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Introductory Chemistry Concepts and Critical Thinking Plus MasteringChemistry with eText -- Access Card Package

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9780321803214

ISBN10:
0321803213
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Pub. Date:
1/9/2013
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Prentice Hall
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Summary

With an expanded focus on critical thinking and problem solving, the new edition of Introductory Chemistry: Concepts and Critical Thinkingprepares readers for success in introductory chemistry. This comprehensive learning system offers print and media resources as well as the industry-leading MasteringChemistry® platform. Unlike other introductory chemistry texts, all materials -the textbook, student solutions manual, laboratory manual, instructor's manual and test item file - are written by the author and tightly integrated to work together most effectively. Math and problem solving are covered early in the text; Corwin builds reader confidence and ability through innovative pedagogy and technology formulated to meet the needs of today's learners.

Author Biography

Charles H. Corwin has spent over 30 years teaching chemistry to over 12,000 students. He has taught general chemistry, organic chemistry, and quantitative analysis, but has focused primarily on introductory chemistry for the personal rewards it offers.

Corwin was awarded his degrees from San Jose State University, where he was a member of Tau Delta Phi honor society. Early in his career, he was awarded a National Science Foundation grant to study instructional innovations at Grand Valley State University. Currently, he is a professor of chemistry at American River College, where he was recognized as Teacher of the Year in 1994. He is also the recipient of an Alumni Teaching award from Purdue University.

Table of Contents

1          Introduction to Chemistry   2

1.1        Evolution of Chemistry   3

1.2        Modern Chemistry   5

Chemistry Connection “Worth Your Salt?”   6

1.3        Learning Chemistry   7

CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  A Student Success Story

Summary   9   •   Key Terms   9   •   Exercises   10

Chapter Self-Test   11

            Prerequisite Science Skills   12

PSS.1   Measurements

PSS.2   Significant Digits

PSS.3   Rounding Off Nonsignificant Digits

PSS.4   Adding and Subtracting Measurements

PSS.5   Multiplying and Dividing Measurements

PSS.6   Exponential Numbers

PSS.7   Scientific Notation

2          The Metric System   40

           

2.1        Basic Units and Symbols

            critical Thinking The International System of Measurement (SI)

2.2        Metric Conversion Factors

2.3        Metric–Metric Conversions

2.4        Metric–English Conversions

            CHEMISTRY CONNECTION  The Olympics

            critical Thinking World Trade Center

2.5        The Percent Concept

2.6        Volume by Calculation

2.7        Volume by Displacement

2.8        The Density Concept

2.9        Temperature

2.10      The Heat Concept

Summary   68   •   Problem-Solving Organizer   68

Key Terms   69   •   Exercises   70

Chapter Self-Test   73

3          Matter and Energy   74

           

