CART

(0) items

Introduction to Theories of Personality, An,9780130992260
This item qualifies for
FREE SHIPPING!

FREE SHIPPING OVER $59!

Your order must be $59 or more, you must select US Postal Service Shipping as your shipping preference, and the "Group my items into as few shipments as possible" option when you place your order.

Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace Items, eBooks, Apparel, and DVDs not included.

Introduction to Theories of Personality, An

by ;
Edition:
6th
ISBN13:

9780130992260

ISBN10:
0130992267
Media:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2003
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $114.40
More New and Used
from Private Sellers
Starting at $4.60

Rent Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Used Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

eTextbook

We're Sorry
Not Available

New Textbook

We're Sorry
Sold Out

Summary

This introduction to the theories of personality introduces readers not only to the rich history of psychology but topracticalinformation that helps them understand their own lives and their relationships with other people. Using a theorist-by-theorist approach, the book summarizes the major theories of personality and emphasizes that the best understanding of personality derives from avarietyof viewpoints. Thus, theories representing the psychoanalytic, sociocultural, trait, learning, sociological, and existential-humanistic paradigms are offered as differentyet equally validways of approaching the study of personality. Includes a series of experiential exercises.What Is Personality? Sigmund Freud. Carl Jung. Alfred Adler. Karen Horney. Erik H. Erikson. Gordon Allport. Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J. Eysenck. B. F. Skinner. John Dollard and Neal Miller. Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel. Edward O. Wilson. George Kelly. Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow. Rollo Reese May.For anyone wanting a comprehensive understanding of personality and individual differences.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
What Is Personality?
1(20)
Three Concerns of Personality Theory
1(1)
Proposed Determinants of Personality
2(4)
Questions Confronting the Personality Theorist
6(4)
How Do We Find the Answers?
10(3)
Science and Personality Theory
13(4)
Summary
17(1)
Experiential Exercises
18(1)
Discussion Questions
18(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
19(1)
Chapter Highlights
20(1)
Sigmund Freud
21(44)
Biographical Sketch
22(2)
Early Influences on Freud's Theory
24(6)
Instincts and Their Characteristics
30(1)
Divisions of the Mind
30(3)
The Id
30(1)
The Ego
31(1)
The Superego
32(1)
Cathexis and Anticathexis
33(2)
Anxiety
35(1)
Ego-Defense Mechanisms
35(5)
Psychosexual Stages of Development
40(3)
Summary of Freud's Views on Feminine Psychology
43(2)
Tapping the Unconscious Mind
45(3)
Freud's View of Religion
48(1)
Freud's View of Human Nature
49(1)
Modifications of the Freudian Legend
50(4)
Evaluation
54(2)
Empirical Research
54(1)
Criticisms
54(1)
Contributions
55(1)
Summary
56(3)
Experiential Exercises
59(1)
Discussion Questions
59(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
60(1)
Chapter Highlights
61(4)
Carl Jung
65(34)
Biographical Sketch
66(1)
Jung's Early Dreams, Visions, and Fantasies
67(2)
Jung's Early Professional Life
69(2)
Jung's Relationship with Freud
71(3)
Libido, Equivalence, Entropy, and Opposites
74(1)
Components of the Personality
75(3)
Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow, and Self
78(3)
Persona
78(1)
Anima
79(1)
Animus
79(1)
Shadow
80(1)
Self
80(1)
Psychological Types
81(3)
Stages of Development
84(1)
Life's Goal
85(2)
Causality, Teleology, and Synchronicity
87(2)
Research Techniques
89(2)
Jung's View of Human Nature
91(1)
Evaluation
92(1)
Empirical Research
92(1)
Criticisms
92(1)
Contributions
93(1)
Summary
93(2)
Experiential Exercises
95(1)
Discussion Questions
95(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
96(1)
Chapter Highlights
97(2)
Alfred Adler
99(33)
Biographical Sketch
99(3)
Individual Psychology
102(1)
Organ Inferiority and Compensation
103(1)
Feelings of Inferiority
103(2)
Feelings of Inferiority as Motivational
104(1)
Striving for Superiority
105(1)
Vaihinger's Philosophy of ``As If''
106(1)
Fictional Goals and Lifestyles
107(1)
Social Interest
108(3)
Mistaken Lifestyles
109(2)
Creative Self
111(1)
Safeguarding Strategies
112(3)
