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Introduction to Theories of Personality, An

by ;
Edition:
7th
ISBN13:

9780131942288

ISBN10:
013194228X
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2007
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall

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Summary

This introduction to the theories of personality introduces readers to the rich history of psychology and practical information that helps students understand their own lives and their relationships with others. Using a theorist-by-theorist approach, this text summarizes the major theories of personality and emphasizes that the best understanding of personality comes from a variety of viewpoints. Theories representing the psychoanalytic, sociocultural, sociological, and existential-humanistic paradigms are offered as different--yet equally valid--ways of approaching the study of personality. Theorists covered include: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Erik H. Erikson, Gordon Allport, Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J Eyserick, B.F. Skinner, John Dollard and Neal Miller, Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel, David M. Buss, George Kelly, Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Rollo Reese May. For anyone wanting a comprehensive understanding of personality and individual differences.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
1 What Is Personality?
1(20)
Chapter Outline
1(1)
Three Concerns of Personality Theory
1(1)
Proposed Determinants of Personality
2(4)
Genetics
2(1)
Traits
3(1)
Sociocultural Determinants
4(1)
Learning
4(1)
Existential—Humanistic Considerations
5(1)
Unconscious Mechanisms
5(1)
Cognitive Processes
6(1)
Personality as a Composite of Factors
6(1)
Questions Confronting the Personality Theorist
6(5)
What Is the Relative Importance of the Past, the Present, and the Future?
7(1)
What Motivates Human Behavior?
7(1)
How Important Is the Concept of Self?
7(1)
How Important Are Unconscious Mechanisms?
8(1)
Is Human Behavior Freely Chosen or Is It Determined?
8(1)
What Can Be Learned by Asking People about Themselves?
8(1)
Uniqueness versus Commonality
8(1)
Are People Controlled Internally or Externally?
9(1)
How Are the Mind and Body Related?
9(1)
What Is the Nature of Human Nature?
10(1)
How Consistent Is Human Behavior?
10(1)
How Do We Find the Answers?
11(2)
Epistemology
11(1)
Science
11(1)
Scientific Theory
11(1)
Synthetic Function versus Heuristic Function
12(1)
Principle of Verification
13(1)
Science and Personality Theory
13(4)
Kuhn's View of Science
14(1)
Popper's View of Science
15(1)
Self-Correction in Science
16(1)
Summary
17(1)
Experiential Exercises
18(1)
Discussion Questions
19(1)
Glossary
19(2)
2 Sigmund Freud
21(42)
Chapter Outline
21(1)
Biographical Sketch
22(2)
The Cocaine Incident
23(1)
Early Influences on Freud's Theory
24(5)
Freud's Visit with Charcot
24(1)
Freud's Visit with Bernheim
25(1)
Josef Breuer and the Case of Anna O
26(1)
The Fate of Bertha Pappenheim
27(1)
The Development of Free Association
28(1)
Instincts and Their Characteristics
29(1)
Life and Death Instincts
30(1)
Divisions of the Mind
30(3)
The Id
30(1)
The Ego
31(1)
The Superego
32(1)
Cathexis and Anticathexis
33(1)
Anxiety
34(1)
Ego-Defense Mechanisms
35(5)
Repression
35(1)
Displacement
36(1)
Identification
37(1)
Denial of Reality
37(1)
Projection
37(1)
Undoing
38(1)
Reaction Formation
38(1)
Rationalization
39(1)
Intellectualization (Also Called Isolation of Affect)
39(1)
Regression
