Preface 

xv  
Acknowledgments 

xix  
Glossary of Symbols 

xxi  

Part I Descriptive Statistics 


1  (122) 


3  (20) 


4  (1) 

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 


5  (1) 

Populations, Samples, Parameters, and Statistics 


6  (1) 


6  (2) 

Independent and Dependent Variables 


8  (1) 


9  (1) 


10  (6) 


16  (1) 


17  (3) 


20  (1) 


21  (1) 


21  (2) 

Frequency Distributions and Graphs 


23  (19) 

The Purpose of Descriptive Statistics 


24  (1) 

Regular Frequency Distributions 


25  (1) 

Cumulative Frequency Distributions 


26  (1) 

Grouped Frequency Distributions 


27  (3) 


30  (5) 

Shapes of Frequency Distributions 


35  (2) 


37  (1) 


38  (1) 


39  (1) 


40  (1) 


40  (2) 

Transformed Scores I: Percentiles 


42  (14) 


43  (1) 

Definition of Percentile and Percentile Rank 


43  (1) 


44  (8) 

Deciles, Quartiles, and the Median 


52  (1) 


52  (1) 


53  (1) 


54  (1) 


54  (1) 


54  (2) 

Measures of Central Tendency 


56  (13) 


57  (1) 


58  (6) 


64  (2) 


66  (1) 


66  (1) 


67  (1) 


67  (1) 


68  (1) 


68  (1) 


69  (16) 

The Concept of Variability 


70  (2) 


72  (1) 

The SemiInterquartile Range 


73  (1) 

The Standard Deviation and Variance 


74  (6) 


80  (2) 


82  (1) 


83  (1) 


83  (1) 


84  (1) 

Additional Techniques for Describing Batches of Data 


85  (9) 


86  (2) 


88  (3) 


91  (1) 


91  (1) 


92  (1) 


92  (1) 


92  (2) 

Transformed Scores II: z and T Scores 


94  (14) 


95  (1) 

Rules for Changing X and σ 


96  (2) 

Standard Scores (z Scores) 


98  (2) 


100  (2) 


102  (1) 


103  (1) 


104  (2) 


106  (1) 


106  (1) 


106  (2) 


108  (15) 


109  (1) 


110  (1) 

Parameters of the Normal Distribution 


111  (1) 

Tables of the Standard Normal Distribution 


111  (1) 

Characteristics of the Normal Curve 


112  (1) 


113  (6) 


119  (1) 


120  (1) 


121  (1) 


121  (1) 


121  (2) 

Part II Basic Inferential Statistics 


123  (164) 

Introduction to Statistical Inference 


125  (25) 


126  (1) 

The Goals of Inferential Statistics 


127  (1) 


128  (4) 

The Standard Error of the Mean 


132  (3) 

The z Score for Sample Means 


135  (2) 


137  (7) 

Assumptions Required by the Statistical Test for the Mean of a Single Population 


144  (1) 


144  (2) 


146  (2) 


148  (1) 


149  (1) 


149  (1) 

The OneSample t Test and Interval Estimation 


150  (17) 

The Statistical Test for the Mean of a Single Population When σ Is Not Known: The t Distributions 


151  (4) 


155  (4) 

The Standard Error of a Proportion 


159  (3) 


162  (2) 


164  (1) 


165  (1) 


166  (1) 


166  (1) 

Testing Hypotheses about the Difference between the Means of Two Populations 


167  (30) 

The Standard Error of the Difference 


169  (4) 

Estimating the Standard Error of the Difference 


173  (1) 

The t Test for Two Sample Means 


174  (3) 

Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Two Population Means 


177  (2) 

Using the t Test for Two Sample Means: Some General Considerations 


179  (2) 

Measuring Size of an Effect 


181  (1) 

The t Test for Matched Samples 


182  (6) 


188  (3) 


191  (2) 


193  (2) 


195  (1) 


195  (2) 

Linear Correlation and Prediction 


197  (44) 


198  (3) 

Describing the Linear Relationship between Two Variables 


201  (9) 

Interpreting the Magnitude of a Pearson r 


210  (2) 

When Is It Important That Pearson's r be Large? 


