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An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory,9781405100168
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An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory

by ; ;
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9781405100168

ISBN10:
1405100168
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
12/4/2013
Publisher(s):
Wiley-Blackwell
List Price: $99.95

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Summary

An Introduction to Syntactic Analysis and Theory offers beginning students a comprehensive overview of and introduction to our current understanding of the rules and principles that govern the syntax of natural languages.

  • Includes numerous pedagogical features such as ‘practice’ boxes and sidebars, designed to facilitate understanding of both the ‘hows’ and the ‘whys’ of sentence structure
  • Guides readers through syntactic and morphological structures in a progressive manner
  • Takes the mystery out of one of the most crucial aspects of the workings of language – the principles and processes behind the structure of sentences
  • Ideal for students with minimal knowledge of current syntactic research, it progresses in theoretical difficulty from basic ideas and theories to more complex and advanced, up to date concepts in syntactic theory

Author Biography

Dominique Sportiche is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, École Normale Supérieure in Paris, and Institut Jean Nicod at the Paris Institut d’Étude de la Cognition. Specializing in theoretical syntax, he has published widely on the syntax and the properties of the syntax/semantics interface of English and French.

Hilda Koopman is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her theoretical interests include theoretical syntax and morphology and comparative syntax. She has published on a wide range of topics covering many diverse languages. Her work is often based on original fieldwork.

Edward Stabler is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Los Angeles. His specialty is in computational models of human syntactic analysis and learning, and he has published on a wide range of topics in mathematical and computational linguistics.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Where to Start 1

1.2 What this Book is and is Not, and How to Use It 5

1.3 Further Reading 6

2 Morphology: Starting with Words 9

2.1 Words Come in Categories 10

2.2 Words are Made of Smaller Units: Morphemes 17

2.3 Morphemes Combine in Regular Ways 18

2.4 Apparent Exceptions to the RHHR 32

2.5 Morphological Atoms 35

2.6 Compositionality and Recursion 36

2.7 Conclusion 37

3 Syntactic Analysis Introduced 43

3.1 Word Order 44

3.2 Constituency 47

3.3 Syntactic Productivity 48

3.4 Substitution 50

3.5 Ellipsis 58

3.6 Coordination 62

3.7 Movement and Other Distortions 68

3.8 Some More Complex Distortion Experiments, Briefly 74

3.9 Some More Practice 75

3.10 Some Other Evidence of Constituency 76

3.11 Conclusion 78

4 Clauses 87

4.1 Full Clauses: CPs 87

4.2 Tense Phrase 94

4.3 Conclusion 98

5 Other Phrases: A First Glance 105

5.1 Verb Phrases 105

5.2 Determiner Phrases 113

5.3 Noun Phrases 116

5.4 Adjective Phrases 119

5.5 Prepositional Phrases 119

5.6 Ways to Talk About Tree Geometry 119

5.7 Conclusion 120

6 X-bar Theory and the Format of Lexical Entries 127

6.1 Review: The Model of Morphology 127

6.2 Building a Model of Syntax 129

6.3 Headedness 130

6.4 Internal Organization of Constituents 131

6.5 Some Consequences 134

6.6 Cross-categorial Symmetries 137

6.7 Subjects Across Categories: Small Clauses 138

6.8 Lexical Entries 140

6.9 The Projection Principle and Locality 146

6.10 Cross-linguistic Variation 149

6.11 Conclusion 151

7 Binding and the Hierarchical Nature of Phrase Structure 157

7.1 Anaphors 159

7.2 Pronouns 169

7.3 Non-pronominal Expressions 171

7.4 Binding Theory Summarized 172

7.5 Small Clauses and Binding Theory 173

7.6 Some Issues 174

7.7 Cross-linguistic Variation 178

7.8 Learning About Binding Relations 181

7.9 Conclusion 183

8 Apparent Violations of Locality of Selection 187

8.1 Setting the Stage 187

8.2 Topicalization: A First Case of Movement 189

8.3 Head Movement 191

8.4 Detecting Selection 206

8.5 Phrasal Movements 210

8.6 How Selection Drives Structure Building 221

8.7 Addressing some Previous Puzzles 225

8.8 Synthesis 226

8.9 Terminology and Notation 230

8.10 Conclusion 230

9 Infinitival Complements: Raising and Control 239

9.1 Subject Control 240

9.2 Using the Theory: Control and Binding 244

9.3 Interim Summary: Inventory of To-infinitival 248

9.4 Raising to Object/ECM and Object Control 249

9.5 Conclusion 252

10 Wh-questions: Wh-movement and Locality 259

10.1 Introduction 259

10.2 The Landing Site or Target Position of Wh-Movement 261

10.3 What Wh-movement Moves 263

10.4 Locality I: The Problem 266

10.5 Locality II: Theory of Constraints 281

10.6 Special Cases 293

10.7 Conclusion 298

11 Probing Structures 305

11.1 Introduction 305

11.2 Probing Derived Structures 305

11.3 Probing Underlying Structures 312

11.4 Probing with Binding 315

11.5 Conclusion 324

12 Inward Bound: Syntax and Morphology Atoms 331

12.1 The Size of Atoms 332

12.2 Head Movement and the Head Movement Constraint 332

12.3 Causative Affixes: Syntax or Morphology? 335

12.4 VP Shells 339

12.5 Ternary Branching 348

12.6 Using VP Shells: VP Shells and Adjuncts 357

12.7 Terminological Changes 362

12.8 Raising to Object 363

12.9 The Model of Morphosyntax 364

12.10 Conclusion 367

13 Advanced Binding and Some Binding Typology 377

13.1 Basics: Reminders 377

13.2 Reminder About Principle A 380

13.3 Subjects of Tensed Clauses 380

13.4 VP shells and the Binding Theory 382

13.5 Binding Variation and Typology 387

13.6 Conclusion 397

14 Wh-constructions 403

14.1 Diagnostic Properties of Wh-movement 403

14.2 Relative Clauses 405

14.3 Another Case of Null Operator Movement: Tough-Construction 413

14.4 Topicalization and Left Dislocation 415

14.5 Other Wh-movement Constructions 417

14.6 Conclusion 419

15 Syntactic Processes 421

15.1 The Language Model: Defining Structure 422

15.2 Selection, Movement, Locality 423

15.3 Computational Properties of the Model 427

15.4 Conclusion 433

References 435

Index



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