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Introductory Chemistry

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131470583

ISBN10:
0131470582
Format:
Hardcover
Pub. Date:
1/1/2006
Publisher(s):
Prentice Hall
List Price: $123.56
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Summary

Open Tro to See The Difference from other Intro/Prep Chemistry books. The innovative problem-solving pedagogy (eg., multi-column worked examples), relevant molecular art, and outstanding media program (including PH GradeAssist, our customizable online homework system) drove Tro to the number 2 spot in the market in only its first edition. The organization allows optimum flexibility for instructors on topics such as electronic structure and chemical bonding.

Table of Contents

To the Student xvi
To the Instructor xvii
Preface xix
The Chemical World
1(10)
Soda Pop Fizz
1(2)
Chemicals Compose Ordinary Things
3(1)
All Things Are Made of Atoms and Molecules
3(1)
The Scientific Method: How Chemists Think
4(3)
Combustion and the Scientific Method
6(1)
A Beginning Chemist: How to Succeed
7(4)
Chapter in Review
7(1)
Key Terms
8(1)
Exercises
8(3)
Measurement and Problem Solving
11(40)
Measuring Global Temperatures
11(1)
Scientific Notation: Writing Large and Small Numbers
12(2)
Significant Figures: Writing Numbers to Reflect Precision
14(4)
Counting Significant Figures
15(1)
Exact Numbers
16(1)
The COBE Satellite and Very Precise Measurements That Illuminate Our Cosmic Past
17(1)
Significant Figures in Calculations
18(4)
Multiplication and Division
18(1)
Rounding
18(1)
Addition and Subtraction
19(1)
Calculations Involving Both Multiplication/Division and Addition/Subtraction
20(2)
The Basic Units of Measurement
22(3)
The Standard Units
23(1)
Prefix Multipliers
24(1)
Derived Units
24(1)
Converting from One Unit to Another
25(3)
Solving Unit Conversion Problems
27(1)
Solving Multistep Conversion Problems
28(3)
Drug Dosage
30(1)
Units Raised to a Power
31(1)
Density
32(4)
Calculating Density
33(1)
Density as a Conversion Factor
34(1)
Density, Cholesterol, and Heart Disease
35(1)
Numerical Problem-Solving Strategies and the Solution Map
36(15)
Solving Numerical Problems
36(2)
Chapter in Review
38(3)
Key Terms
41(1)
Exercises
42(9)
Matter and Energy
51(34)
In Your Room
51(1)
What Is Matter?
52(1)
Classifying Matter According to Its State: Solid, Liquid, and Gas
53(1)
Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
54(3)
How We Tell Different Kinds of Matter Apart: Physical and Chemical Properties
57(1)
How Matter Changes: Physical and Chemical Changes
58(2)
Separating Mixtures through Physical Changes
60(1)
Conservation of Mass: There Is No New Matter
60(1)
Energy
61(2)
Units of Energy
61(1)
Perpetual Motion
62(1)
Temperature: Random Molecular and Atomic Motion
63(3)
Temperature Changes: Heat Capacity
66(2)
Coolers, Camping, and the Heat Capacity of Water
68(1)
Energy and Heat Capacity Calculations
68(17)
Chapter in Review
71(4)
Key Terms
75(1)
Exercises
76(9)
Atoms and Elements
85(32)
Experiencing Atoms at Tiburon
85(1)
Indivisible: The Atomic Theory
86(1)
Atoms and Humans
87(1)
The Nuclear Atom
87(2)
The Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
89(2)
Solid Matter?
