Preface 

xv  


1  (24) 

1.1 Three Reasons to Study Statistics 


1  (4) 

1.2 The Nature and Role of Variability 


5  (3) 

1.3 Statistics and Data Analysis 


8  (2) 

1.4 Types of Data and Some Simple Graphical Displays 


10  (10) 

Activity 1.1: Head Sizes: Understanding Variability 


20  (1) 

Activity 1.2: Estimating Sizes 


21  (4) 

2 The Data Analysis Process and Collecting Data Sensibly 


25  (54) 

2.1 The Data Analysis Process 


25  (3) 


28  (11) 

2.3 Statistical Studies: Observation and Experimentation 


39  (4) 

2.4 Simple Comparative Experiments 


43  (10) 

2.5 More on Experimental Design 


53  (5) 

2.6 More on Observational Studies: Designing Surveys (Optional) 


58  (8) 

2.7 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


66  (2) 

Activity 2.1: Designing a Sampling Plan 


68  (1) 

Activity 2.2: An Experiment to Test for the Stroop Effect 


68  (3) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


71  (8) 

3 Graphical Methods for Describing Data 


79  (72) 

3.1 Displaying Categorical Data: Comparative Bar Charts and Pie Charts 


79  (13) 

3.2 Displaying Numerical Data: StemandLeaf Displays 


92  (7) 

3.3 Displaying Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions and Histograms 


99  (21) 

3.4 Displaying Bivariate Numerical Data 


120  (11) 

3.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


131  (8) 

Activity 3.1: Locating States 


139  (1) 

Activity 3.2: Bean Counters! 


140  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


144  (7) 

4 Numerical Methods for Describing Data 


151  (50) 

4.1 Describing the Center of a Data Set 


152  (10) 

4.2 Describing Variability in a Data Set 


162  (10) 

4.3 Summarizing a Data Set: Boxplots 


172  (6) 

4.4 Interpreting Center and Variability: Chebyshev's Rule, the Empirical Rule, and z Scores 


178  (9) 

4.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


187  (4) 

Activity 4.1: Collecting and Summarizing Numerical Data 


191  (1) 

Activity 4.2: Boxplot Shapes 


192  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


196  (5) 

5 Summarizing Bivariate Data 


201  (70) 


201  (12) 

5.2 Linear Regression: Fitting a Line to Bivariate Data 


213  (11) 

5.3 Assessing the Fit of a Line 


224  (15) 

5.4 Nonlinear Relationships and Transformations 


239  (16) 

5.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


255  (3) 

Activity 5.1: Exploring Correlation and Regression Technology Activity (Applets) 


258  (1) 

Activity 5.2: Age and Flexibility 


259  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


263  (8) 


271  (80) 

6.1 Chance Experiments and Events 


271  (9) 

6.2 Definition of Probability 


280  (8) 

6.3 Basic Properties of Probability 


288  (7) 

6.4 Conditional Probability 


295  (10) 


305  (10) 

6.6 Some General Probability Rules 


315  (12) 

6.7 Estimating Probabilities Empirically and Using Simulation 


327  (12) 


339  (1) 

Activity 6.2: A Crisis for European Sports Fans? 


340  (1) 

Activity 6.3: The "Hot Hand" in Basketball 


340  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


344  (7) 

7 Random Variables and Probability Distributions 


351  (90) 


352  (3) 

7.2 Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables 


355  (6) 

7.3 Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables 


361  (5) 

7.4 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Random Variable 


366  (14) 

7.5 The Binomial and Geometric Distributions 


380  (12) 


392  (17) 

7.7 Checking for Normality and Normalizing Transformations 


409  (11) 

7.8 Using the Normal Distribution to Approximate a Discrete Distribution 


420  (4) 

Activity 7.1: Rotten Eggs? 


424  (5) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


429  (12) 

8 Sampling Variability and Sampling Distributions 


441  (34) 

8.1 Statistics and Sampling Variability 


442  (9) 

8.2 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean 


451  (10) 

8.3 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion 


461  (6) 

Activity 8.1: Do Students Who Take the SATs Multiple Times Have an Advantage in College Admissions? 


467  (3) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


470  (5) 

9 Estimation Using a Single Sample 


475  (46) 


475  (7) 

9.2 LargeSample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


482  (13) 

9.3 Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 


495  (13) 

9.4 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


508  (5) 

Activity 9.1: Getting a Feel for Confidence Level 


513  (1) 

Activity 9.2: An Alternative Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 


514  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


518  (3) 
10 Hypothesis Testing Using a Single Sample 

521  (54) 

10.1 Hypotheses and Test Procedures 


522  (4) 

10.2 Errors in Hypothesis Testing 


526  (6) 

10.3 LargeSample Hypothesis Tests for a Population Proportion 


532  (13) 

10.4 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean 


545  (11) 

10.5 Power and the Probability of Type II Error 


556  (10) 

10.6 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


566  (2) 

Activity 10.1: Comparing the t and z Distributions 


568  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


572  (3) 
11 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments 57S 


11.1 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples 


575  (20) 

11.2 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Paired Samples 


595  (11) 

11.3 LargeSample Inferences Concerning a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Proportions 


606  (9) 

11.4 DistributionFree Procedures for Inferences About a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples (Optional) 


615  (8) 

11.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


623  (2) 

Activity 11.1: HeliumFilled Footballs? 


625  (1) 

Activity 11.2: Thinking About Data Collection 


626  (6) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


632  (5) 
12 The Analysis of Categorical Data and GoodnessofFit Tests 

637  (38) 

12.1 ChiSquare Tests for Univariate Categorical Data 


637  (9) 

12.2 Tests for Homogeneity and Independence in a TwoWay Table 


646  (17) 

12.3 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


663  (3) 

Activity 12.1: Pick a Number, Any Number... 


666  (1) 

Activity 12.2: Color and Perceived Taste 


666  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


670  (5) 
13 Simple Linear Regression and Correlation: Inferential Methods 

675  (56) 

13.1 The Simple Linear Regression Model 


675  (13) 

13.2 Inferences About the Slope of the Population Regression Line 


688  (10) 

13.3 Checking Model Adequacy 


698  (11) 

13.4 Inferences Based on the Estimated Regression Line (Optional) 


709  (8) 

13.5 Inferences About the Population Correlation Coefficient (Optional) 


717  (4) 

13.6 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


721  (1) 

Activity 13.1: Are Tall Women from "Big" Families? 


722  (7) 

Graphing Calculator Explorations 


729  (2) 
14 Multiple Regression Analysis 

731  (60) 

14.1 Multiple Regression Models 


732  (12) 

14.2 Fitting a Model and Assessing Its Utility 


744  (15) 

14.3 Inferences Based on an Estimated Model 


759  (12) 

14.4 Other Issues in Multiple Regression 


771  (12) 

14.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


783  (1) 

Activity 14.1: Exploring the Relationship Between Number of Predictors and Sample Size 


784  (7) 
15 Analysis of Variance 

791  (54) 

15.1 SingleFactor ANOVA and the F Test 


791  (14) 

15.2 Multiple Comparisons 


805  (7) 

15.3 The F Test for a Randomized Block Experiment 


812  (9) 


821  (12) 

15.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses 


833  (2) 

Activity 15.1: Exploring SingleFactor ANOVA 


835  (3) 

Appendix: ANOVA Computations 


838  (4) 

Graphing Calculator Exploration 


842  (3) 
Appendix: Statistical Tables 

845  (24) 
Answers to Selected OddNumbered Exercises 

869  (10) 
Index 

879  