Introductory Chemistry Concepts and Critical Thinking Plus MasteringChemistry with eText -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 6th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-01-12
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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To help students learn chemical skills and concepts more effectively,Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinking with MasteringChemistryreg;, Sixth Editionhighlights the connection between key concepts and key problem-solving skills through critical thinking. Math and problem solving are covered early in the text; Corwin builds your problem-solving ability through innovative learning aids and technology formulated to meet your needs. This revision retains all the strengths of the previous editions, while adding emphasis on conceptual understanding and critical thinking.

Author Biography

Charles H. Corwin has spent over 30 years teaching chemistry to over 10,000 students. He has taught general chemistry, organic chemistry, and quantitative analysis, but has focused primarily on introductory chemistry for the personal rewards it offers.

Corwin took his degrees at San Jose State University, where he was a member of Tau Delta Phi honor society. Early in his career, he was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to study instructional innovations at Grand Valley State University. Currently, he is a professor of chemistry at American River College, where he was recognized as Teacher of the Year in 1994. He is also the recipient of an Alumni Teaching award from Purdue University.

Table of Contents

1    Introduction to Chemistry
1.1     Evolution of Chemistry
        CRITICAL THINKING  Rise and Fall of a Theory
1.2    Modern Chemistry
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  “Worth your Salt?”
1.3     Learning Chemistry                    
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

2    Scientific Measurements            
2.1    Uncertainty in Measurements
2.2      Significant Digits
2.3    Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits
2.4    Adding and Subtracting Measurements
2.5    Multiplying and Dividing Measurements
2.6    Exponential Numbers
2.7    Scientific Notation
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  A Student Success Story
2.8    Unit Equations and Unit Factors
2.9    Unit Analysis Problem Solving
        CRITICAL THINKING  World Trade Center
2.10    The Percent Concept
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Coinage Metals
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

3    The Metric System               
3.1     Basic Units and Symbols
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Nanotechnology
3.2     Metric Conversion Factors
3.3     Metric–Metric Conversions                   
3.4     Metric–English Conversions           
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Olympics
3.5     Volume by Calculation
3.6     Volume by Displacement       
3.7     The Density Concept
        CRITICAL THINKING  Lower Gasoline Bills
3.8     Temperature
3.9    Heat and Specific Heat
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

4    Matter and Energy               
4.1     Physical States of Matter
4.2     Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures
4.3     Names and Symbols of the Elements
        CRITICAL THINKING  Aluminum or Aluminium?
4.4     Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals       
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Elements 104 and Beyond
4.5     Compounds and Chemical Formulas
4.6    Physical and Chemical Properties
4.7     Physical and Chemical Changes                
4.8     Conservation of Mass
4.9    Potential and Kinetic Energy
4.10    Conservation of Energy                
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Recycling Aluminum
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

5    Models of the Atom               
5.1     Dalton Model of the Atom
5.2     Thomson Model of the Atom
5.3    Rutherford Model of the Atom
5.4     Atomic Notation
5.5     Atomic Mass                        
5.6    The Wave Nature of Light                
5.7    The Quantum Concept
5.8     Bohr Model of the Atom
        CRITICAL THINKING  Neon Lights
5.9    Energy Levels and Sublevels
5.10     Electron Configuration
5.11    Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
Chapter Self-Test

6    The Periodic Table               
6.1     Classification of Elements
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Dmitri Mendeleev
6.2     The Periodic Law Concept
6.3    Groups and Periods of Elements
        CRITICAL THINKING  IUPAC Group Numbers
6.4     Periodic Trends
6.5     Properties of Elements   
6.6     Blocks of Elements
6.7     Valence Electrons
6.8     Electron Dot Formulas
6.9    Ionization Energy
6.10    Ionic Charges
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Evolution of Chemical Elements
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

7    Language of Chemistry           
7.1     Classification of Compounds   
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Antoine and Marie Lavoisier
7.2     Monoatomic Ions
7.3     Polyatomic Ions
7.4     Writing Chemical Formulas
        CRITICAL THINKING  Nutritional Potassium
7.5     Binary Ionic Compounds
7.6     Ternary Ionic Compounds               
7.7     Binary Molecular Compounds       
7.8    Binary Acids
7.9     Ternary Oxyacids
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

8    Chemical Reactions               
8.1     Evidence for Chemical Reactions
8.2     Writing Chemical Equations
8.3     Balancing Chemical Equations
8.4     Classifying Chemical Reactions
8.5     Combination Reactions
8.6     Decomposition Reactions
8.7    The Activity Series Concept
8.8    Single-Replacement Reactions
8.9    Solubility Rules   
8.10    Double-Replacement Reactions
8.11    Neutralization Reactions
        CRITICAL THINKING  Household Chemicals
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

9    The Mole Concept               
9.1     Avogadro’s Number   
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Analogies for Avogadro’s Number
9.2     Mole Calculations I
9.3     Molar Mass
9.4     Mole Calculations II
9.5     Molar Volume
9.6    Mole Calculations III
9.7     Percent Composition
9.8     Empirical Formula
9.9    Molecular Formula
CRITICAL THINKING  Avogadro’s Number
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