39(1)
Altruistic Surrender
39(1)
Identification with the Aggressor
40(1)
Psychosexual Stages of Development
40(3)
Oral Stage
40(1)
Anal Stage
41(1)
Phallic Stage
41(2)
Latency Stage
43(1)
Genital Stage
43(1)
Summary of Freud's Views on Feminine Psychology
43(2)
Tapping the Unconscious Mind
45(3)
Free Association
45(1)
Dream Analysis
46(1)
Everyday Life
47(1)
Humor
48(1)
Freud's View of Religion
48(1)
Freud's View of Human Nature
49(1)
Modifications of the Freudian Legend
50(4)
Freud's Revision of His Seduction Theory
50(3)
Correcting Other Freudian Myths
53(1)
Evaluation
54(2)
Empirical Research
54(1)
Criticisms
54(1)
Contributions
55(1)
Summary
56(3)
Experiential Exercises
59(1)
Discussion Questions
59(1)
Glossary
59(4)
3 Carl Jung
63(32)
Chapter Outline
63(1)
Biographical Sketch
64(1)
Stone
64(1)
Manikin
65(1)
Phallus Dream
65(1)
Throne Vision
66
Jung's Early Dreams, Visions, and Fantasies
64(3)
Jung's Early Professional Life
67(1)
Jung's Relationship with Freud
68(3)
Jung's Creative Illness
70(1)
Libido and the Principles of Equivalence, Entropy, and Opposites
71(1)
Libido
71(1)
Principle of Equivalence
71(1)
Principle of Entropy
72(1)
Principle of Opposites
72(1)
Components of the Personality
72(3)
Ego
72(1)
Personal Unconscious
73(1)
Collective Unconscious
74(1)
Persona, Anima, Animus, Shadow, and Self
75(3)
Persona
75(1)
Anima
76(1)
Animus
77(1)
Shadow
77(1)
Self
78(1)
Psychological Types
78(3)
Attitudes
78(1)
Functions of Thought
78(1)
Eight Personality Types
79(2)
Stages of Development
81(2)
Childhood (From Birth to Adolescence)
82(1)
Young Adulthood (From Adolescence to About Age 40)
82(1)
Middle Age (From About Age 40 to the Later Years of Life)
82(1)
Life's Goal
83(2)
Causality, Teleology, and Synchronicity
85(2)
Causality
85(1)
Teleology
85(1)
Synchronicity
85(2)
Research Techniques
87(2)
Psychotic Patients
87(1)
Jung's Analysis of Dreams
88(1)
Jung's View of Human Nature
89(1)
Evaluation
89(2)
Empirical Research
89(1)
Criticisms
90(1)
Contributions
90(1)
Summary
91(1)
Experiential Exercises
92(1)
Discussion Questions
93(1)
Glossary
93(2)
4 Alfred Adler
95(31)
Chapter Outline
95(1)
Biographical Sketch
96(2)
Organ Inferiority and Compensation
98(1)
Feelings of Inferiority
99(2)
Feelings of Inferiority as Motivational
100(1)
Striving for Superiority
100(1)
Vaihinger's Philosophy of "As If'
101(1)
Fictional Goals and Lifestyles
102(1)
Social Interest
103(1)
Mistaken Lifestyles
104(2)
Creative Self
106(1)
Safeguarding Strategies
107(3)
Excuses
107(1)
Aggression
108(1)
Distancing
109(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
110(1)
Adler's View of the Unconscious
111(1)
Methods of Research
111(4)
Birth Order
112(1)
First Memories
113(1)
Dream Analysis
114(1)
Behavioral Mannerisms
114(1)
Summary of the Differences between Adler and Freud
115(1)
Evaluation
115(6)
Empirical Research
115(4)
Criticisms
119(1)
Contributions
120(1)
Summary
121(2)
Experiential Exercises
123(1)
Discussion Questions
123(1)
Glossary
123(3)
5 Karen Homey
126(27)
Chapter Outline
126(1)
Biographical Sketch
127(2)
Basic Evil, Hostility, and Anxiety
129(2)
Adjustments to Basic Anxiety
131(2)
Moving Toward, Against, or Away from People
133(1)
Moving Toward People
133(1)
Moving Against People
134(1)
Moving Away from People
134
Moving Toward, Against, or Away from People
133(2)
Real and Idealized Self
135(1)
Externalization
136(1)
Auxiliary Approaches to Artificial Harmony
137(3)
Blind Spots
138(1)
Compartmentalization
138(1)
Rationalization
139(1)
Excessive Self-Control
139(1)
Arbitrary Rightness