Excuses
112(1)
Aggression
113(1)
Distancing
114(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
115(2)
Adler's View of the Unconscious
116(1)
Methods of Research
117(3)
Summary of the Differences Between Adler and Freud
120(1)
Evaluation
120(6)
Empirical Research
120(5)
Criticisms
125(1)
Contributions
125(1)
Summary
126(2)
Experiential Exercises
128(1)
Discussion Questions
128(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
129(1)
Chapter Highlights
130(2)
Karen Horney
132(29)
Biographical Sketch
132(4)
Basic Evil, Hostility, and Anxiety
136(2)
Adjustments to Basic Anxiety
138(3)
Moving Toward, Against, or Away from People
140(1)
Real and Idealized Self
141(2)
Externalization
143(1)
Auxiliary Approaches to Artificial Harmony
144(3)
Blind Spots
145(1)
Compartmentalization
145(1)
Rationalization
145(1)
Excessive Self-Control
146(1)
Arbitrary Rightness
146(1)
Elusiveness
146(1)
Cynicism
146(1)
Feminine Psychology
147(3)
Psychotherapy
150(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
150(1)
Self Analysis
151(2)
Comparison of Horney and Freud
153(1)
Early Childhood Experience
153(1)
Unconscious Motivation
153(1)
Biological Motivation
153(1)
Psychotherapy
154(1)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
154(1)
Prognosis for Personality Change
154(1)
Evaluation
154(2)
Empirical Research
154(1)
Criticisms
155(1)
Contributions
156(1)
Summary
156(2)
Experiential Exercises
158(1)
Discussion Questions
158(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
158(1)
Chapter Highlights
159(2)
Erik H. Erikson
161(33)
Biographical Sketch
161(4)
Anatomy and Destiny
165(3)
Ego Psychology
168(1)
Epigenetic Principle, Crises, Ritualizations, and Ritualisms
169(3)
Epigenetic Principle
169(1)
Crises
170(1)
Ritualizations and Ritualisms
171(1)
Eight Stages of Personality Development
172(8)
Infancy: Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
172(1)
Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
173(1)
Preschool Age: Initiative versus Guilt
174(1)
School Age: Industry versus Inferiority
175(2)
Adolescence: Identity versus Role Confusion
177(2)
Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus Isolation
179(1)
Adulthood: Generativity versus Stagnation
180(1)
Old Age: Ego Integrity versus Despair
180(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
180(2)
Comparison of Erikson and Freud
182(3)
Development
183(1)
Anatomy as Destiny
183(1)
Ego Psychology
183(1)
Unconscious Mind
184(1)
Dream Analysis
184(1)
Psychotherapy
184(1)
Religion
185(1)
Evaluation
185(3)
Empirical Research
185(1)
Criticisms
186(1)
Contributions
187(1)
Summary
188(2)
Experiential Exercises
190(1)
Discussion Questions
190(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
191(1)
Chapter Highlights
191(3)
Gordon Allport
194(35)
Biographical Sketch
194(4)
What Is Personality?
198(2)
Dynamic Organization
199(1)
Psychophysical Systems
199(1)
Determine
199(1)
Characteristic Behavior and Thought
199(1)
Character, Temperament, and Type
200(1)
Character
200(1)
Temperament
200(1)
Type
200(1)
Criteria for an Adequate Theory of Personality
200(1)
Allport's Concept of Trait
201(3)
Traits Are Not Habits
204(1)
Traits Are Not Attitudes
204(1)
Types of Traits
204(2)
Cardinal Dispositions
205(1)
Central Dispositions
206(1)
Secondary Dispositions
206(1)
The Proprium
206(3)
Conscience
208(1)
Functional Autonomy
209(2)
The Healthy, Mature Adult Personality
211(3)
The Nature of Prejudice
214(2)
Religion
216(2)
Extrinsic Religion
217(1)
Intrinsic Religion
217(1)
Letters from Jenny
218(2)
Study of Expressive Behavior and Values
220(1)
Evaluation
221(3)
Empirical Research
221(1)
Criticisms
221(2)
Contributions
223(1)
Summary
224(1)
Experiential Exercises
225(1)
Discussion Questions
226(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
227(2)
Chapter Highlights
229(1)
Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J. Eysenck
229(46)
Biographical Sketches
230(5)
Raymond B. Cattell
230(2)
Hans J. Eysenck
232(3)
Factor Analysis
235(5)
Nomothetic versus Idiographic Techniques
239(1)
Taxonomy of Traits
240(13)
Cattell's Analysis of Traits
240(8)
Eysenck's Analysis of Traits
248(1)
Historical Roots of Eysenck's Theory
248(3)
Biological Bases of Personality
251(2)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
253(3)
Personality Development
256(2)
Cattell's Multiple Influence Approach
256(1)
Eysenck and Heritable Traits
257(1)
Psychopathology
258(1)
Psychotherapy
259(1)
Contemporary Developments: The Big Five