89(2)
Elements: Defined by Their Numbers of Protons
91(2)
Looking for Patterns: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table
93(5)
Ions: Losing and Gaining Electrons
98(3)
Ions and the Periodic Table
99(2)
Isotopes: When the Number of Neutrons Varies
101(2)
Atomic Mass
103(14)
Radioactive Isotopes at Hanford, Washington
104(1)
Chapter in Review
105(3)
Key Terms
108(1)
Exercises
108(9)
Molecules and Compounds
117(36)
Sugar and Salt
117(1)
Compounds Display Constant Composition
118(2)
Chemical Formulas: How to Represent Compounds
120(2)
A Molecular View of Elements and Compounds
122(3)
Atomic Elements
123(1)
Molecular Elements
123(1)
Molecular Compounds
124(1)
Ionic Compounds
124(1)
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
125(2)
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
126(1)
Nomenclature: Naming Compounds
127(1)
Naming Ionic Compounds
127(5)
Naming Type I Binary Ionic Compounds
128(1)
Naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
129(1)
Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Polyatomic Ion
130(2)
Polyatomic Ions
132(1)
Naming Molecular Compounds
132(2)
Naming Acids
134(2)
Naming Binary Acids
134(1)
Naming Oxyacids
135(1)
Nomenclature Summary
136(2)
Ionic Compounds
137(1)
Molecular Compounds
137(1)
Acids
137(1)
Acid Rain
138(1)
Formula Mass: The Mass of a Molecule or Formula Unit
138(15)
Chapter in Review
140(3)
Key Terms
143(1)
Exercises
144(9)
Chemical Composition
153(36)
How Much Sodium?
153(1)
Counting Nails by the Pound
154(1)
Counting Atoms by the Gram
155(4)
Converting between Moles and Number of Atoms
155(1)
Converting between Grams and Moles of an Element
156(2)
Converting between Grams of an Element and Number of Atoms
158(1)
Counting Molecules by the Gram
159(3)
Converting between Grams and Moles of a Compound
159(2)
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Number of Molecules
161(1)
Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
162(3)
Converting between Moles of a Compound and Moles of a Constituent Element
163(1)
Converting between Grams of a Compound and Grams of a Constituent Element
164(1)
Mass Percent Composition of Compounds
165(3)
Chlorine in Chlorofluorocarbons
166(2)
Mass Percent Composition from a Chemical Formula
168(2)
Fluoridation of Drinking Water
169(1)
Calculating Empirical Formulas for Compounds
170(3)
Calculating an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
171(1)
Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
172(1)
Calculating Molecular Formulas for Compounds
173(16)
Chapter in Review
175(5)
Key Terms
180(1)
Exercises
180(9)
Chemical Reactions
189(44)
Kindergarten Volcanoes, Automobiles, and Laundry Detergents
189(1)
Evidence of a Chemical Reaction
190(3)
The Chemical Equation
193(2)
How to Write Balanced Chemical Equations
195(4)
Writing Balanced Chemical Equations
196(3)
Aqueous Solutions and Solubility: Compounds Dissolved in Water
199(2)
Solubility
200(1)
Precipitation Reactions: Reactions in Aqueous Solution That Form a Solid
201(4)
Predicting Precipitation Reactions
202(1)
Writing Equations for Precipitation Reactions
203(2)
Writing Chemical Equations for Reactions in Solution: Molecular, Complete Ionic, and Net Ionic Equations
205(1)
Acid--Base and Gas Evolution Reactions
206(4)
Acid--Base (Neutralization) Reactions
207(1)
Gas Evolution Reactions
208(2)
Neutralizing Excess Stomach Acid
210(1)
Oxidation--Reduction Reactions
210(2)
Combustion Reactions
211(1)
Classifying Chemical Reactions
212(21)
Classifying Chemical Reactions by What Atoms Do
213(2)
Classification Flow Chart
215(2)
The Reactions Involved in Ozone Depletion
217(1)
Chapter in Review
217(5)
Key Terms
222(1)
Exercises
222(11)
Quantities in Chemical Reactions
233(30)