139(1)
Elusiveness
139(1)
Cynicism
139(1)
Feminine Psychology
140(3)
Horney's Explanation of Penis Envy
141(2)
Psychotherapy
143(1)
Goal of Psychotherapy
143(1)
Self-Analysis
144(2)
Comparison of Horney and Freud
146(1)
Early Childhood Experience
146(1)
Unconscious Motivation
146(1)
Biological Motivation
146(1)
Psychotherapy
147(1)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
147(1)
Prognosis for Personality Change
147(1)
Evaluation
147(2)
Empirical Research
147(1)
Criticisms
148(1)
Contributions
148(1)
Summary
149(1)
Experiential Exercises
150(1)
Discussion Questions
151(1)
Glossary
151(2)
6 Erik H. Erikson
153(31)
Chapter Outline
153(1)
Biographical Sketch
154(3)
Anatomy and Destiny
157(4)
Epigenetic Principle, Crises, Ritualizations, and Ritualisms
161(2)
Epigenetic Principle
161(1)
Crises
161(1)
Ritualizations and Ritualisms
162(1)
Eight Stages of Personality Development
163(10)
Infancy: Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust
163(2)
Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
165(1)
Preschool Age: Initiative versus Guilt
166(1)
School Age: Industry versus Inferiority
166(2)
Adolescence: Identity versus Role Confusion
168(2)
Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus Isolation
170(1)
Adulthood: Generativity versus Stagnation
171(1)
Old Age: Ego Integrity versus Despair
171(2)
Goal of Psychotherapy
173(1)
Comparison of Erikson and Freud
174(2)
Development
174(1)
Anatomy as Destiny
174(1)
Ego Psychology
174(1)
Unconscious Mind
174(1)
Dream Analysis
174(1)
Psychotherapy
175(1)
Religion
175(1)
Evaluation
176(2)
Empirical Research
176(1)
Criticisms
177(1)
Contributions
178(1)
Summary
178(2)
Experiential Exercises
180(1)
Discussion Questions
181(1)
Glossary
181(3)
7 Gordon Allport
184(33)
Chapter Outline
184(1)
Biographical Sketch
185(2)
What Is Personality?
187(2)
Dynamic Organization
188(1)
Psychophysical Systems
188(1)
Determine
188(1)
Characteristic Behavior and Thought
189(1)
Character, Temperament, and Type
189(1)
Character
189(1)
Temperament
189(1)
Type
189(1)
Criteria for an Adequate Theory of Personality
190(1)
Allport's Concept of Trait
191(3)
Interaction of Traits and Situations
192(1)
Traits Are Not Habits
193(1)
Traits Are Not Attitudes
193(1)
Types of Traits
194(1)
Cardinal Dispositions
195(1)
Central Dispositions
195(1)
Secondary Dispositions
195(1)
The Proprium
195(3)
Conscience
197(1)
Functional Autonomy
198(3)
The Healthy, Mature Adult Personality
201(2)
Unhealthy Persons
202(1)
The Nature of Prejudice
203(3)
Religion
206(1)
Extrinsic Religion
206(1)
Intrinsic Religion
206(1)
Letters from Jenny
207(2)
Study of Expressive Behavior and Values
209(1)
Evaluation
210(3)
Empirical Research
210(1)
Criticisms
210(2)
Contributions
212(1)
Summary
213(1)
Experiential Exercises
214(1)
Discussion Questions
215(1)
Glossary
215(2)
8 Raymond B. Cattell and Hans J. Eysenck
217(43)
Chapter Outline
217(1)
Biographical Sketches
218(4)
Raymond B. Cattell
218(2)
Hans J. Eysenck
220(2)
Factor Analysis
222(4)
Cattell's Approach to Research
225(1)
Eysenck's Approach to Research
225(1)
Nomothetic versus Idiographic Techniques
226(2)
Cattell's R- and P-Techniques
226(1)
Eysenck's Nomothetic–Idiographic Compromise
227(1)
Taxonomy of Traits
228(8)
Cattell's Analysis of Traits
228(7)
Eysenck's Analysis of Traits
235(1)
Historical Roots of Eysenck's Theory
236(3)
Jung's Hypothesis
236(1)
Additional Historical influences
237(2)
Biological Bases of Personality
239(2)
Excitation and Inhibition
239(1)
Cortical and Emotional Arousal
240(1)
Is Anatomy Destiny?
