy: High Stakes Testing: For Whom Aare the Stakes the Highest?
71(1)
In Conclusion
72(3)
Supplementary Resources
75(1)
Multicultural and Bilingual Special Education
76(46)
A Personal Perspective: A Bilingual Education Experience Gone Right
77(2)
Advance Organizers
79(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
80(1)
Multicultural and Biligual Special Education Defined
81(6)
Types of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students
81(4)
Identification
85(1)
What IDEA'97 Says About Nondiscriminatory Testing
86(1)
Significance
87(1)
History of the Field
87(2)
Prevalence
89(4)
Overrepresentation
90(3)
Underrepresentation
93(1)
Causes and Prevention of Disabilities in Diverse Students
93(3)
Causes
94(1)
Prevention
95(1)
Exceptional Culturally and Lingusitically Diverse Children
96(6)
Achieving Discipline: Schoolwide Disciplinary Actions: Consistency
97(1)
Language and Communication Differences
97(3)
Cultural Differences
100(1)
Mobility
100(2)
Educational Interventions
102(11)
Education and the Preschool Child
103(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
104(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Helping Everyone Become Culturally Sensitive
105(3)
Collaboration for Inclusion
108(2)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Using Cooperative Learning Structures to Optimize Learning for All Students
110(3)
Transition Through Adulthood
113(1)
Families
113(3)
Cross-Cultural Dissonance and Other Barriers to Partnerships
114(1)
Family-School Partnerships
115(1)
Technology
116(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Changing Policies Affect Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Individuals
116(2)
In Conclusion
118(2)
Supplementary Resources
120(2)
Learning Disabilities
122(54)
A Personal Perspective: Educating Erin
123(2)
Advance Organizers
125(2)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
127(1)
Learning Disabilities Defined
127(6)
Types of Learning Disabilities
129(2)
Identification
131(1)
Significance
132(1)
History of the Field
133(2)
Prevalence
135(2)
What IDEA'97 Says About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
137(1)
Causes and Prevention
137(2)
Causes
137(1)
Prevention
138(1)
Children with Learning Disabilities
139(10)
Learning Characteristics
139(3)
Achieving Discipline: Create a Community of Helpers: Peer Management
142(2)
Social Skills Characteristics
144(2)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
146(1)
The Story of Joey Pigza
146(3)
Educational Interventions
149(14)
Education and the Preschool Child
149(2)
Education and the Schoolchild
151(3)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS): Helping Teachers Face the Challenge of Student Diversity
154(1)
Collaboration for Inclusion
155(2)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Steps for Success in the Academic Curriculum
157(2)
Transition Through Adulthood
159(3)
A Middle School Student Considers Dropping Out
162(1)
Families
163(3)
Parent Conferencing
163(2)
Homework
165(1)
Technology
166(4)
Microcomputer Technology
166(4)
Writing Technology
170(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Is ADHD a Disability?
170(1)
In Conclusion
171(3)
Supplementary Resources
174(2)
Speech or Language Impairments
176(48)
A Personal Perspective: A Parent's View of a Speech Impairment
177(2)
Advance Organizers
179(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
180(1)
Speech or Language Impairments Defined
181(12)
Types of Speech or Language Impairments
182(7)
Identification
189(3)
Significance
192(1)
History of the Field
193(1)
Prevalence
194(2)
Causes and Prevention
196(5)
Causes
196(4)
Prevention
200(1)
Children with Speech or Language Impairments
201(4)
Speech Impairments
201(1)
Language Impairments
202(1)
Achieving Discipline: Changing the Context: Environmental Restructuring
203(2)
Educational Interventions
205(9)
Education and the Preschool Child
205(2)
Reaserch to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Enhanced Milieu Teaching
207(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
208(3)
Collaboration for Inclusion
211(2)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Creating Language-Sensitive Environments
213(1)
Transition Through Adulthood
213(1)
Families
214(2)
Technology
216(2)
Alternative and Augmentative Communication
216(1)
Emerging Technologies for Language Intervention
217(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Can We Afford Not To?