260(3)
Have the Big Five Displaced Cattell and Eysenck?
261(2)
Evaluation
263(5)
Cattell: Empirical Research
263(1)
Eysenck: Empirical Research
264(1)
Criticisms
265(1)
Contributions
266(2)
Summary
268(2)
Experiential Exercises
270(1)
Discussion Questions
271(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
271(1)
Chapter Highlights
272(3)
B. F. Skinner
275(34)
Biographical Sketch
275(3)
Skinner and Personality Theory
278(3)
Respondent and Operant Behavior
281(1)
Operant Conditioning
282(5)
Acquisition
283(1)
Shaping
284(1)
Extinction
285(1)
Discriminative Operants
285(1)
Secondary Reinforcement
286(1)
Chaining
287(2)
Verbal Behavior
289(1)
Reinforcement Schedules
289(2)
Superstitious Behavior
291(1)
Reinforcement Contingencies
292(2)
Positive Reinforcement
292(1)
Negative Reinforcement
292(1)
Avoidance
292(1)
Punishment
293(1)
Our Biggest Problem
294(1)
Behavior Disorders and Behavior Therapy
295(3)
Behavior Disorders
295(1)
Token Economies
296(2)
Walden Two
298(1)
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
299(1)
Evaluation
300(3)
Empirical Research
300(1)
Criticisms
301(1)
Contributions
302(1)
Summary
303(1)
Experiential Exercises
304(1)
Discussion Questions
305(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
306(1)
Chapter Highlights
307(2)
John Dollard and Neal Miller
309(36)
Biographical Sketches
309(5)
John Dollard
309(2)
Neal Miller
311(3)
Hull's Theory of Learning
314(1)
Drive, Cue, Response, and Reinforcement
315(2)
Drive
315(1)
Cue
316(1)
Response
316(1)
Reinforcement
316(1)
Response Hierarchies
317(2)
The Gradient of Reinforcement
319(1)
Fear as an Acquired Drive
319(1)
Stimulus Generalization
320(1)
Conflict
321(3)
Approach-Approach Conflict
321(1)
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
322(1)
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
322(2)
Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict
324(1)
Displacement
324(3)
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
327(1)
Importance of Language
328(1)
Unconscious Mind
329(3)
Experiences That Were Never Verbalized
330(1)
Repressed Experiences
331(1)
Neurosis and Symptom Formation
332(2)
Neurosis
332(1)
Symptom Formation
333(1)
Psychotherapy
334(1)
Four Critical Training Situations of Childhood
335(2)
Evaluation
337(2)
Empirical Research
337(1)
Criticisms
337(1)
Contributions
338(1)
Summary
339(2)
Experiential Exercises
341(1)
Discussion Questions
342(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
343(1)
Chapter Highlights
343(2)
Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel
345(36)
Biographical Sketches
346(3)
Albert Bandura
346(1)
Walter Mischel
347(2)
Consistency of Human Behavior
349(3)
Reciprocal Determinism
351(1)
Cognitive Social Person Variables
352(2)
Observational Learning
354(5)
Attentional Processes
357(1)
Retentional Processes
358(1)
Motor Reproduction Processes
358(1)
Motivational Processes
359(1)
Self-Regulated Behavior
359(6)
Self-Efficacy
360(2)
Moral Conduct
362(1)
Delay of Gratification
363(2)
Dysfunctional Expectancies and Psychotherapy
365(4)
Social Cognitive Theory View of Human Nature
369(2)
Freedom versus Determinism
369(2)
Mind-Body Relationship
371(1)
Evaluation
371(4)
Empirical Research
371(2)
Criticisms
373(1)
Contributions
374(1)
Summary
375(1)
Experiential Exercises
376(1)
Discussion Questions
377(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
378(1)
Chapter Highlights
378(3)
Edward D. Wilson
381(46)
Biographical Sketch
382(1)
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
383(2)
Inclusive Fitness
384(1)
Basic Assumptions of Sociobiology
385(1)
Perpetuation of the Genes
385(1)
Natural Selection Shapes Social Behavior
385(1)
Evolution, Personality, and Human Nature
386(3)
Empirical Theory
386(1)
Sociobiological Theory
386(2)
Proximate versus Ultimate Causation
388(1)
Why Are Some Behaviors ``Sweeter'' Than Others?
388(1)
What Is Inherited?
389(1)
Relationship Between Biology and Culture
390(3)
Innate Tendency to Create Culture
390(1)
Limitations of Culture as a Modifier of Human Behavior
390(2)
Mind-Body Relationship
392(1)
Altruism
393(2)
Kin Altruism
393(1)
Reciprocal Altruism
394(1)
Male and Female Criteria for Mate Selection
395(5)
Double Standard
397(2)
Biology of Mating Arrangements
399(1)
Biology of Parenting
400(3)
Involvement of Men in Parenting
401(1)
Stepparenting
401(1)
Adoption
402(1)
Intentional Childlessness
403(1)
Aggression, Territoriality, and Warfare
403(2)
Are Humans Innately Aggressive?