241(2)
Cattell: Heredity versus Environment
241(1)
Eysenck: The Biological Argument
242(1)
Personality Development
243(2)
Cattell's Multiple Influence Approach
243(1)
Eysenck and Heritable Traits
244(1)
Psychopathology
245(1)
Psychotherapy
246(1)
Contemporary Developments: The Big Five
247(2)
Have the Big Five Displaced Cattell and Eysenck?
248(1)
Evaluation
249(6)
Cattell: Empirical Research
250(1)
Eysenck: Empirical Research
250(2)
Criticisms
252(1)
Contributions
253(2)
Summary
255(2)
Experiential Exercises
257(1)
Discussion Questions
258(1)
Glossary
258(2)
9 B.F. Skinner
260(32)
Chapter Outline
260(1)
Biographical Sketch
261(2)
Skinner and Personality Theory
263(3)
Respondent and Operant Behavior
266(1)
Operant Conditioning
267(5)
Acquisition
267(1)
Shaping
268(1)
Extinction
269(1)
Discriminative Operants
270(1)
Secondary Reinforcement
271(1)
Chaining
272(1)
Verbal Behavior
273(1)
Reinforcement Schedules
274(1)
Superstitious Behavior
275(1)
Reinforcement Contingencies
276(3)
Positive Reinforcement
276(1)
Negative Reinforcement
276(1)
Avoidance
277(1)
Punishment
277(2)
Our Biggest Problem
279(1)
Contingency Contracting
279(1)
Behavior Disorders and Behavior Therapy
280(2)
Walden Two
282(2)
Beyond Freedom and Dignity
284(1)
Evaluation
285(2)
Empirical Research
285(1)
Criticisms
285(1)
Contributions
286(1)
Summary
287(1)
Experiential Exercises
288(1)
Discussion Questions
289(1)
Glossary
289(3)
10 John Dollard and Neal Miller 292(34)
Chapter Outline
292(1)
Biographical Sketches
293(3)
John Dollard
293(1)
Neal Miller
294(2)
Collaborative Goal
296(1)
Hull's Theory of Learning
296(1)
Drive, Cue, Response, and Reinforcement
297(2)
Drive
297(1)
Cue
298(1)
Response
298(1)
Reinforcement
299(1)
Response Hierarchies
299(2)
The Gradient of Reinforcement
301(1)
Fear as an Acquired Drive
301(1)
Stimulus Generalization
302(1)
Conflict
303(3)
Approach-Approach Conflict
303(1)
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
304(1)
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
304(1)
Double Approach-Avoidance Conflict
305(1)
Displacement
306(2)
Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis
308(2)
Importance of Language
310(2)
Unconscious Mind
312(1)
Experiences That Were Never Verbalized
312(1)
Repressed Experiences
312(1)
Neurosis and Symptom Formation
313(2)
Neurosis
313(1)
Symptom Formation
314(1)
Psychotherapy
315(2)
Four Critical Training Situations of Childhood
317(1)
Evaluation
318(2)
Empirical Research
318(1)
Criticisms
319(1)
Contributions
320(1)
Summary
320(3)
Experiential Exercises
323(1)
Discussion Questions
323(1)
Glossary
323(3)
11 Albert Bandura and Walter Mischel 326(34)
Chapter Outline
326(1)
Biographical Sketches
327(2)
Albert Bandura
327(1)
Walter Mischel
328(1)
Consistency of Human Behavior
329(3)
Reciprocal Determinism
331(1)
Cognitive Social Person Variables
332(2)
Observational Learning
334(5)
News and Entertainment Media as Models