3.1        Physical States of Matter   75

3.2        Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures   77

3.3        Names and Symbols of the Elements   80

            critical Thinking Aluminum or Aluminium?   82

3.4        Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals   83

            Chemistry Connection Elements 104 and Beyond   86

3.5        Compounds and Chemical Formulas   89

3.6        Physical and Chemical Properties   91

3.7        Physical and Chemical Changes   94

3.8        Conservation of Mass   96

3.9        Potential and Kinetic Energy   97

3.10      Conservation of Energy   99

            Chemistry Connection Recycling Aluminum   101

            Summary   102   •   Key Terms   103   •   Exercises   104

            Chapter Self-Test   107

4          Models of the Atom   110

4.1        Dalton Model of the Atom   111

Chemistry Connection John Dalton   111

4.2        Thomson Model of the Atom   112

4.3        Rutherford Model of the Atom   112

4.4        Atomic Notation   115

4.5        Atomic Mass   118

Chemistry Connection Heavy Water   121

4.6        The Wave Nature of Light   121

4.7        The Quantum Concept   123

4.8        Bohr Model of the Atom   124

            critical Thinking Neon Lights   128

4.9        Energy Levels and Sublevels   129

4.10      Electron Configuration   130

4.11      Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom   132

            Summary   135   •   Key Terms   136   •   Exercises   136

            Chapter Self-Test   140

5          The Periodic Table   142

5.1        Classification of Elements   143

            Chemistry Connection Dmitri Mendeleev   144

5.2        The Periodic Law Concept   145

5.3        Groups and Periods of Elements   146

            critical ThinkingIUPAC Group Numbers   148

5.4        Periodic Trends   149

5.5        Properties of Elements   151

5.6        Blocks of Elements   153

5.7        Valence Electrons   155

5.8        Electron Dot Formulas   157

5.9        Ionization Energy   158

5.10      Ionic Charges   160

            Chemistry Connection Evolution of Chemical Elements   162

            Summary   163   •   Key Terms   164   •   Exercises   165

            Chapter Self-Test   169

6          Language of Chemistry   170

6.1        Classification of Compounds   171

Chemistry Connection Antoine and Marie Lavoisier   174

6.2        Monoatomic Ions   174

6.3        Polyatomic Ions   177

6.4        Writing Chemical Formulas   179

critical Thinking Nutritional Potassium   181

6.5        Binary Ionic Compounds   182

6.6        Ternary Ionic Compounds   184

6.7        Binary Molecular Compounds   186

6.8        Binary Acids   188

6.9        Ternary Oxyacids   189

Chemistry Connection IUPAC Nomenclature   189

Summary   190   •   Nomenclature Organizer   191

Key Terms   192   •   Exercises   192

7          Chemical Reactions   198

            Chemistry Connection Fireworks   199

7.1        Evidence for Chemical Reactions   200

7.2        Writing Chemical Equations   201

7.3        Balancing Chemical Equations   202

7.4        Classifying Chemical Reactions   207

7.5        Combination Reactions   208

7.6        Decomposition Reactions   211

7.7        The Activity Series Concept   214

7.8        Single-Replacement Reactions   217

7.9        Solubility Rules   219

7.10      Double-Replacement Reactions   220

7.11      Neutralization Reactions   221

            critical Thinking Household Chemicals   223

            Summary   224   •   Key Terms   225   •   Exercises   226

            Chapter Self-Test   230

8          The Mole Concept   232

8.1        Avogadro’s Number   233

            Chemistry Connection Analogies for Avogadro’s Number   233

8.2        Mole Calculations I   234

8.3        Molar Mass   237

8.4        Mole Calculations II   238

8.5        Molar Volume   241

8.6        Mole Calculations III   244

8.7        Percent Composition   246

8.8        Empirical Formula   248

8.9        Molecular Formula   250

            critical Thinking Avogadro’s Number   252

            Summary   252   •   Problem–Solving Organizer   254

            Key Terms   255   •   Exercises   255

            Chapter Self-Test   258

9          Chemical Equation Calculations   260

9.1        Interpreting a Chemical Equation   261

9.2        Mole–Mole Relationships   263

critical Thinking Iron versus Steel   265

9.3        Types of Stoichiometry Problems   265

9.4        Mass–Mass Problems   266

9.5        Mass–Volume Problems   269

9.6        Volume–Volume Problems   272

Chemistry Connection Manufacturing Ammonia   274

9.7        Limiting Reactant Concept   275

9.8        Limiting Reactant Problems   277

9.9        Percent Yield   281

           Summary   282   •   Problem-Solving Organizer   283

           Key Terms   284   •   Exercises   284

           Chapter Self-Test   288

10         Gases 290

10.1      Properties of Gases   291

10.2      Atmospheric Pressure   291

Chemistry Connection The Greenhouse Effect   292

10.3      Variables Affecting Gas Pressure   294

10.4      Boyle’s Law: Pressure–Volume Relationships   296

Chemistry Connection Robert Boyle   299

10.5      Charles’s Law: Volume–Temperature Relationships   299

10.6      Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure–Temperature Relationships   302

10.7      Combined Gas Law   304

10.8      The Vapor Pressure Concept   306

10.9      Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures   307

10.10    Ideal Gas Behavior   310

10.11    Ideal Gas Law   312

critical Thinking Conceptualizing Gases   313

Summary   314   •   Problem–Solving Organizer   315

Key Terms   316   •   Exercises   317

Chapter Self-Test   320

11         Liquids and Solids   354

11.1      Properties of Liquids   355

11.2      The Intermolecular Bond Concept   355

11.3      Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Viscosity, and Surface Tension   357