403(1)
Territoriality and Warfare
404(1)
Suicide and Other Forms of Self Destructive Behavior
405(2)
Suicide
405(1)
Other Forms of Self-Destructive Behavior
406(1)
Religion
407(3)
Need for Rules and Regulations
408(1)
Biology of Ethics
408(1)
Importance of Myth
409(1)
Sociobiology and Freudian Theory
410(2)
Id, Ego, and Superego
410(1)
Aggression
411(1)
Unconscious
412(1)
Irrationality and Rationality
412(1)
Sociobiology and Jungian Theory
412(1)
Science and Politics
413(1)
Evaluation
414(5)
Empirical Research
414(1)
Criticisms
414(4)
Contributions
418(1)
Summary
419(2)
Experiential Exercises
421(1)
Discussion Questions
422(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
423(2)
Chapter Highlights
425(2)
George Kelly
427(37)
Biographical Sketch
427(4)
Categorization of Kelly's Theory
431(2)
Basic Postulate-People as Scientists
433(2)
Kelly, Vaihinger, and Adler
434(1)
The 11 Corollaries
435(5)
CPC Cycle
440(1)
Circumspection Phase
440(1)
Preemption Phase
440(1)
Control Phase
440(1)
Creativity Cycle
441(1)
Loosened Construction Phase
441(1)
Tightened Construction Phase
441(1)
Test Phase
441(1)
Kelly's Interpretation of Traditional Psychological Concepts
442(5)
Motivation
442(1)
Anxiety
442(1)
Hostility
443(1)
Aggression
444(1)
Guilt
444(1)
Threat
445(1)
Fear
445(1)
Unconscious
445(1)
Learning
446(1)
Reinforcement
447(1)
Psychotherapy
447(5)
Role Construct Repertory Test
447(3)
Fixed-Role Therapy
450(2)
Being Oneself
452(1)
Construct Systems and Paradigms
452(1)
Evaluation
453(4)
Current Status
453(1)
Empirical Research
453(2)
Criticisms
455(1)
Contributions
455(2)
Summary
457(2)
Experiential Exercises
459(1)
Discussion Questions
460(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
460(1)
Chapter Highlights
461(3)
Carl Rogers
464(34)
Biographical Sketch
464(4)
Actualizing Tendency
468(2)
Organismic Valuing Process
470(1)
Phenomenological Field
470(2)
Emergence of the Self
471(1)
Need for Positive Regard
472(1)
Incongruent Person
473(1)
Psychotherapy
474(2)
Fully Functioning Person
476(2)
Q-Sort Technique
478(3)
Rogers-Skinner Debate
481(1)
Freedom to Learn
482(2)
Modern Marriage
484(1)
Person of Tomorrow
485(2)
Evaluation
487(4)
Empirical Research
487(2)
Criticisms
489(1)
Contributions
490(1)
Summary
491(3)
Experiential Exercises
494(1)
Discussion Questions
494(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
495(1)
Chapter Highlights
496(2)
Abraham Maslow
498(35)
Biographical Sketch
498(7)
Third Force Psychology
505(2)
Hierarchy of Needs
507(4)
Physiological Needs
507(1)
Safety Needs
508(1)
Belongingness and Love Needs
508(1)
Esteem Needs
508(1)
Self-Actualization
508(2)
Desire to Know and Understand
510(1)
The Aesthetic Needs
511(1)
Being Motivation
511(1)
Characteristics of Self Actualizing People
512(5)
Negative Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People
517(1)
Why Self-Actualization Is Not Universal
517(2)
Conditions Necessary for Self-Actualization
518(1)
Self-Actualization and Gender
519(1)
Eupsychia
519(1)
Ashrams-Places for Personal Growth
520(1)
Transpersonal Psychology
521(1)
Evaluation
522(5)
Empirical Research
522(2)
Criticisms
524(2)
Contributions
526(1)
Summary
527(2)
Experiential Exercises
529(1)
Discussion Questions
530(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
530(1)
Chapter Highlights
531(2)
Rollo Reese May
533(30)
Biographical Sketch
533(4)
Existentialism
537(3)
Dasein
537(1)
Three Modes of Existence
538(1)
Alienation
538(1)
Freedom
538(1)
Responsibility
538(1)
Ontology
539(1)
Phenomenology
539(1)
Authenticity
539(1)
Death
539(1)
Thrownness
540(1)
Human Dilemma
540(2)
Intentionality
542(1)
Anxiety and Guilt
542(3)
Normal Anxiety
543(1)
Neurotic Anxiety
544(1)
Normal and Neurotic Guilt
544(1)
Importance of Values
545(2)
Nature of Love
547(2)
Sex
547(1)
Eros
547(1)
Philia
548(1)
Agape
549(1)
Psychotherapy
549(2)
Importance of Myth
551(2)
New Science of Humans
553(1)
Evaluation
553(3)
Empirical Research
553(2)
Criticisms
555(1)
Contributions
555(1)
Summary
556(2)
Experiential Exercises
558(1)
Discussion Questions
558(1)
Suggestions for Further Reading
559(1)
Chapter Highlights
560(3)
A Final Word
563(6)
Personality Theories Often Reflect the Biographies of Their Authors
563(2)
Much About Personality Remains Unknown
565(1)
Composite of All Major Theories Best Explains Personality
565(2)
You Are the Final Judge
567(1)
Summary
567(1)
Experiential Exercises
568(1)
References 569(30)
Name Index 599(6)
Subject Index 605