Global Warming: Too Much Carbon Dioxide
233(1)
Making Pancakes: Relationships between Ingredients
234(1)
Making Molecules: Mole-to-Mole Conversions
235(3)
The Controversy over Oxygenated Fuels
237(1)
Making Molecules: Mass-to-Mass Conversions
238(3)
More Pancakes: Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield
241(3)
Limiting Reactant, Theoretical Yield, and Percent Yield from Initial Masses of Reactants
244(19)
Bunsen Burners
248(1)
Chapter in Review
248(4)
Key Terms
252(1)
Exercises
252(11)
Electrons in Atoms and the Periodic Table
263(42)
Blimps, Balloons, and Models of the Atom
263(2)
Light: Electromagnetic Radiation
265(1)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
266(3)
Radiation Treatment for Cancer
268(1)
The Bohr Model: Atoms with Orbits
269(3)
The Quantum-Mechanical Model: Atoms with Orbitals
272(2)
Baseball Paths and Electron Probability Maps
273(1)
From Orbits to Orbitals
274(1)
Quantum-Mechanical Orbitals
274(8)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
276(1)
Electron Configurations: How Electrons Occupy Orbitals
277(5)
Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table
282(3)
Valence Electrons
282(3)
The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
285(2)
Periodic Trends: Atomic Size, Ionization Energy, and Metallic Character
287(18)
Atomic Size
287(2)
Pumping Ions: Atomic Size and Nerve Impulses
289(1)
Ionization Energy
289(2)
Metallic Character
291(2)
Chapter in Review
293(3)
Key Terms
296(1)
Exercises
296(9)
Chemical Bonding
305(36)
Bonding Models and AIDS Drugs
305(1)
Representing Valence Electrons with Dots
306(1)
Lewis Structures for Ionic Compounds: Electrons Transferred
307(1)
Covalent Lewis Structures: Electrons Shared
308(2)
Double and Triple Bonds
309(1)
Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
310(4)
Writing Lewis Structures for Covalent Compounds
311(1)
Writing Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions
312(1)
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
313(1)
Resonance: Equivalent Lewis Structures for the Same Molecule
314(2)
The Lewis Structure of Ozone
316(1)
Predicting the Shapes of Molecules
316(5)
Predicting Geometry Using VSEPR
319(1)
Representing Molecular Geometries on Paper
320(1)
Fooled by Molecular Shape
321(1)
Electronegativity and Polarity: Why Oil and Water Don't Mix
321(20)
Electronegativity
322(2)
Polar Bonds and Polar Molecules
324(4)
How Soap Works
328(1)
Chapter in Review
328(4)
Key Terms
332(1)
Exercises
332(9)
Gases
341(54)
Extralong Straws
341(2)
Kinetic Molecular Theory: A Model for Gases
343(2)
Pressure: The Result of Constant Molecular Collisions
345(4)
Pressure Units
346(1)
Pressure Unit Conversion
347(1)
Airplane Cabin Pressurization
348(1)
Boyle's Law: Pressure and Volume
349(5)
Extralong Snorkels
354(1)
Charles's Law: Volume and Temperature
354(4)
The Combined Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, and Temperature
358(2)
Avogadro's Law: Volume and Moles
360(2)
The Ideal Gas Law: Pressure, Volume, Temperature, and Moles
362(7)
Molar Mass of a Gas from the Ideal Gas Law
366(3)
Mixtures of Gases: Why Deep-Sea Divers Breathe a Mixture of Helium and Oxygen
369(4)
Deep-Sea Diving and Partial Pressure
370(2)
Collecting Gases over Water
372(1)
Gases in Chemical Reactions
373(22)
Molar Volume at Standard Temperature and Pressure
376(2)
Air Pollution
378(1)
Chapter in Review
379(5)
Key Terms
384(1)
Exercises
384(11)
Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces
395(34)
Interactions between Molecules
395(1)
Properties of Liquids and Solids
396(2)
Properties of Liquids
396(1)
Properties of Solids
396(2)
Intermolecular Forces in Action: Surface Tension and Viscosity
398(1)
Surface Tension
398(1)
Viscosity
398(1)
Why Are Water Drops Spherical?
