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Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis,9780534467104
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Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780534467104

ISBN10:
0534467105
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/3/2004
Publisher(s):
Duxbury Press
List Price: $260.33

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This is the 2nd edition with a publication date of 3/3/2004.
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Summary

1. THE ROLE OF STATISTICS. Three Reasons to Study Statistics. The Nature and Role of Variability. Statistics and Data Analysis. Types of Data and Simple Graphical Displays. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. 2.THE DATA ANALYSIS PROCESS AND COLLECTING DATA SENSIBILY. The Data Analysis Process. Sampling. Statistical Studies: Observation and Experimentation. Simple Comparative Experiments. More on Experimental Design. More on Observational Studies: Designing Surveys (Optional). Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 3. GRAPHICAL METHODS FOR DESCRIBING DATA. Displaying Categorical Data: Comparative Bar Charts and Pie Charts. Displaying Numerical Data: Stem-and-Leaf Displays. Displaying Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions and Histograms. Displaying Bi-variate Numerical Data. Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 4.NUMERICAL METHODS FOR DESCRIBING DATA. Describing the Center of a Data Set. Describing the Variability in a Data Set. Summarizing a Data Set: Boxplots. Interpreting Center and Variability: Chevyshev''s Rule, the Empirical Rule, and z Scores. Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 5.SUMMARIZING BIVARIATE DATA. Correlation. Linear Regression: Fitting a Line to Bi-variate Data. Assessing the Fit of a Line. Nonlinear Relationships and Transformations. Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 6. PROBABILITY. Chance Experiments and Events. The Definition of Probability. Basic Properties of Probability. Conditional Probability. Independence. Some General Probability Rules. Estimating Probabilities Empirically and Using Simulation. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 7. RANDOM VARIABLES AND PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS. Random Variables. Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables. Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables. The Mean and Standard Deviation of a Random Variable. The Binomial and Geometric Distributions. The Normal Distribution. Checking for Normality and Normalizing Transformations. Using the Normal Distribution to Approximate a Discrete Distribution. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 8.SAMPLING VARIABILITY AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS. Statistics and Sampling Variability. The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean. The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 9.ESTIMATION USING A SINGLE SAMPLE. Point Estimation. A Large-Sample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion. A Confidence Interval for a Population Mean. Communicating and Interpreting the Results of a Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 10. HYPOTHESIS TESTING USING A SINGLE SAMPLE. Hypotheses and Test Procedures. Errors in Hypothesis Testing. Large-Sample Hypothesis Tests for a Population Proportion. Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean. Power and the Probability of Type II Error. Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses. Chapter Activities. Supplementary Exercises. Graphing Calculator Explorations. 11.COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS OR TREATMENTS. Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples. Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Paired Samples. Large-Sample Inferences Concerning a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Proportions. Distribution-Free Procedures for Inferences Concerning a Difference Between Two Population o

Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 The Role of Statistics
1(24)
1.1 Three Reasons to Study Statistics
1(4)
1.2 The Nature and Role of Variability
5(3)
1.3 Statistics and Data Analysis
8(2)
1.4 Types of Data and Some Simple Graphical Displays
10(10)
Activity 1.1: Head Sizes: Understanding Variability
20(1)
Activity 1.2: Estimating Sizes
21(4)
2 The Data Analysis Process and Collecting Data Sensibly
25(54)
2.1 The Data Analysis Process
25(3)
2.2 Sampling
28(11)
2.3 Statistical Studies: Observation and Experimentation
39(4)
2.4 Simple Comparative Experiments
43(10)
2.5 More on Experimental Design
53(5)
2.6 More on Observational Studies: Designing Surveys (Optional)
58(8)
2.7 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
66(2)
Activity 2.1: Designing a Sampling Plan
68(1)
Activity 2.2: An Experiment to Test for the Stroop Effect
68(3)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
71(8)
3 Graphical Methods for Describing Data
79(72)
3.1 Displaying Categorical Data: Comparative Bar Charts and Pie Charts
79(13)
3.2 Displaying Numerical Data: Stem-and-Leaf Displays
92(7)
3.3 Displaying Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions and Histograms
99(21)
3.4 Displaying Bivariate Numerical Data
120(11)
3.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
131(8)
Activity 3.1: Locating States
139(1)
Activity 3.2: Bean Counters!
140(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
144(7)
4 Numerical Methods for Describing Data
151(50)
4.1 Describing the Center of a Data Set
152(10)
4.2 Describing Variability in a Data Set
162(10)
4.3 Summarizing a Data Set: Boxplots
172(6)
4.4 Interpreting Center and Variability: Chebyshev's Rule, the Empirical Rule, and z Scores
178(9)
4.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
187(4)
Activity 4.1: Collecting and Summarizing Numerical Data
191(1)
Activity 4.2: Boxplot Shapes
192(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
196(5)
5 Summarizing Bivariate Data
201(70)
5.1 Correlation
201(12)
5.2 Linear Regression: Fitting a Line to Bivariate Data
213(11)
5.3 Assessing the Fit of a Line
224(15)
5.4 Nonlinear Relationships and Transformations
239(16)
5.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
255(3)
Activity 5.1: Exploring Correlation and Regression Technology Activity (Applets)
258(1)
Activity 5.2: Age and Flexibility
259(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
263(8)
6 Probability
271(80)
6.1 Chance Experiments and Events
271(9)
6.2 Definition of Probability
280(8)
6.3 Basic Properties of Probability
288(7)
6.4 Conditional Probability
295(10)
6.5 Independence
305(10)
6.6 Some General Probability Rules
315(12)
6.7 Estimating Probabilities Empirically and Using Simulation
327(12)
Activity 6.1: Kisses
339(1)
Activity 6.2: A Crisis for European Sports Fans?
340(1)
Activity 6.3: The "Hot Hand" in Basketball
340(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
344(7)
7 Random Variables and Probability Distributions
351(90)
7.1 Random Variables
352(3)
7.2 Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables
355(6)
7.3 Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables
361(5)
7.4 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Random Variable
366(14)
7.5 The Binomial and Geometric Distributions
380(12)
7.6 Normal Distributions
392(17)
7.7 Checking for Normality and Normalizing Transformations
409(11)
7.8 Using the Normal Distribution to Approximate a Discrete Distribution
420(4)
Activity 7.1: Rotten Eggs?
424(5)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
429(12)
8 Sampling Variability and Sampling Distributions
441(34)
8.1 Statistics and Sampling Variability
442(9)
8.2 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean
451(10)
8.3 The Sampling Distribution of a Sample Proportion
461(6)
Activity 8.1: Do Students Who Take the SATs Multiple Times Have an Advantage in College Admissions?
467(3)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
470(5)
9 Estimation Using a Single Sample
475(46)
9.1 Point Estimation
475(7)
9.2 Large-Sample Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion
482(13)
9.3 Confidence Interval for a Population Mean
495(13)
9.4 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
508(5)
Activity 9.1: Getting a Feel for Confidence Level
513(1)
Activity 9.2: An Alternative Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion
514(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
518(3)
10 Hypothesis Testing Using a Single Sample 521(54)
10.1 Hypotheses and Test Procedures
522(4)
10.2 Errors in Hypothesis Testing
526(6)
10.3 Large-Sample Hypothesis Tests for a Population Proportion
532(13)
10.4 Hypothesis Tests for a Population Mean
545(11)
10.5 Power and the Probability of Type II Error
556(10)
10.6 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
566(2)
Activity 10.1: Comparing the t and z Distributions
568(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
572(3)
11 Comparing Two Populations or Treatments 57S
11.1 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples
575(20)
11.2 Inferences Concerning the Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Paired Samples
595(11)
11.3 Large-Sample Inferences Concerning a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Proportions
606(9)
11.4 Distribution-Free Procedures for Inferences About a Difference Between Two Population or Treatment Means Using Independent Samples (Optional)
615(8)
11.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
623(2)
Activity 11.1: Helium-Filled Footballs?
625(1)
Activity 11.2: Thinking About Data Collection
626(6)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
632(5)
12 The Analysis of Categorical Data and Goodness-of-Fit Tests 637(38)
12.1 Chi-Square Tests for Univariate Categorical Data
637(9)
12.2 Tests for Homogeneity and Independence in a Two-Way Table
646(17)
12.3 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
663(3)
Activity 12.1: Pick a Number, Any Number...
666(1)
Activity 12.2: Color and Perceived Taste
666(4)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
670(5)
13 Simple Linear Regression and Correlation: Inferential Methods 675(56)
13.1 The Simple Linear Regression Model
675(13)
13.2 Inferences About the Slope of the Population Regression Line
688(10)
13.3 Checking Model Adequacy
698(11)
13.4 Inferences Based on the Estimated Regression Line (Optional)
709(8)
13.5 Inferences About the Population Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
717(4)
13.6 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
721(1)
Activity 13.1: Are Tall Women from "Big" Families?
722(7)
Graphing Calculator Explorations
729(2)
14 Multiple Regression Analysis 731(60)
14.1 Multiple Regression Models
732(12)
14.2 Fitting a Model and Assessing Its Utility
744(15)
14.3 Inferences Based on an Estimated Model
759(12)
14.4 Other Issues in Multiple Regression
771(12)
14.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
783(1)
Activity 14.1: Exploring the Relationship Between Number of Predictors and Sample Size
784(7)
15 Analysis of Variance 791(54)
15.1 Single-Factor ANOVA and the F Test
791(14)
15.2 Multiple Comparisons
805(7)
15.3 The F Test for a Randomized Block Experiment
812(9)
15.4 Two-Factor ANOVA
821(12)
15.5 Communicating and Interpreting the Results of Statistical Analyses
833(2)
Activity 15.1: Exploring Single-Factor ANOVA
835(3)
Appendix: ANOVA Computations
838(4)
Graphing Calculator Exploration
842(3)
Appendix: Statistical Tables 845(24)
Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Exercises 869(10)
Index 879


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