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Introductory Statistics

by
Edition:
8th
ISBN13:

9780201771312

ISBN10:
0201771314
Format:
Hardcover w/CD
Pub. Date:
1/1/2008
Publisher(s):
Addison Wesley

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Summary

KEY MESSAGE: WeissIntroductory Statistics, Eighth Edition,features a thorough presentation of the reasoning behind statistics, balanced with analysis and exploration of real data. This book develops statistical thinking over rote drill and practice. The Nature of Statistics; Organizing Data; Descriptive Measures; Probability Concepts; Discrete Random Variables; The Normal Distribution; The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Menu; Confidence Intervals for One Population Mean; Hypothesis Tests for One Population Mean; Inferences for Two Population Means; Inferences for Population Standard Deviations; Inferences for Population Proportions; Chi-Square Procedures; Descriptive Methods in Regression and Correlation; Inferential Methods in Regression and Correlation; Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) For all readers interested in Introductory Statistics.

Table of Contents

About the Author vii
Preface ix
Data Sources xxviii
PART I INTRODUCTION
1(38)
The Nature of Statistics
2(37)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
2(1)
Case Study: Top Films of All Time
3(1)
Two Kinds of Statistics
4(6)
The Technology Center
10(1)
Simple Random Sampling
10(6)
Other Sampling Designs
16(6)
Experimental Designs
22(17)
Chapter Review
30(1)
Review Test
31(3)
StatExplore
34(1)
Internet Project
35(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
35(1)
Case Study Discussion
36(1)
Biography
36(3)
PART II DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
39(110)
Organizing Data
40(50)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
40(1)
Case Study: Preventing Infant Mortality
41(1)
Variables and Data
42(4)
Grouping Data
46(12)
Graphs and Charts
58(10)
Stem-and-Leaf Diagrams
68(4)
Distribution Shapes; Symmetry and Skewness
72(7)
Misleading Graphs
79(11)
Chapter Review
83(1)
Review Test
84(3)
StatExplore
87(1)
Internet Project
88(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
88(1)
Case Study Discussion
89(1)
Biography
89(1)
Descriptive Measures
90(59)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
90(1)
Case Study: The Triple Crown
91(1)
Measures of Center
92(9)
The Sample Mean
101(4)
Measures of Variation; The Sample Standard Deviation
105(12)
The Five-Number Summary; Boxplots
117(13)
Descriptive Measures for Populations; Use of Samples
130(19)
Chapter Review
142(1)
Review Test
143(2)
StatExplore
145(1)
Internet Project
146(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
147(1)
Case Study Discussion
147(1)
Biography
148(1)
PART III PROBABILITY, RANDOM VARIABLES, AND SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS
149(204)
Probability Concepts
150(74)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
150(1)
Case Study: The Powerball
151(1)
Probability Basics
152(7)
Events
159(8)
Some Rules of Probability
167(7)
Contingency Tables; Joint and Marginal Probabilities
174(6)
Conditional Probability
180(7)
The Multiplication Rule; Independence
187(8)
Bayes's Rule
195(7)
Counting Rules
202(22)
Chapter Review
214(1)
Review Test
215(4)
StatExplore
219(1)
Internet Project
220(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
221(1)
Case Study Discussion
222(1)
Biography
223(1)
Discrete Random Variables
224(48)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
224(1)
Case Study: Aces Wild on the Sixth at Oak Hill
225(1)
Discrete Random Variables and Probability Distributions
226(8)
The Mean and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable
234(6)
The Binomial Distribution
240(16)
The Poisson Distribution
256(16)
Chapter Review
265(1)
Review Test
265(3)
StatExplore
268(1)
Internet Project
269(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
269(1)
Case Study Discussion
270(1)
Biography
271(1)
The Normal Distribution
272(50)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
272(1)
Case Study: Foot Length and Shoe Size for Women
273(1)
Introducing Normally Distributed Variables
274(8)
Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve
282(8)
Working With Normally Distributed Variables
290(9)
Assessing Normality; Normal Probability Plots
299(7)
Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution
306(16)
Chapter Review
315(1)
Review Test
315(3)
StatExplore
318(1)
Internet Project
319(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
319(1)
Case Study Discussion
320(1)
Biography
321(1)
The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean
322(31)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
322(1)
Case Study: The Chesapeake and Ohio Freight Study
323(1)
Sampling Error; the Need for Sampling Distributions
324(7)
The Mean and Standard Deviation of x
331(7)
The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean
338(15)
Chapter Review
346(1)
Review Test
346(3)
StatExplore
349(1)
Internet Project
350(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
351(1)
Case Study Discussion
351(1)
Biography
351(2)
PART IV INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
353(338)
Confidence Intervals for One Population Mean
354(42)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
354(1)
Case Study: The Chips Ahoy! 1,000 Chips Challenge
355(1)
Estimating a Population Mean
356(6)
Confidence Intervals for One Population Mean When σ Is Known
362(9)
Margin of Error
371(6)
Confidence Intervals for One Population Mean When σ Is Unknown
377(19)
Chapter Review
389(1)
Review Test
390(3)
StatExplore
393(1)
Internet Project
394(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
394(1)
Case Study Discussion
395(1)
Biography
395(1)
Hypothesis Tests for One Population Mean
396(86)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
396(1)
Case Study: Sex and Sense of Direction
397(1)
The Nature of Hypothesis Testing
398(7)
Terms, Errors, and Hypotheses
405(8)
Hypothesis Tests for One Population Mean When σ Is Known
413(12)
Type II Error Probabilities; Power
425(8)
P-Values
433(12)
Hypothesis Tests for One Population Mean When σ Is Unknown
445(10)
The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
455(12)
Which Procedure Should Be Used?
467(15)
Chapter Review
473(1)
Review Test
473(5)
StatExplore
478(1)
Internet Project
479(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
479(1)
Case Study Discussion