399(1)
Evaporation and Condensation
399(5)
Boiling
401(1)
Energetics of Evaporation and Condensation
402(1)
Heat of Vaporization
402(2)
Melting, Freezing, and Sublimation
404(3)
Energetics of Melting and Freezing
405(1)
Heat of Fusion
405(2)
Sublimation
407(1)
Types of Intermolecular Forces: Dispersion, Dipole--Dipole, and Hydrogen Bonding
407(6)
Dispersion Force
407(1)
Dipole--Dipole Force
408(3)
Hydrogen Bonding
411(2)
Types of Crystalline Solids: Molecular, Ionic, and Atomic
413(4)
Hydrogen Bonding in DNA
414(1)
Molecular Solids
414(1)
Ionic Solids
415(1)
Atomic Solids
416(1)
Water: A Remarkable Molecule
417(12)
Water Pollution
418(1)
Chapter in Review
418(4)
Key Terms
422(1)
Exercises
422(7)
Solutions
429(40)
Tragedy in Cameroon
429(1)
Solutions: Homogenous Mixtures
430(1)
Solutions of Solids Dissolved in Water: How to Make Rock Candy
431(4)
Solubility and Saturation
433(1)
Electrolyte Solutions: Dissolved Ionic Solids
433(1)
How Solubility Varies with Temperature
434(1)
Rock Candy
434(1)
Solutions of Gases in Water: How Soda Pop Gets Its Fizz
435(1)
Specifying Solution Concentration: Mass Percent
436(4)
Mass Percent
436(2)
Using Mass Percent in Calculations
438(2)
The Dirty Dozen
440(1)
Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity
440(4)
Using Molarity in Calculations
442(2)
Ion Concentrations
444(1)
Solution Dilution
444(2)
Solution Stoichiometry
446(2)
Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation: Making Water Freeze Colder and Boil Hotter
448(5)
Freezing Point Depression
449(2)
Boiling Point Elevation
451(1)
Antifreeze in Frogs
452(1)
Osmosis: Why Drinking Salt Water Causes Dehydration
453(16)
Solutions in Medicine
454(1)
Chapter in Review
455(5)
Key Terms
460(1)
Exercises
460(9)
Acids and Bases
469(44)
Sour Patch Kids and International Spy Movies
469(1)
Acids: Properties and Examples
470(2)
Bases: Properties and Examples
472(1)
Molecular Definitions of Acids and Bases
473(3)
The Arrhenius Definition
473(1)
The Bronsted--Lowry Definition
474(2)
Reactions of Acids and Bases
476(3)
Neutralization Reactions
476(1)
Acid Reactions
477(1)
Base Reactions
478(1)
What Is in My Antacid?
479(1)
Acid--Base Titration: A Way to Quantify the Amount of Acid or Base in a Solution
479(3)
Strong and Weak Acids and Bases
482(6)
Strong Acids
482(1)
Weak Acids
483(3)
Strong Bases
486(1)
Weak Bases
486(2)
Water: Acid and Base in One
488(2)
The pH Scale: A Way to Express Acidity and Basicity
490(4)
Calculating pH from [H3O+]
492(1)
Calculating [H3O+] from pH
493(1)
Ulcers
494(1)
Buffers: Solutions That Resist pH Change
494(2)
The Danger of Antifreeze
496(1)
Acid Rain: An Environmental Problem Related to Fossil Fuel Combustion
496(17)
Acid Rain Damage
497(1)
Acid Rain Legislation
498(1)
Chapter in Review
498(6)
Key Terms
504(1)
Exercises
504(9)
Chemical Equilibrium
513(46)
Life: Controlled Disequilibrium
513(1)
The Rate of a Chemical Reaction
514(4)
Collision Theory
514(2)
How Concentration Affects the Rate of a Reaction
516(1)
How Temperature Affects the Rate of a Reaction
517(1)
The Idea of Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
518(3)
The Equilibrium Constant: A Measure of How Far a Reaction Goes
521(3)
Writing Equilibrium Expressions for Chemical Reactions
522(1)
The Significance of the Equilibrium Constant
522(2)
Heterogeneous Equilibria: The Equilibrium Expression for Reactions Involving a Solid or a Liquid
524(1)
Calculating and Using Equilibrium Constants
525(3)
Calculating Equilibrium Constants
525(2)
Using Equilibrium Constants in Calculations
527(1)
Disturbing a Reaction at Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle
528(2)
The Effect of a Concentration Change on Equilibrium
530(2)
How a Developing Fetus Gets Oxygen from Its Mother
532(1)
The Effect of a Volume Change on Equilibrium
532(2)
The Effect of a Temperature Change on Equilibrium
534(2)
The Solubility-Product Constant
536(4)
Using Ksp to Determine Molar Solubility
538(1)
Hard Water
538(2)
The Path of a Reaction and the Effect of a Catalyst
540(19)
How Activation Energies Affect Reaction Rates
540(2)
Catalysts Lower the Activation Energy
542(1)
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
543(1)
Chapter in Review
544(4)
Key Terms
548(1)
Exercises
548(11)
Oxidation and Reduction
559(36)
The End of the Internal Combustion Engine?