10    Chemical Equation Calculations       
10.1    Interpreting a Chemical Equation
10.2     Mole–Mole Relationships
        CRITICAL THINKING  Iron vs. Steel
10.3    Types of Stoichiometry Problems
10.4    Mass–Mass Problems
10.5     Mass–Volume Problems       
10.6     Volume–Volume Problems                   
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Manufacturing Ammonia
10.7    The Limiting Reactant Concept
10.8    Limiting Reactant Problems
10.9     Percent Yield
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

11    The Gaseous State           
11.1     Properties of Gases
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Greenhouse Effect
11.2     Atmospheric Pressure
11.3     Variables Affecting Gas Pressure
11.4     Boyle’s Law:  Pressure–Volume Relationships
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Robert Boyle
11.5     Charles’s Law:  Volume–Temperature Relationships
11.6    Gay–Lussac’s Law:  Pressure–Temperature Relationships
11.7    Combined Gas Law                   
11.8    The Vapor Pressure Concept
11.9     Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
11.10    Ideal Gas Behavior
11.11    Ideal Gas Law
        CRITICAL THINKING  Conceptualizing Gases
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

12    Chemical Bonding               
12.1     The Chemical Bond Concept
12.2     Ionic Bonds
12.3     Covalent Bonds   
12.4     Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules
12.5     Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions
12.6     Polar Covalent Bonds
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Linus Pauling
12.7     Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
12.8     Coordinate Covalent Bonds
12.9     Hydrogen Bonds
12.10     Shapes of Molecules
        CRITICAL THINKING  Diamond vs. Graphite
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

13    Liquids and Solids           
13.1     Properties of Liquids
13.2     The Intermolecular Bond Concept   
13.3     Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity,
        Surface Tension
13.4     Properties of Solids
13.5     Crystalline Solids
13.6    Changes of Physical State
13.7     Structure of Water
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Water Purification
13.8    Physical Properties of Water
13.9     Chemical Properties of Water
13.10     Hydrates
        CRITICAL THINKING  Bottled Water
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

14    Solutions                   
14.1     Gases in Solution
14.2     Liquids in Solution
14.3    Solids in Solution
14.4     The Dissolving Process
14.5     Rate of Dissolving
14.6     Solubility and Temperature
14.7    Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions
14.8     Mass/Mass Percent Concentration
14.9    Molar Concentration
        CRITICAL THINKING  Water Fluoridation
14.10    Dilution of a Solution
14.11    Solution Stoichiometry
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

15    Acids and Bases               
15.1     Properties of Acids and Bases   
15.2    Arrhenius Acids and Bases       
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Svante Arrhenius
15.3    Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases
15.4    Acid–Base Indicators
15.5    Acid–Base Titrations                   
15.6    Acid–Base Standardization                           
15.7    Ionization of Water
15.8    The pH Concept
15.9    Advanced pH Calculations
        CRITICAL THINKING  Acid Rain
15.10    Strong and Weak Electrolytes 
15.11    Net Ionic Equations
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

16    Chemical Equilibrium           
16.1    Collision Theory
16.2    Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions
16.3    The Chemical Equilibrium Concept       
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Ozone Hole
16.4    General Equilibrium Constant, Keq
16.5    Equilibria Shifts for Gases
16.6    Ionization Equilibrium Constant, Ki
16.7    Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases
16.8    Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, Ksp
16.9    Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds
        Summary   •   Key Concepts
        Key Terms   •   Exercises  
         Chapter Self-Test

17    Oxidation and Reduction           
17.1    Oxidation Numbers
17.2    Oxidation–Reduction Reactions
17.3    Balancing Redox Equations: 
        Oxidation Number Method
17.4    Balancing Redox Equations: 
        Half–Reaction Method
17.5    Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions
17.6    Voltaic Cells
17.7    Electrolytic Cells
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Hybrid Vehicles
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

18    Nuclear Chemistry               
18.1     Natural Radioactivity
18.2     Nuclear Equations
18.3     Radioactive Decay Series
18.4    Radioactive Half–Life
18.5     Applications of Radionuclides               
        CRITICAL THINKING  Nuclear Medicine
18.6     Induced Radioactivity                
18.7     Nuclear Fission
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Nuclear Power Plant
18.8     Nuclear Fusion
        Summary   •   Key Concepts
        Key Terms   •   Exercises  
         Chapter Self-Test

19    Organic Chemistry               
19.1    Hydrocarbons
19.2    Alkanes
19.3    Alkenes and Alkynes
19.4    Arenes
19.5    Hydrocarbon Derivatives
19.6    Organic Halides
19.7    Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
19.8    Amines
19.9    Aldehydes and Ketones
19.10    Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides
        CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  Forensic Chemistry
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

20    Biochemistry               
20.1    Biological Compounds
20.2    Proteins
20.3    Enzymes
20.4    Carbohydrates
20.5    Lipids
20.6    Nucleic Acids
        CRITICAL THINKING Left- and Right-Handed Molecules
        Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises
        Chapter Self-Test

    A    Weights and Measures
    B    Physical Constants
    C    Activity Series of Metals
    D    Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds
    E    Vapor Pressure of Water
    F    Properties of Water
    G    Answers to Concept Exercises
    H    Answers to Key Term Exercises
    I    Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises
      J    Answers to Chapter Self-Tests
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