Preface 

vi  


1  (6) 


1  (1) 


2  (1) 


3  (1) 


4  (1) 


5  (2) 


5  (1) 


5  (2) 

Data Measurement and Management of Numbers 


7  (6) 


7  (2) 


7  (1) 

Significant Figures and Rounding Rules 


8  (1) 

Data and Their Representation 


9  (1) 


9  (2) 


9  (1) 

The Ordinal (Ranking) Scale 


9  (1) 

The Interval Scale and the Ratio Scale 


10  (1) 

Converting Data from One Scale to Another 


10  (1) 


11  (2) 


11  (1) 


11  (2) 

Frequency Distributions and Graphic Presentation of Data 


13  (6) 

Frequency Distributions of Discrete Variables 


13  (1) 

Frequency Distributions of Continuous Variables 


14  (1) 

Histograms and Their Interpretation 


15  (1) 

Cumulative Frequency Distributions 


16  (1) 


17  (2) 


17  (1) 


17  (2) 

Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion 


19  (10) 

Sample Statistics and Population Parameters 


19  (1) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


19  (3) 


19  (1) 


20  (1) 


20  (1) 

Positions of Mean, Median, and Mode in Symmetric and Skewed Distributions 


20  (1) 


21  (1) 

Other Measures of Location 


22  (1) 


22  (3) 


23  (1) 


23  (1) 

Standard Deviation (σ, s) 


23  (2) 


25  (1) 

Descriptive Statistics from a Computer 


25  (1) 

Visualizing the Location of the Mean and Standard Deviation 


25  (4) 


26  (1) 


26  (3) 

Probability and Discrete Probability Distributions 


29  (10) 

Probability and Probability Distributions 


29  (2) 

The Binomial Distribution 


31  (4) 


35  (4) 


37  (1) 


37  (2) 


39  (10) 

The Normal Distribution and Its Properties 


39  (2) 

The Standard Normal Distribution and Z Scores 


41  (2) 


43  (2) 

Normal Approximation of the Binomial Distribution 


45  (1) 

Discrete Variables and the Normal Distribution 


46  (1) 

Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics 


46  (3) 


46  (1) 


47  (2) 

Statistical Inference I: Estimation and Sampling Distributions 


49  (10) 

An Introduction to Statistical Inference 


49  (1) 

Estimating a Population Mean: The Central Limit Theorem 


49  (2) 

Estimating a Population Mean: Standard Error of the Mean 


51  (1) 

Confidence Interval of μ When σ is Known 


52  (2) 

Confidence Interval of μ When σ is Unknown: The t Distribution 


54  (2) 

Reporting a Sample Mean and Its Variation 


56  (3) 


56  (1) 


56  (3) 

Statistical Inference II: Hypothesis Testing and the OneSample tTest 


59  (8) 

Statistical Hypothesis Testing and the Scientific Method 


59  (1) 

Test of a Hypothesis Concerning a Single Population Mean: The OneSample tTest 


60  (2) 

OneTailed and TwoTailed Hypothesis Tests 


62  (1) 

Statistical Decision Making and Its Potential Errors 


63  (2) 

Steps in Testing a Hypothesis 


65  (2) 


65  (1) 


66  (1) 

Inferences Concerning Two Populations and Paired Comparisons 


67  (16) 

The tTest for Two Independent Samples 


67  (2) 

Confidence Interval for the Difference between Two Population Means 


69  (1) 

A Nonparametric Test for Two Independent Samples: The MannWhitney Test 


69  (2) 

Tests for Two Related Samples 


71  (1) 


72  (1) 

Nonparametric Tests for Two Related Samples 


73  (1) 


73  (1) 

The Wilcoxon SignedRanks Test 


74  (1) 

Power of the Test: How Large a Sample is Sufficient? 


74  (2) 

Determining the Sample Size Needed to Detect a Minimum Effect 


75  (1) 

Determining Minimum Detectable Difference 


76  (1) 

Review: Which Statistical Test Is Appropriate? 


76  (1) 

Comparisons of Variances from Two Samples 


77  (6) 


77  (1) 


77  (6) 

Inferences Concerning Multiple Populations: ANOVA 


83  (18) 

The Rationale of ANOVA: An Illustration 


83  (2) 


85  (1) 

Fixedeffects ANOVA (Model I) 


86  (6) 

Testing the Null Hypothesis That All Treatment Means Are Equal 


87  (1) 


88  (2) 

FixedEffects ANOVA Using Survey Data 


90  (1) 

OneWay ANOVA Design with Random Effects 


91  (1) 

Testing the Assumptions of ANOVA 


92  (2) 

Remedies for Failed Assumptions 


94  (7) 


94  (1) 

Nonparametric Alternative to OneWay ANOVA: The KruskalWallis Test 


95  (1) 


96  (1) 


96  (5) 


101  (12) 

The Randomized Block Design 


101  (3) 


104  (3) 


107  (1) 


108  (5) 


108  (1) 


108  (5) 

Modeling One Measurement Variable against Another: Regression Analysis 


113  (16) 

Regression versus Correlation 


113  (3) 

Simple Linear Regression Fundamentals 


116  (1) 

Estimating the Regression Function and the Regression Line 


117  (2) 

Calculating the Estimated Regression Equation 


119  (1) 

Testing the Significance of the Regression Equation 


119  (2) 

The Confidence Interval for β 


121  (1) 

The Coefficient of Determination (r2) 


121  (1) 


122  (1) 

Dealing with Several Values of y for Each Value of x 


123  (1) 

Checking Assumptions and Remedies for their Failure 


124  (1) 

Advanced Regression Techniques 


124  (5) 


126  (1) 


126  (3) 

Association between Two Measurement Variables: Correlation 


129  (8) 

The Pearson Correlation Coefficient 


129  (2) 

Testing the Significance of r 


131  (1) 


131  (1) 

Nonparametric Correlation Analysis (Spearman's r) 


132  (5) 


134  (1) 


134  (3) 


137  (12) 

The ChiSquare GoodnessofFit Test 


137  (2) 

The ChiSquare Test for Association 


139  (2) 

The Fisher Exact Probability Test 


141  (1) 

The McNemar Test for the Significance of Changes 


142  (2) 

Graphic Displays of Frequency Data 


144  (5) 


144  (1) 


144  (5) 

Choice of Tests and a View of Some Other Procedures 


149  (6) 

Choice of the Appropriate Statistical Test 


149  (1) 


150  (1) 

A View of Some Other Statistical Procedures 


150  (5) 


153  (2) 
Appendix A 

155  (10) 
Appendix B 

165  (6) 
Appendix C 

171  (2) 
Index 

173  