11.4      Properties of Solid  s 362

11.5      Crystalline Solids   362

11.6      Changes of Physical State   364

11.7      Structure of Water   367

Chemistry Connection Water Purification   368

11.8      Physical Properties of Water   369

11.9      Chemical Properties of Water   371

11.10    Hydrates   372

critical Thinking Bottled Water   376

Summary   376   •   Key Terms   377   •   Exercises   378

Chapter Self-Test   382

12         Chemical Bonding   322

12.1      The Chemical Bond Concept   323

12.2      Ionic Bonds   324

12.3      Covalent Bonds   328

12.4      Electron Dot Formulas of Molecules   330

12.5      Electron Dot Formulas of Polyatomic Ions   335

12.6      Polar Covalent Bonds   338

Chemistry Connection Linus Pauling   340

12.7      Nonpolar Covalent Bonds   341

12.8      Coordinate Covalent Bonds   342

12.9      Hydrogen Bonds   343

12.10    Shapes of Molecules   344

critical Thinking Diamond versus Graphite   347

Summary   347   •   Key Terms   348   •   Exercises   349

Chapter Self-Test   352

13         Solutions   384

13.1      Gases in Solution   385

13.2      Liquids in Solution   387

13.3      Solids in Solution   389

Chemistry Connection Colloids   390

13.4      The Dissolving Process   391

13.5      Rate of Dissolving   392

13.6      Solubility and Temperature   393

13.7      Unsaturated, Saturated, and Supersaturated Solutions   394

13.8      Mass/Mass Percent Concentration   397

13.9      Molar Concentration   399

critical Thinking Water Fluoridation   401

13.10    Dilution of a Solution   402

13.11    Solution Stoichiometry   403

Summary   404   •   Problem–Solving Organizer   405

Key Terms   406   •   Exercises   406

Chapter Self-Test   410

14         Acids and Bases   412

14.1      Properties of Acids and Bases   413

14.2      Arrhenius Acids and Bases   415

Chemistry Connection Svante Arrhenius   418

14.3      Brønsted–Lowry Acids and Bases   419

14.4      Acid–Base Indicators   419

14.5      Acid–Base Titrations   421

14.6      Acid–Base Standardization   424

14.7      Ionization of Water   426

14.8      The pH Concept   428

14.9      Advanced pH Calculations   430

critical Thinking Acid Rain   432

14.10    Strong and Weak Electrolytes   433

14.11    Net Ionic Equations   436

Summary   439   •   Problem–Solving Organizer   440

Key Terms   441   •   Exercises   441

Chapter Self-Test   445

15         Advanced Problem Solving

           

15.1      Advanced Problem-Solving Strategies

15.2      Concept Maps – Mole Relationships

15.3      Concept Maps – Stoichiometry

15.4      Multiple-Reaction Stoichiometry

            critical Thinking  Nanotechnology

15.5      Advanced Problem-Solving Examples

            Summary   •   Key Terms   •   Exercises

            Online Exercises   •   Chapter Self-Test

16         Chemical Equilibrium   448

16.1      Collision Theory   449

16.2      Energy Profiles of Chemical Reactions   451

16.3      The Chemical Equilibrium Concept   455

            Chemistry Connection The Ozone Hole   457

16.4      General Equilibrium Constant, K eq   458

16.5      Equilibria Shifts for Gases   462

16.6      Ionization Equilibrium Constant, K i   465

16.7      Equilibria Shifts for Weak Acids and Bases   467

16.8      Solubility Product Equilibrium Constant, K sp   469

16.9      Equilibria Shifts for Slightly Soluble Compounds   471

            Summary   472   •   Key Terms   473   •   Exercises   474

Chapter Self-Test   477

17         Oxidation and Reduction   480

17.1      Oxidation Numbers   482

17.2      Oxidation–Reduction Reactions   487

17.3      Balancing Redox Equations: Oxidation Number Method   490

17.4      Balancing Redox Equations: Half-Reaction Method   494

17.5      Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions   497

17.6      Voltaic Cells   500

17.7      Electrolytic Cells   503

Chemistry Connection Hybrid Vehicles   505

Summary   505   •   Key Terms   506   • Exercises   506

Chapter Self-Test   510

 

  18       Nuclear Chemistry   512

18.1    Natural Radioactivity   513

18.2    Nuclear Equations   514

18.3    Radioactive Decay Series   518

18.4    Radioactive Half-Life   519

18.5    Applications of Radionuclides   521

critical Thinking Nuclear Medicine   522

18.6    Induced Radioactivity   523

18.7    Nuclear Fission   525

Chemistry Connection Nuclear Power Plant   528

18.8    Nuclear Fusion   528

Summary   530   •   Key Terms   530   •   Exercises   531

Chapter Self-Test   534

  19       Organic Chemistry   536

19.1    Hydrocarbons   537

19.2    Alkanes   538

19.3    Alkenes and Alkynes   543

19.4    Arenes   547

19.5    Hydrocarbon Derivatives   548

19.6    Organic Halides   550

19.7    Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers   552

19.8    Amines   554

19.9    Aldehydes and Ketones   555

19.10    Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides   557

Chemistry Connection Forensic Chemistry   560

Summary   561   •   Key Terms   562   •   Exercises   563

Chapter Self-Test   566

20         Biochemistry   568

20.1      Biological Compounds   569

20.2      Proteins   571

20.3      Enzymes   576

20.4      Carbohydrates   578

20.5      Lipids   581

critical Thinking Vitamins   585

20.6      Nucleic Acids   586

critical Thinking Left- and Right-Handed Molecules   589

Summary   590   •   Key Terms   591   •   Exercises   591

Chapter Self-Test   594

Appendices

A    Weights and Measures   597

B    Physical Constants   598

C    Activity Series for Metals   599

D    Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds   600

E    Vapor Pressure of Water   601

F    Properties of Water   602

G    Answers to Concept Exercises   603

H    Answers to Key Term Exercises   608

I     Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises   610

J    Answers to Chapter Self-Tests   627

Glossary   633

Photo Credits   643

Index   645



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