337(1)
Attentional Processes
338(1)
Retentional Processes
338(1)
Motor Reproduction Processes
338(1)
Motivational Processes
339(1)
Self-Regulated Behavior
339(7)
Dysfunctional Expectancies and Psychotherapy
346(3)
Social-Cognitive Theory View of Human Nature
349(3)
Freedom versus Determinism
349(1)
Freedom as Options
350(1)
Chance Encounters and Life Paths
350(1)
Mind–Body Relationship
351(1)
Evaluation
352(3)
Empirical Research
352(1)
Criticisms
353(1)
Contributions
354(1)
Summary
355(2)
Experiential Exercises
357(1)
Discussion Questions
357(1)
Glossary
357(3)
12 David M. Buss 360(43)
Chapter Outline
360(1)
Biographical Sketch
361(1)
Darwin's Theory of Evolution
362(1)
Inclusive Fitness
363(1)
Evolutionary Psychology Is Not Sociobiology
363(2)
Sociobiology and Perpetuation of the Genes
363(1)
Evolutionary Psychology and Problems of Adaptation
363(1)
What is Selected by Natural Selection?
364(1)
Personality Theory and Human Nature
365(3)
The Social Science Model
366(1)
Evolutionary Psychological Theory of Human Nature
366(1)
Nature or Nurture?
367(1)
Culture
367(1)
Sex Differences: Mating Strategies
368(10)
What is a Strategy?
368(1)
Long-Term Mating Strategies: Women's Preferences
369(2)
Long-Term Mating Strategies: Men's Preferences
371(2)
Long-Term Strategies: Females Attracting Males
373(1)
Long-Term Strategies: Males Attracting Females
374(1)
Short-Term Strategies, Strategic Interference, and Deception
375(1)
Women Seeking Short-Term Mates
375(1)
Men Seeking Short-Term Mates
376(1)
Strategic Interference
377(1)
Deception
378(1)
Love and Jealousy
378(4)
Altruism, Inclusive Fitness, and Social Groups
382(5)
Parenting as Altruism
382(2)
Sex Differences
384(1)
Reciprocal Altruism
384(3)
Dysfunctional Behavior
387(3)
Suicide
387(1)
Murder
388(1)
Homicide within Families
389(1)
Psychological Disorders
390(3)
Addiction
390(1)
Anorexia Nervosa
391(1)
Anxiety Disorders
392(1)
Evaluation
393(5)
Criticisms
393(3)
Contributions
396(2)
Summary
398(2)
Experiential Exercises
400(1)
Discussion Questions
400(1)
Glossary
400(3)
13 George Kelly 403(35)
Chapter Outline
403(1)
Biographical Sketch
404(3)
Categorization of Kelly's Theory
407(1)
Basic Postulate—People as Scientists
408(2)
Kelly, Vaihinger, and Adler
410(1)
The Eleven Corollaries
410(6)
CPC Cycle
416(1)
Circumspection Phase
416(1)
Preemption Phase
416(1)
Control Phase
417(1)
Creativity Cycle
417(1)
Loosened Construction Phase
417(1)
Tightened Construction Phase
417(1)
Test Phase
417(1)
Kelly's Interpretation of Traditional Psychological Concepts
418(4)
Motivation
418(1)
Anxiety
418(1)
Hostility
419(1)
Aggression
419(1)
Guilt
420(1)
Threat
420(1)
Fear
421(1)
Unconscious
421(1)
Learning
422(1)
Reinforcement
422(1)
Psychotherapy
422(5)
Role Construct Repertory Test
423(3)
Fixed-Role Therapy
426(1)
Being Oneself
427(1)
Construct Systems and Paradigms
427(1)
Evaluation
428(4)
Current Status
428(1)
Empirical. Research