212  (2) 

Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 


214  (3) 

Prediction and Linear Regression 


217  (8) 

Measuring Prediction Error: The Standard Error of Estimate 


225  (3) 


228  (2) 


230  (3) 


233  (1) 


234  (1) 


235  (1) 

Appendix: Equivalence of the Various Formulas for r 


236  (5) 

The Connection between Correlation and the t Test 


241  (14) 


242  (1) 

The PointBiserial Correlation Coefficient 


243  (3) 

The Proportion of Variance Accounted For in Your Samples 


246  (1) 

Estimating the Proportion of Variance Accounted For in the Population 


247  (2) 


249  (1) 


250  (1) 


251  (1) 


252  (1) 


252  (3) 

Introduction to Power Analysis 


255  (32) 


256  (1) 

Concepts of Power Analysis 


257  (2) 

The Test of the Mean of a Single Population 


259  (5) 

The Significance Test of the Proportion of a Single Population 


264  (2) 

The Significance Test of a Pearson r 


266  (1) 

Testing the Difference between Independent Means 


267  (5) 

Testing the Difference between the Means of Two Matched Populations 


272  (1) 

Choosing a Value for d for a Power Analysis Involving Independent Means 


273  (2) 

Using Power Analysis to Interpret the Results of Null Hypothesis Tests 


275  (2) 


277  (4) 


281  (2) 


283  (1) 


284  (1) 


284  (3) 

Part III Analysis of Variance Methods 


287  (100) 

OneWay Analysis of Variance 


289  (25) 


290  (1) 

The General Logic of ANOVA 


291  (4) 


295  (6) 

Comparing the OneWay ANOVA with the t Test 


301  (1) 

A Simplified ANOVA Formula for Equal Sample Sizes 


302  (3) 

Effect Size for the OneWay ANOVA 


305  (1) 


306  (3) 


309  (1) 


310  (1) 


311  (1) 


312  (1) 

Appendix: Proof That the Total Sum of Squares Is Equal to the Sum of the BetweenGroup and the WithinGroup Sum of Squares 


312  (2) 


314  (18) 


315  (1) 

Fisher's Protected t Tests 


316  (3) 

Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) 


319  (3) 

Other Multiple Comparison Procedures 


322  (2) 

Planned and Complex Comparisons 


324  (3) 


327  (1) 


328  (1) 


329  (1) 


330  (1) 


330  (2) 

Introduction to Factorial Design: TwoWay Analysis of Variance 


332  (27) 


333  (1) 


334  (8) 

The Meaning of Interaction 


342  (4) 

Following Up a Significant Interaction 


346  (3) 


349  (3) 


352  (3) 


355  (1) 


356  (2) 


358  (1) 


359  (28) 


360  (1) 

Calculating the OneWay RM ANOVA 


360  (3) 

Rationale for the RM ANOVA Error Term 


363  (2) 

Assumptions of the RM ANOVA 


365  (2) 

The RM versus RB Design: An Introduction to Issues of Experimental Design 


367  (4) 


371  (6) 


377  (5) 


382  (2) 


384  (1) 


384  (1) 


384  (3) 

Part IV Nonparametric Statistics 


387  (78) 

Introduction to Probability and Nonparametric Methods 


389  (20) 


390  (1) 


391  (3) 

The Binomial Distribution 


394  (6) 

The Sign Test for Matched Samples 


400  (2) 


402  (1) 


403  (2) 


405  (1) 


406  (1) 


406  (3) 


409  (23) 

Chi Square and Goodness of Fit: OneVariable Problems 


410  (4) 

Chi Square as a Test of Independence: TwoVariable Problems 


414  (6) 

Measures of Strength of Association in TwoVariable Tables 


420  (3) 


423  (2) 


425  (2) 


427  (1) 


428  (1) 


429  (3) 


432  (33) 


433  (3) 

The Difference between the Locations of Two Independent Samples: The RankSum Test 


436  (4) 

Differences among the Locations of Two or More Independent Samples: The KruskalWallis H Test 


440  (4) 

The Difference between the Locations of Two Matched Samples: The Wilcoxon Test 


444  (5) 

The Relationship between Two Ranked Variables: The Spearman RankOrder Correlation 


449  (3) 


452  (3) 


455  (6) 


461  (1) 


461  (1) 


462  (3) 


465  (34) 


467  (16) 


483  (13) 

Data from Sara's Experiment 


496  (3) 
Glossary of Terms 

499  (7) 
References 

506  (1) 
Index 

507  