480(1)
Biography
480(2)
Inferences for Two Population Means
482(86)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
482(1)
Case Study: Breast Milk and IQ
483(1)
The Sampling Distribution of the Difference Between Two Sample Means for Independent Samples
484(7)
Inferences for Two Population Means, Using Independent Samples: Standard Deviations Assumed Equal
491(13)
Inferences for Two Population Means, Using Independent Samples: Standard Deviations Not Assumed Equal
504(14)
The Mann-Whitney Test
518(12)
Inferences for Two Population Means, Using Paired Samples
530(16)
The Paired Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test
546(7)
Which Procedure Should Be Used?
553(15)
Chapter Review
560(1)
Review Test
561(2)
StatExplore
563(2)
Internet Project
565(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
565(1)
Case Study Discussion
566(1)
Biography
567(1)
Inferences for Population Standard Deviations
568(36)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
568(1)
Case Study: Speaker Woofer Driver Manufacturing
569(1)
Inferences for One Population Standard Deviation
570(12)
Inferences for Two Population Standard Deviations, Using Independent Samples
582(22)
Chapter Review
596(1)
Review Test
596(3)
StatExplore
599(2)
Internet Project
601(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
601(1)
Case Study Discussion
602(1)
Biography
603(1)
Inferences for Population Proportions
604(44)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
604(1)
Case Study: Hormone-Replacement Therapy and Dementia
605(1)
Confidence Intervals for One Population Proportion
606(14)
Hypothesis Tests for One Population Proportion
620(6)
Inferences for Two Population Proportions, Using Independent Samples
626(22)
Chapter Review
640(1)
Review Test
640(3)
StatExplore
643(1)
Internet Project
644(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
645(1)
Case Study Discussion
646(1)
Biography
647(1)
Chi-Square Procedures
648(43)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
648(1)
Case Study: Road Rage
649(1)
The Chi-Square Distribution
650(2)
Chi-Square Goodness-Of-Fit Test
652(8)
Contingency Tables; Association
660(9)
Chi-Square Independence Test
669(22)
Chapter Review
681(1)
Review Test
682(3)
StatExplore
685(1)
Internet Project
686(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
687(1)
Case Study Discussion
688(1)
Biography
689(2)
PART V REGRESSION, CORRELATION, AND ANOVA
691(1)
Descriptive Methods in Regression and Correlation
692(50)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
692(1)
Case Study: Shoe Size and Height
693(1)
Linear Equations With One Independent Variable
694(5)
The Regression Equation
699(16)
The Coefficient of Determination
715(9)
Linear Correlation
724(18)
Chapter Review
734(1)
Review Test
734(3)
StatExplore
737(1)
Internet Project
738(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
739(1)
Case Study Discussion
740(1)
Biography
741(1)
Inferential Methods in Regression and Correlation
742(56)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
742(1)
Case Study: Shoe Size and Height
743(1)
The Regression Model; Analysis of Residuals
744(14)
Inferences for the Slope of the Population Regression Line
758(8)
Estimation and Prediction
766(10)
Inferences in Correlation
776(5)
Testing for Normality
781(17)
Chapter Review
788(1)
Review Test
788(4)
StatExplore
792(2)
Internet Project
794(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
795(1)
Case Study Discussion
796(1)
Biography
797(1)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
798(1)
Chapter Outline and General Objectives
798(1)
Case Study: Heavy Drinking Among College Students
799(1)
The F-Distribution
800(2)
One-Way ANOVA: The Logic
802(7)
One-Way ANOVA: The Procedure
809(13)
Multiple Comparisons
822(7)
The Kruskal-Wallis Test
829(11)
Chapter Review
840(1)
Review Test
841(2)
StatExplore
843(1)
Internet Project
844(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
844(1)
Case Study Discussion
845(1)
Biography
846
PART VI MULTIPLE REGRESSION AND MODEL BUILDING; EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND ANOVA (ON THE WeissStats CD)
Module A Multiple Regression Analysis
2(1)
Module Outline and General Objectives
2(1)
Case Study: Automobile Insurance Rates
3(1)
The Multiple Linear Regression Model
4(6)
Estimation of the Regression Parameters
10(17)
Inferences Concerning the Utility of the Regression Model
27(13)
Inferences Concerning the Utility of Particular Predictor Variables
40(7)
Confidence Intervals for Mean Response; Prediction Intervals for Response
47(14)
Checking Model Assumptions and Residual Analysis
61(15)
Module Review
76(1)
Review Test
77(3)
Internet Project
80(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
81(1)
Case Study Discussion
82(3)
Answers
85
Module B Model Building in Regression
2(1)
Module Outline and General Objectives
2(1)
Case Study: Automobile Insurance Rates---Revisited
3(1)
Transformations to Remedy Model Violations
4(43)
Polynomial Regression Model
47(45)
Qualitative Predictor Variables
92(48)
Multicollinearity
140(31)
Model Selection: Stepwise Regression
171(28)
Model Selection: All Subsets Regression
199(15)
Pitfalls and Warnings
214(6)
Module Review
220(1)
Review Test
221(22)
Internet Project
243(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
243(1)
Case Study Discussion
244(5)
Answers
249
Module C Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance
2(1)
Module Outline and General Objectives
2(1)
Case Study: Dental Hygiene: Which Toothbrush?
3(1)
Factorial Designs
4(7)
Two-Way ANOVA: The Logic
11(18)
Two-Way ANOVA: The Procedure
29(33)
Two-Way ANOVA: Multiple Comparisons
62(16)
Randomized Block Designs
78(6)
Randomized Block ANOVA: The Logic
84(12)
Randomized Block ANOVA: The Procedure
96(33)
Randomized Block ANOVA: Multiple Comparisons
129(7)
Friedman's Nonparametric Test for the Randomized Block Design
136(12)
Module Review
148(1)
Review Test
149(9)
Internet Project
158(1)
Focusing on Data Analysis
158(1)
Case Study Discussion
159(2)
Answers
161
APPENDIXES
1(1)
Appendix A Statistical Tables
3(28)
I Random numbers
5(1)
II Areas under the standard normal curve
6(2)
III Normal scores
8(2)
IV Values of tα
10(2)
V Values of Wα
12(1)
VI Values of Mα
13(1)
VII Values of χ2α
14(2)
VIII Values of Fα
16(8)
IX Critical values for a correlation test for normality
24(1)
X Values of q0.01
25(1)
XI Values of q0.05
26(1)
XII Binomial probabilities
27(4)
Appendix B Answers to Selected Exercises
31
Index 1