428(2)
Criticisms
430(1)
Contributions
430(2)
Summary
432(2)
Experiential Exercises
434(1)
Discussion Questions
434(1)
Glossary
435(3)
14 Carl Rogers 438(31)
Chapter Outline
438(1)
Biographical Sketch
439(4)
Actualizing Tendency
443(1)
Organismic Valuing Process
443(1)
Phenomenological Field
444(1)
Emergence of the Self
445(1)
Need for Positive Regard
445(1)
Incongruent Person
446(1)
Psychotherapy
447(3)
Fully Functioning Person
450(4)
Q-Sort Technique
451(3)
Rogers–Skinner Debate
454(1)
Freedom to Learn
455(2)
Modern Marriage
457(1)
Person of Tomorrow
458(2)
Evaluation
460(4)
Empirical Research
460(2)
Criticisms
462(1)
Contributions
462(2)
Summary
464(2)
Experiential Exercises
466(1)
Discussion Questions
467(1)
Glossary
467(2)
15 Abraham Maslow 469(33)
Chapter Outline
469(1)
Biographical Sketch
470(5)
Third-Force Psychology
475(2)
Hierarchy of Needs
477(4)
Physiological Needs
477(1)
Safety Needs
478(1)
Belongingness and Love Needs
478(1)
Esteem Needs
478(1)
Self-Actualization
478(1)
Exceptions in the Hierarchy of Needs
479(1)
Degrees of Satisfaction
479(1)
Desire to Know and Understand
480(1)
The Aesthetic Needs
481(1)
Being Motivation
481(2)
Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People
483(5)
Negative Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People
487(1)
Why Self-Actualization Is Not Universal
488(2)
Conditions Necessary for Self-Actualization
489(1)
Self-Actualization and Gender
489(1)
Eupsychia
490(1)
Ashrams—Places for Personal Growth
491(1)
Transpersonal Psychology
492(1)
Evaluation
493(4)
Empirical Research
493(2)
Criticisms
495(2)
Contributions
497(1)
Summary
497(2)
Experiential Exercises
499(1)
Discussion Questions
500(1)
Glossary
500(2)
16 Rollo Reese May 502(27)
Chapter Outline
502(1)
Biographical Sketch
502(4)
Existentialism
506(3)
Dasein
506(1)
Three Modes of Existence
506(1)
Alienation
506(1)
Freedom
507(1)
Responsibility
507(1)
Ontology
507(1)
Phenomenology
507(1)
Authenticity
507(1)
Death
508(1)
Thrownness
508(1)
Human Dilemma
509(2)
Intentionality
510(1)
Anxiety and Guilt
511(2)
Normal Anxiety
511(1)
Neurotic Anxiety
512(1)
Normal and Neurotic Guilt
512(1)
Importance of Values
513(2)
Nature of Love
515(2)
Sex
515(1)
Eros
515(1)
Philia
516(1)
Agapé
517(1)
Psychotherapy
517(2)
Importance of Myth
519(2)
New Science of Humans
521(1)
Evaluation
521(2)
Empirical Research
521(1)
Criticisms
522(1)
Contributions
523(1)
Summary
523(3)
Experiential Exercises
526(1)
Discussion Questions
526(1)
Glossary
526(3)
17 A Final Word 529(5)
Chapter Outline
529(1)
Personality Theories Often Reflect the Biographies of Their Authors
529(1)
Much about Personality Remains Unknown
530(1)
Composite of All Major Theories Best Explains Personality
531(1)
You Are the Final Judge
532(1)
Summary
533(1)
Experiential Exercises
533(1)
References 534(31)
Name Index 565(8)
Subject Index 573


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