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To help students learn chemical skills and concepts more effectively,Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking, Sixth Editionhighlights the connection between key concepts and key problem-solving skills through critical thinking. Math and problem solving are covered early in the text; Corwin builds your problem-solving ability through innovative learning aids and technology formulated to meet your needs. This revision retains all the strengths of the previous editions, while adding emphasis on conceptual understanding and critical thinking.
Charles H. Corwin has spent over 30 years teaching chemistry to over 10,000 students. He has taught general chemistry, organic chemistry, and quantitative analysis, but has focused primarily on introductory chemistry for the personal rewards it offers.
Corwin took his degrees at San Jose State University, where he was a member of Tau Delta Phi honor society. Early in his career, he was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to study instructional innovations at Grand Valley State University. Currently, he is a professor of chemistry at American River College, where he was recognized as Teacher of the Year in 1994. He is also the recipient of an Alumni Teaching award from Purdue University.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction to Chemistry 1.1 Evolution of Chemistry CRITICAL THINKING Rise and Fall of a Theory 1.2 Modern Chemistry CHEMISTRY CONNECTION “Worth your Salt?” 1.3 Learning Chemistry Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
2 Scientific Measurements 2.1 Uncertainty in Measurements 2.2 Significant Digits 2.3 Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits 2.4 Adding and Subtracting Measurements 2.5 Multiplying and Dividing Measurements 2.6 Exponential Numbers 2.7 Scientific Notation CHEMISTRY CONNECTION A Student Success Story 2.8 Unit Equations and Unit Factors 2.9 Unit Analysis Problem Solving CRITICAL THINKING World Trade Center 2.10 The Percent Concept CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Coinage Metals Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
3 The Metric System 3.1 Basic Units and Symbols CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Nanotechnology 3.2 Metric Conversion Factors 3.3 Metric–Metric Conversions 3.4 Metric–English Conversions CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Olympics 3.5 Volume by Calculation 3.6 Volume by Displacement 3.7 The Density Concept CRITICAL THINKING Lower Gasoline Bills 3.8 Temperature 3.9 Heat and Specific Heat Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
4 Matter and Energy 4.1 Physical States of Matter 4.2 Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures 4.3 Names and Symbols of the Elements CRITICAL THINKING Aluminum or Aluminium? 4.4 Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Elements 104 and Beyond 4.5 Compounds and Chemical Formulas 4.6 Physical and Chemical Properties 4.7 Physical and Chemical Changes 4.8 Conservation of Mass 4.9 Potential and Kinetic Energy 4.10 Conservation of Energy CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Recycling Aluminum Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
5 Models of the Atom 5.1 Dalton Model of the Atom CHEMISTRY CONNECTION John Dalton 5.2 Thomson Model of the Atom 5.3 Rutherford Model of the Atom 5.4 Atomic Notation 5.5 Atomic Mass CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Heavy Water 5.6 The Wave Nature of Light 5.7 The Quantum Concept 5.8 Bohr Model of the Atom CRITICAL THINKING Neon Lights 5.9 Energy Levels and Sublevels 5.10 Electron Configuration 5.11 Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
6 The Periodic Table 6.1 Classification of Elements CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Dmitri Mendeleev 6.2 The Periodic Law Concept 6.3 Groups and Periods of Elements CRITICAL THINKING IUPAC Group Numbers 6.4 Periodic Trends 6.5 Properties of Elements 6.6 Blocks of Elements 6.7 Valence Electrons 6.8 Electron Dot Formulas 6.9 Ionization Energy 6.10 Ionic Charges CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Evolution of Chemical Elements Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
7 Language of Chemistry 7.1 Classification of Compounds CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Antoine and Marie Lavoisier 7.2 Monoatomic Ions 7.3 Polyatomic Ions 7.4 Writing Chemical Formulas CRITICAL THINKING Nutritional Potassium 7.5 Binary Ionic Compounds 7.6 Ternary Ionic Compounds 7.7 Binary Molecular Compounds 7.8 Binary Acids 7.9 Ternary Oxyacids CHEMISTRY CONNECTION IUPAC Nomenclature Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
