Preface 

vii  
Part I: Fundamentals 


Energy in Thermal Physics 


1  (48) 


1  (5) 


6  (8) 

Microscopic Model of an Ideal Gas 




14  (3) 


17  (3) 


20  (8) 

Compression of an Ideal Gas 




28  (9) 




37  (12) 

Heat Conduction; Conductivity of an Ideal Gas; Viscosity; Diffusion 




49  (36) 


49  (4) 



The Einstein Model of a Solid 


53  (3) 


56  (4) 


60  (8) 

Very Large Numbers; Stirling's Approximation; Multiplicity of a Large Einstein Solid; Sharpness of the Multiplicity Function 




68  (6) 

Multiplicity of a Monatomic Ideal Gas; Interacting Ideal Gases 




74  (11) 

Entropy of an Ideal Gas; Entropy of Mixing; Reversible and Irreversible Processes 



Interactions and Implications 


85  (37) 


85  (7) 

A Silly Analogy; RealWorld Examples 




92  (6) 

Predicting Heat Capacities; Measuring Entropies; The Macroscopic View of Entropy 




98  (10) 

Notation and Microscopic Physics; Numerical Solution; Analytic Solution 



Mechanical Equilibrium and Pressure 


108  (7) 

The Thermodynamic Identity; Entropy and Heat Revisited 



Diffusive Equilibrium and Chemical Potential 


115  (5) 


120  (2) 
Part II: Thermodynamics 


Engines and Refrigerators 


122  (27) 


122  (5) 




127  (4) 


131  (6) 

Internal Combustion Engines; The Steam Engine 




137  (12) 

The Throttling Process; Liquefaction of Gases; Toward Absolute Zero 



Free Energy and Chemical Thermodynamics 


149  (71) 

Free Energy as Available Work 


149  (12) 

Electrolysis, Fuel Cells, and Batteries; Thermodynamic Identities 



Free Energy as a Force toward Equilibrium 


161  (5) 

Extensive and Intensive Quantities; Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potential 



Phase Transformations of Pure Substances 


166  (20) 

Diamonds and Graphite; The ClausiusClapeyron Relation; The van der Waals Model 



Phase Transformations of Mixtures 


186  (14) 

Free Energy of a Mixture; Phase Changes of a Miscible Mixture; Phase Changes of a Eutectic System 




200  (8) 

Solvent and Solute Chemical Potentials; Osmotic Pressure; Boiling and Freezing Points 




208  (12) 

Nitrogen Fixation; Dissociation of Water; Oxygen Dissolving in Water; Ionization of Hydrogen 


Part III: Statistical Mechanics 



220  (37) 


220  (9) 

The Partition Function; Thermal Excitation of Atoms 




229  (9) 

Paramagnetism; Rotation of Diatomic Molecules 



The Equipartition Theorem 


238  (4) 

The Maxwell Speed Distribution 


242  (5) 

Partition Functions and Free Energy 


247  (2) 

Partition Functions for Composite Systems 


249  (2) 


251  (6) 

The Partition Function; Predictions 




257  (70) 


257  (5) 

An Example: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 




262  (9) 

The Distribution Functions 




271  (17) 

Zero Temperature; Small Nonzero Temperatures; The Density of States; The Sommerfeld Expansion 




288  (19) 

The Ultraviolet Catastrophe; The Planck Distribution; Photons; Summing over Modes; The Planck Spectrum; Total Energy; Entropy of a Photon Gas; The Cosmic Background Radiation; Photons Escaping through a Hole; Radiation from Other Objects; The Sun and the Earth 




307  (8) 

BoseEinstein Condensation 


315  (12) 

RealWorld Examples; Why Does it Happen? 



Systems of Interacting Particles 


327  (30) 


328  (11) 

The Partition Function; The Cluster Expansion; The Second Virial Coefficient 



The Ising Model of a Ferromagnet 


339  (18) 

Exact Solution in One Dimension; The Mean Field Approximation; Monte Carlo Simulation 


Appendix A Elements of Quantum Mechanics 

357  (27) 

A.1 Evidence for WaveParticle Duality 


357  (5) 

The Photoelectric Effect; Electron Diffraction 




362  (5) 

The Uncertainty Principle; Linearly Independent Wavefunctions 



A.3 DefiniteEnergy Wavefunctions 


367  (7) 

The Particle in a Box; The Harmonic Oscillator; The Hydrogen Atom 




374  (5) 



A.5 Systems of Many Particles 


379  (1) 


380  (4) 
Appendix B Mathematical Results 

384  (13) 


384  (3) 


387  (2) 

B.3 Stirling's Approximation 


389  (2) 

B.4 Area of a dDimensional Hypersphere 


391  (2) 

B.5 Integrals of Quantum Statistics 


393  (4) 
Suggested Reading 

397  (5) 
Reference Data 

402  (4) 
Index 

406  