218(2)
In Conclusion
220(2)
Supplementary Resources
222(2)
Mental Retardation
224(46)
A Personal Perspective: A Mother's Efforts Result in Independent Living Facilities for Her Son
225(3)
Advance Organizers
228(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
229(1)
Mental Retardation Defined
230(6)
Types
232(1)
Identification
232(3)
Significance
235(1)
History of the Field
236(3)
Prevalence
239(1)
Causes and Prevention
239(8)
Causes
240(4)
Prevention
244(3)
Children with Mental Retardation
247(4)
Cognitive Impairments
247(1)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Multimedia Based Anchored Instruction
248(1)
Adaptive Behavior
249(1)
Supports
250(1)
Friendships
250(1)
Educational Interventions
251(11)
Education and the Preschool Child
252(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
253(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Steps for Success in the Academic Curriculum
253(4)
Collaboration for Inclusion
257(1)
Transition Through Adulthood
258(1)
Achieving Discipline: Keeping Students Informed: Positive Feedback
259(3)
Families
262(2)
Family Support: Dads
262(1)
Family Support: Grandparents
263(1)
Family Support: Brothers and Sisters
263(1)
Technology
264(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Eugenics and Its Logical Extension
264(1)
In Conclusion
265(3)
Supplementary Resources
268(2)
Giftedness and Talent Development
270(48)
A Personal Perspective: Students Attending a Class for Gifted Children Share Their Thoughts
271(1)
Advance Organizers
272(2)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
274(1)
Giftedness and Talents Defined
275(9)
Types of Giftedness and Talents
275(6)
Identification
281(2)
Significance
283(1)
History of the Field
284(2)
Prevalence
286(1)
Causes: Factors That Enhance or Inhibit Giftedness
287(2)
Achieving Discipline: Fostering Divergent and Creative Thinking: Flexible Rules
289(1)
Gifted Children
289(9)
Social Behavior
290(1)
Subgroups Requiring Special Attention
291(7)
Educational Interventions
298(12)
Education and the Preschool Child
299(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
300(6)
Collaboration for Inclusion
306(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Addressing Learning Differences
307(2)
Transition Through Adulthood
309(1)
Families
310(1)
Technology
311(2)
Technology as a Functional Skill
311(1)
Electronic Outreach
312(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Do We Need a Different Way to Identify and Provide Gifted Education to Native American Students?
313(1)
In Conclusion
314(2)
Supplementary Resources
316(2)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
318(44)
A Personal Perspective: A Mother Discusses the Stigma of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
319(2)
Advance Organizers
321(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
322(1)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Defined
323(8)
Types
325(4)
Identification
329(1)
Significance
330(1)
History of the Field
331(2)
Prevalence
333(1)
Causes and Prevention
334(3)
Causes
334(2)
Prevention
336(1)
Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
337(5)
Achieving Discipline: Getting to Know the Behavior: ABC Analysis
338(1)
Social Skills
338(1)
Peer Perceptions
339(1)
Juvenile Justice, Delinquency, and Violence
340(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Being Prepared for School Violence
341(1)
Academic Performance
342(1)
Educational Interventions
342(12)
Education and the Preschool Child
342(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
343(4)
What IDEA'97 Says About Functional Behavioral Assessments and Behavioral Intervention Plans
347(4)
Collaboration for Inclusion
351(2)
Transition Through Adulthood
353(1)
Families
354(2)
Negotiating the Mental Health Care System
354(1)
Foster Home Placements
355(1)
Technology
356(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Behavioral Control Through Medication, Is It Necessary?
357(1)
In Conclusion
357(3)
Supplementary Resources
360(2)
Physical Impairments and Special Health Care Needs
362(48)
A Personal Perspective: The People Who Make Special Education Special
363(2)
Advance Organizers
365(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
366(1)
Physical Impairments and Special Health Care Needs Defined
367(14)
Types of Physical Impairments and Special Health Care Needs
368(8)
Health Impairments
376(2)
Identification
378(1)
Significance
379(2)
History of the Field
381(3)
Prevalence
384(1)
Causes and Prevention
385(5)
Causes
385(2)
Prevention
387(3)
Children with Physical Impairments and Special Health Care Needs
390(4)
Characteristics Affecting Learning
391(1)
Achieving Discipline: Acknowledge the Effort: Rewards
392(1)
Characteristics Affecting the Classroom and School
392(2)
Educational Interventions
394(7)
Education and the Preschool Child
395(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
396(1)
Collaboration for Inclusion
397(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Adapting All Aspects of the Classroom
398(2)
Transition Through Adulthood
400(1)
Families
401(2)
Technology
403(2)
Computers
403(1)
Bionics and Robotics
404(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Inclusion Versus Segregation
405(1)
In Conclusion
406(2)
Supplementary Resources
408(2)
Deafness and Hard of Hearing
410(48)
A Personal Perspective: A Hearing Mom of a Deaf Middle Schooler Talks About Her Son's Deafness
411(2)
Advance Organizers
413(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
414(1)
Deafness and Hard of Hearing Defined
415(6)
Types of Hearing Loss
417(1)
Identification
417(3)
Significance
420(1)
History of the Field
421(4)
Prevalence
425(1)
Causes and Prevention
425(7)
Causes
425(4)
Prevention
429(3)
Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
432(2)
Deaf Culture
432(1)
Academic Achievement
433(1)
Speech Ability
434(1)
Educational Interventions
434(12)
Achieving Discipline: Be Fair: Make the Punishment Fit the Crime
435(1)
Education and the Preschool Child
435(1)
Education and the Schoolchild
436(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Modifying the Delivery of Instruction
437(3)
Collaboration for Inclusion
440(1)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Strategic Use of American Sign Language (ASL) to Promote Knowledge and Mastery of English
441(3)
Transition Through Adulthood
444(2)
Families
446(1)
Technology
447(6)
Assistive Listening Devices
448(1)
Telecommunication Devices
449(3)
Computerized Speech-to-Text Translations
452(1)
Alerting Devices
452(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Cochlear Implants: To Do or Not To Do?
