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An Introduction to Thermal Physics

by
Edition:
1st
ISBN13:

9780201380279

ISBN10:
0201380277
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
8/18/1999
Publisher(s):
PRENTICE HALL
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Summary

This text provides a balanced, well-organized treatment of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, making thermal physics interesting and accessible to anyone who has completed a year of calculus-based introductory physics. Part I introduces essential concepts of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics from a unified view, applying concepts in a select number of illustrative examples. Parts II and III explore further applications of classical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. Throughout, the emphasis is on real-world applications.

Table of Contents

Preface vii
Part I: Fundamentals
Energy in Thermal Physics
1(48)
Thermal Equilibrium
1(5)
The Ideal Gas
6(8)
Microscopic Model of an Ideal Gas
Equipartition of Energy
14(3)
Heat and Work
17(3)
Compression Work
20(8)
Compression of an Ideal Gas
Heat Capacities
28(9)
Latent Heat; Enthalpy
Rates of Processes
37(12)
Heat Conduction; Conductivity of an Ideal Gas; Viscosity; Diffusion
The Second Law
49(36)
Two-State Systems
49(4)
The Two-State Paramagnet
The Einstein Model of a Solid
53(3)
Interacting Systems
56(4)
Large Systems
60(8)
Very Large Numbers; Stirling's Approximation; Multiplicity of a Large Einstein Solid; Sharpness of the Multiplicity Function
The Ideal Gas
68(6)
Multiplicity of a Monatomic Ideal Gas; Interacting Ideal Gases
Entropy
74(11)
Entropy of an Ideal Gas; Entropy of Mixing; Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Interactions and Implications
85(37)
Temperature
85(7)
A Silly Analogy; Real-World Examples
Entropy and Heat
92(6)
Predicting Heat Capacities; Measuring Entropies; The Macroscopic View of Entropy
Paramagnetism
98(10)
Notation and Microscopic Physics; Numerical Solution; Analytic Solution
Mechanical Equilibrium and Pressure
108(7)
The Thermodynamic Identity; Entropy and Heat Revisited
Diffusive Equilibrium and Chemical Potential
115(5)
Summary and a Look Ahead
120(2)
Part II: Thermodynamics
Engines and Refrigerators
122(27)
Heat Engines
122(5)
The Carnot Cycle
Refrigerators
127(4)
Real Heat Engines
131(6)
Internal Combustion Engines; The Steam Engine
Real Refrigerators
137(12)
The Throttling Process; Liquefaction of Gases; Toward Absolute Zero
Free Energy and Chemical Thermodynamics
149(71)
Free Energy as Available Work
149(12)
Electrolysis, Fuel Cells, and Batteries; Thermodynamic Identities
Free Energy as a Force toward Equilibrium
161(5)
Extensive and Intensive Quantities; Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potential
Phase Transformations of Pure Substances
166(20)
Diamonds and Graphite; The Clausius-Clapeyron Relation; The van der Waals Model
Phase Transformations of Mixtures
186(14)
Free Energy of a Mixture; Phase Changes of a Miscible Mixture; Phase Changes of a Eutectic System
Dilute Solutions
200(8)
Solvent and Solute Chemical Potentials; Osmotic Pressure; Boiling and Freezing Points
Chemical Equilibrium
208(12)
Nitrogen Fixation; Dissociation of Water; Oxygen Dissolving in Water; Ionization of Hydrogen
Part III: Statistical Mechanics
Boltzmann Statistics
220(37)
The Boltzmann Factor
220(9)
The Partition Function; Thermal Excitation of Atoms
Average Values
229(9)
Paramagnetism; Rotation of Diatomic Molecules
The Equipartition Theorem
238(4)
The Maxwell Speed Distribution
242(5)
Partition Functions and Free Energy
247(2)
Partition Functions for Composite Systems
249(2)
Ideal Gas Revisited
251(6)
The Partition Function; Predictions
Quantum Statistics
257(70)
The Gibbs Factor
257(5)
An Example: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
Bosons and Fermions
262(9)
The Distribution Functions
Degenerate Fermi Gases
271(17)
Zero Temperature; Small Nonzero Temperatures; The Density of States; The Sommerfeld Expansion
Blackbody Radiation
288(19)
The Ultraviolet Catastrophe; The Planck Distribution; Photons; Summing over Modes; The Planck Spectrum; Total Energy; Entropy of a Photon Gas; The Cosmic Background Radiation; Photons Escaping through a Hole; Radiation from Other Objects; The Sun and the Earth
Debye Theory of Solids
307(8)
Bose-Einstein Condensation
315(12)
Real-World Examples; Why Does it Happen?
Systems of Interacting Particles
327(30)
Weakly Interacting Gases
328(11)
The Partition Function; The Cluster Expansion; The Second Virial Coefficient
The Ising Model of a Ferromagnet
339(18)
Exact Solution in One Dimension; The Mean Field Approximation; Monte Carlo Simulation
Appendix A Elements of Quantum Mechanics 357(27)
A.1 Evidence for Wave-Particle Duality
357(5)
The Photoelectric Effect; Electron Diffraction
A.2 Wavefunctions
362(5)
The Uncertainty Principle; Linearly Independent Wavefunctions
A.3 Definite-Energy Wavefunctions
367(7)
The Particle in a Box; The Harmonic Oscillator; The Hydrogen Atom
A.4 Angular Momentum
374(5)
Rotating Molecules; Spin
A.5 Systems of Many Particles
379(1)
A.6 Quantum Field Theory
380(4)
Appendix B Mathematical Results 384(13)
B.1 Gaussian Integrals
384(3)
B.2 The Gamma Function
387(2)
B.3 Stirling's Approximation
389(2)
B.4 Area of a d-Dimensional Hypersphere
391(2)
B.5 Integrals of Quantum Statistics
393(4)
Suggested Reading 397(5)
Reference Data 402(4)
Index 406


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