Excerpts

In addition to numerous minor changes, several substantial changes were made in the sixth edition of this text and they are summarized below: Chapter 1: The section "How Do We Find the Answers?" which includes information on the philosophy of science, was revised and expanded; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 2: Current reactions to Freud's seduction theory and his concept of repressed memories were added; the criticisms of Freud's theory were expanded; suggested readings were revised. Chapter 3: The section on synchronicity was revised; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 4: The evaluation section was expanded to include the current debate and research concerning the effects of birth order on personality. Chapter 5: The section "Horney's Explanation of Penis Envy" was revised to show Horney's early acceptance of the belief "Anatomy is Destiny" and her later rejection of that belief; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 6: The biographical sketch of Erikson was revised to reflect current scholarship concerning the early significant events in his life; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 7: Suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 8: The biographical information on Eysenck was updated; references in the section "Contemporary Developments: The Big Five" were updated; coverage of Eysenck's contributions to personality theory was expanded; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 9: The section "Behaviorism" was replaced by "Skinner and Personality Theory." Chapter 10: The difference between the moderate form of behaviorism accepted by Dollard and Miller and the radical behaviorism accepted by Skinner was elaborated. Chapter 11: The fact that Bandura, Mischel, Allport, Cattell, and Eysenck all believed that person variables interact with situation variables to produce behavior was clarified. Chapter 12: A discussion of the relationship between sociobiology and evolutionary psychology was added; the section "Nature of Human Nature" was replaced by "Evolution, Personality, and Human Nature";, recent evidence supporting the claim that males and females use different criteria in mate selection was added; the section "Rape, Incest, and Suicide" was replaced by "Suicide and Other Forms of Self-Destructive Behavior"; the criticism that sociobiology is based on adaptationism was elaborated; the fact that sociobiology emphasizes what humans have in common and neglects individual differences was added to the criticisms section; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 13: Evidence for the continuing popularity of Kelly's theory was added; suggestions for further reading were revised. Chapter 15: Coverage of Maslow's research on human sexuality was expanded; A section entitled "Self-Actualization and Gender" was added; Coverage of "positive psychology" was added to the evaluation section. Chapter 16: Information concerning "narrative therapy" was added to the section "Importance of Myth"; suggestions for further reading were revised. The sixth edition of this text continues to reflect our contention that it is in an Introduction to Theories of Personality course that the student experiences the full richness of psychology. In such a course, the student experiences everything from psychology's most rigorous scientists to its most mystical nonscientific thinkers. It is in such a course that the student reviews answers to questions such as: What, if anything, do all human beings have in common? What accounts for individual differences among people? How are the mind and body related? How much of what we call personality is inherited and how much of it results from experience? and, How much of human behavior is determined and how much of it is a function of free will? In such a course, the major theo


Please wait while the item is added to your cart...