453(1)
In Conclusion
454(2)
Supplementary Resources
456(2)
Low Vision and Blindness
458(44)
A Personal Perspective: Two Families of Preschoolers with Visual Impairments Talk About Their Children
459(1)
Advance Organizers
460(2)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
462(1)
Visual Disabilities Defined
463(5)
Types of Visual Disabilities
464(2)
Identification
466(2)
Significance
468(1)
History of the Field
468(3)
Prevalence
471(1)
Causes and Prevention
471(1)
Causes
471(1)
Prevention
472(1)
Low Vision and Blind Children
472(6)
Characteristics Affecting Social Skills
472(2)
Achieving Discipline: Establish Boundaries: Explicit Rules
474(1)
Academic Performance
475(2)
What IDEA'97 Says About Braille Instruction and Use of Braille
477(1)
Educational Interventions
478(13)
Education and the Preschool Child
478(2)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Facilitating Caregiver-Child Interactions
480(2)
Education and the Schoolchild
482(3)
Collaboration for Inclusion
485(1)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Implementing the Courtesy Rules of Blindness
486(3)
Transition Through Adulthood
489(2)
Families
491(2)
Technology
493(4)
Visual Aids
494(1)
Audio Aids
494(2)
Tactile Aids
496(1)
Concepts and Controversy: Is Literacy Necessary in the Twenty-First Century?
497(1)
In Conclusion
498(2)
Supplementary Resources
500(2)
Autism, Deaf-Blindness, and Traumatic Brain Injury: Low Incidence Disabilities
502(41)
A Personal Perspective: A Family's Continuing Search for the Right Program, or An American Mom in Paris Arranging the Best from Both Worlds
503(2)
Advance Organizers
505(1)
Opportunities for the New Millennium
506(1)
Autism
506(1)
Autism Defined
507(7)
Types of Autism
508(2)
Identification
510(1)
Significance
510(1)
Research to Practice: Teaching with Confidence: Functional Behavioral Assessment
511(2)
Insights into Autism
513(1)
Prevalence
514(1)
Causes and Prevention
514(1)
Children with Autism
515(2)
Deaf-Blindness
517(1)
Deaf-Blindness Defined
517(4)
Identification
518(1)
Significance
519(2)
Prevalence
521(1)
Causes and Prevention
521(1)
Children with Deaf-Blindness
522(2)
Traumatic Brain Injury
524(1)
TBI Defined
524(3)
Types of TBI
525(1)
Identification
525(1)
Significance
526(1)
Prevalence
527(1)
Causes and Prevention
527(1)
Children with TBI
528(1)
Very Low Incidence Disabilities
529(1)
Educational Interventions
529(3)
Collaboration for Inclusion
530(1)
Achieving Discipline: Teaching the Alternatives: Functionally Equivalent Behaviors
531(1)
Transition to Adulthood
532(1)
Families
532(3)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments: Creating Situations Where Individuals with Autism Participate Successfully
533(2)
Technology
535(2)
Concepts and Controversy: The Delicate Balance Between Segregation and Integration
537(2)
In Conclusion
539(2)
Supplementary Resources
541(2)
Glossary 543(12)
References 555(46)
Name Index 601(10)
Subject Index 611


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