Excerpts

Introductory Statistics, 7e Preface Using and understanding statistics andstatistical procedures have become required skills in virtually everyprofession and academic discipline. The purpose of this book is to helpstudents grasp basic statistical concepts and techniques, and to present real-life opportunities for applying them. About This Book The text is intended for a one- or two-semestercourse and for quarter-system courses as well. Instructors can easily fit thetext to the pace and depth they prefer. Introductory high school algebra is asufficient prerequisite. Although mathematically and statistically sound, theapproach doesn't require students to examine complex concepts such asprobability theory and random variables. Students need only understand basicideas such as percentages and histograms. Advances in technology and newinsights into the practice of teaching statistics have inspired many of thepedagogical strategies used in the Seventh Edition ofIntroductoryStatistics,leading to more emphasis on conceptual understanding and less emphasis oncomputation. Highlights of the Approach ASA/MAA-GuidelinesCompliant.We followASA/MAA guidelines to stress the interpretation of statistical results, thecontemporary applications of statistics, and the importance of criticalthinking. Unique Variable-Centered Approach.By consistent and proper use of thetermsvariableandpopulation,we unified and clarified the various statistical concepts. Data Analysis and Exploration.We incorporate an extensive amount ofdata analysis and exploration in the text and exercises. Recognizing that notall readers have access to technology, we provide ample opportunity to analyzeand explore data without the use of a computer or statistical calculator. Detailed and Careful Explanations.We include every step of explanationthat a typical reader might need. Our guiding principle is to avoid cognitivejumps, making the learning process smooth and enjoyable. We believe thatdetailed and careful explanations result in better understanding. Emphasis on Application.Weconcentrate on the application of statistical techniques to the analysis ofdata. Although statistical theory has been kept to a minimum, we provide athorough explanation of the rationale for the use of each statisticalprocedure. Parallel Critical-Value/P-Value Approaches.Through aparallel presentation, the book offers complete flexibility in the coverage ofthe critical-value andP-valueapproaches to hypothesis testing-either one or both approaches can be exploredand compared. ParallelPresentations of Technology.The book offers complete flexibility in the coverage of technology,which includes options for use of Minitab, Excel, and the TI-83/84 Plus. One or more technologies can beexplored and compared. New and Hallmark Features Chapter-Opening Features.Included at the beginning of eachchapter is a general description of the chapter, an explanation of how thechapter relates to the text as a whole, and an outline that lists the sectionsin the chapter. Each chapter opens with a classic or contemporary case studythat highlights the real-world relevance of the material. (Case studies arereviewed and discussed at the end of the chapter.) More than one-third of thecase studies are new or updated. Real-World Examples.Every concept discussed in the text is illustrated by at least onedetailed example. The examples are based on real-life situations and werechosen for their interest level as well as for their illustrative value. Interpretation Boxes.This feature presents the meaning and significance of statisticalresults in everyday language. Instead of just obtaining the answers or results,students are shown the importance of interpretation. What Does It Mean?.


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