559(1)
Oxidation and Reduction: Some Definitions
560(3)
Oxidation States: Electron Bookkeeping
563(4)
The Bleaching of Hair
566(1)
Balancing Redox Equations
567(4)
Balancing Redox Equations Using the Half-Reaction Method
568(2)
Photosynthesis and Respiration: Energy for Life
570(1)
The Activity Series: Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
571(3)
Predicting Whether a Metal Will Dissolve in Acid
573(1)
Batteries: Using Chemistry to Generate Electricity
574(5)
Dry-Cell Batteries
577(1)
Lead-Acid Storage Batteries
578(1)
Fuel Cells
578(1)
Electrolysis: Using Electricity to Do Chemistry
579(1)
Corrosion: Undesirable Redox Reactions
580(15)
The Fuel-Cell Breathalyzer
581(1)
Chapter in Review
582(3)
Key Terms
585(1)
Exercises
585(10)
Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
595(30)
Diagnosing Appendicitis
595(1)
The Discovery of Radioactivity
596(1)
Types of Radioactivity: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
597(7)
Alpha (α) Radiation
598(2)
Beta (β) Radiation
600(2)
Gamma (γ) Radiation
602(1)
Positron Emission
602(2)
Detecting Radioactivity
604(1)
Natural Radioactivity and Half-Life
605(3)
A Natural Radioactive Decay Series
606(2)
Environmental Radon
608(1)
Radiocarbon Dating: Using Radioactivity to Measure the Age of Fossils and Other Artifacts
608(2)
The Shroud of Turin
610(1)
The Discovery of Fission and the Atomic Bomb
610(2)
Nuclear Power: Using Fission to Generate Electricity
612(2)
Nuclear Fusion: The Power of the Sun
614(1)
The Effects of Radiation on Life
614(1)
Acute Radiation Damage
614(1)
Increased Cancer Risk
615(1)
Genetic Defects
615(1)
Measuring Radiation Exposure
615(1)
Radioactivity in Medicine
615(10)
Isotope Scanning
616(1)
Radiotherapy
616(1)
Chapter in Review
617(2)
Key Terms
619(1)
Exercises
619(6)
Organic Chemistry
625(52)
What Do I Smell?
625(2)
Vitalism: The Difference between Organic and Inorganic
627(1)
The Origin of Life
628(1)
Carbon: A Versatile Atom
628(2)
Hydrocarbons: Compounds Containing Only Carbon and Hydrogen
630(2)
Environmental Problems Associated with Hydrocarbon Combustion
631(1)
Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons
632(4)
Isomers: Same Formula, Different Structure
636(1)
Naming Alkanes
637(2)
Naming Alkanes
638(1)
Alkenes and Alkynes
639(4)
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
641(2)
Hydrocarbon Reactions
643(2)
Alkanes
643(1)
Alkenes and Alkynes
644(1)
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
645(3)
Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons
646(2)
Functional Groups
648(1)
Alcohols
649(1)
Naming Alcohols
649(1)
About Alcohols
649(1)
Ethers
650(1)
Naming Ethers
650(1)
About Ethers
650(1)
Aldehydes and Ketones
651(2)
Naming Aldehydes and Ketones
651(1)
About Aldehydes and Ketones
652(1)
Carboxylic Acids and Esters
653(3)
Naming Carboxylic Acids and Esters
654(1)
About Carboxylic Acids and Esters
654(2)
Amines
656(1)
Polymers
656(21)
Kevlar: Stronger Than Steel
659(1)
Chapter in Review
660(3)
Key Terms
663(1)
Exercises
664(13)
Biochemistry
677
The Human Genome Project
677(1)
The Cell and Its Main Chemical Components
678(1)
Carbohydrates: Sugar, Starch, and Fiber
678(5)
Monosaccharides
679(1)
Disaccharides
680(1)
Polysaccharides
681(2)
Lipids
683(7)
Fatty Acids
683(1)
Fats and Oils
684(2)
Other Lipids
686(2)
Dietary Fats
688(2)
Proteins
690(3)
Protein Structure
693(5)
Primary Structure
694(1)
Secondary Structure
695(1)
Why Hair Gets Longer When It Is Wet
696(1)
Tertiary Structure
697(1)
Quaternary Structure
697(1)
Nucleic Acids: Molecular Blueprints
698(2)
DNA Structure, DNA Replication, and Protein Synthesis
700
DNA Structure
700(3)
DNA Replication
703(1)
Protein Synthesis
704(1)
Drugs for Diabetes
705(1)
Chapter in Review
705(2)
Key Terms
707(1)
Exercises
707
Appendix: Mathematics Review 1(1)
Glossary 1(1)
Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 1(1)
Photo Credits 1(1)
Index 1


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