8 Chemical Reactions 8.1 Evidence for Chemical Reactions CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Fireworks 8.2 Writing Chemical Equations 8.3 Balancing Chemical Equations 8.4 Classifying Chemical Reactions 8.5 Combination Reactions 8.6 Decomposition Reactions 8.7 The Activity Series Concept 8.8 Single-Replacement Reactions 8.9 Solubility Rules 8.10 Double-Replacement Reactions 8.11 Neutralization Reactions CRITICAL THINKING Household Chemicals Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
9 The Mole Concept 9.1 Avogadro’s Number CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Analogies for Avogadro’s Number 9.2 Mole Calculations I 9.3 Molar Mass 9.4 Mole Calculations II 9.5 Molar Volume 9.6 Mole Calculations III 9.7 Percent Composition 9.8 Empirical Formula 9.9 Molecular Formula CRITICAL THINKING Avogadro’s Number Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
10 Chemical Equation Calculations 10.1 Interpreting a Chemical Equation 10.2 Mole–Mole Relationships CRITICAL THINKING Iron vs. Steel 10.3 Types of Stoichiometry Problems 10.4 Mass–Mass Problems 10.5 Mass–Volume Problems 10.6 Volume–Volume Problems CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Manufacturing Ammonia 10.7 The Limiting Reactant Concept 10.8 Limiting Reactant Problems 10.9 Percent Yield Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
11 The Gaseous State 11.1 Properties of Gases CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Greenhouse Effect 11.2 Atmospheric Pressure 11.3 Variables Affecting Gas Pressure 11.4 Boyle’s Law: Pressure–Volume Relationships CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Robert Boyle 11.5 Charles’s Law: Volume–Temperature Relationships 11.6 Gay–Lussac’s Law: Pressure–Temperature Relationships 11.7 Combined Gas Law 11.8 The Vapor Pressure Concept 11.9 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures 11.10 Ideal Gas Behavior 11.11 Ideal Gas Law CRITICAL THINKING Conceptualizing Gases Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
12 Chemical Bonding 12.1 The Chemical Bond Concept 12.2 Ionic Bonds 12.3 Covalent Bonds 12.4 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules 12.5 Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions 12.6 Polar Covalent Bonds CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Linus Pauling 12.7 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 12.8 Coordinate Covalent Bonds 12.9 Hydrogen Bonds 12.10 Shapes of Molecules CRITICAL THINKING Diamond vs. Graphite Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
13 Liquids and Solids 13.1 Properties of Liquids 13.2 The Intermolecular Bond Concept 13.3 Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, Surface Tension 13.4 Properties of Solids 13.5 Crystalline Solids 13.6 Changes of Physical State 13.7 Structure of Water CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Water Purification 13.8 Physical Properties of Water 13.9 Chemical Properties of Water 13.10 Hydrates CRITICAL THINKING Bottled Water Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
14 Solutions 14.1 Gases in Solution 14.2 Liquids in Solution 14.3 Solids in Solution CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Colloids 14.4 The Dissolving Process 14.5 Rate of Dissolving 14.6 Solubility and Temperature 14.7 Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions 14.8 Mass/Mass Percent Concentration 14.9 Molar Concentration CRITICAL THINKING Water Fluoridation 14.10 Dilution of a Solution 14.11 Solution Stoichiometry Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
15 Acids and Bases 15.1 Properties of Acids and Bases 15.2 Arrhenius Acids and Bases CHEMISTRY CONNECTION Svante Arrhenius 15.3 Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases 15.4 Acid–Base Indicators 15.5 Acid–Base Titrations 15.6 Acid–Base Standardization 15.7 Ionization of Water 15.8 The pH Concept 15.9 Advanced pH Calculations CRITICAL THINKING Acid Rain 15.10 Strong and Weak Electrolytes 15.11 Net Ionic Equations Summary • Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
16 Chemical Equilibrium 16.1 Collision Theory 16.2 Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions 16.3 The Chemical Equilibrium Concept CHEMISTRY CONNECTION The Ozone Hole 16.4 General Equilibrium Constant, Keq 16.5 Equilibria Shifts for Gases 16.6 Ionization Equilibrium Constant, Ki 16.7 Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases 16.8 Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, Ksp 16.9 Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds Summary • Key Concepts Key Terms • Exercises Chapter Self-Test
Appendices A Weights and Measures B Physical Constants C Activity Series of Metals D Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds E Vapor Pressure of Water F Properties of Water G Answers to Concept Exercises H Answers to Key Term Exercises I Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises J Answers to Chapter Self-Tests