9780521479387

The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780521479387

  • ISBN10:

    052147938X

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1997-12-13
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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Summary

This remarkable book is the most comprehensive study ever written of the history of moral philosophy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its aim is to set Kant's still influential ethics in its historical context by showing in detail what the central questions in moral philosophy were for him and how he arrived at his own distinctive ethical views. The book is organised into four main sections, each exploring moral philosophy by discussing the work of many influential philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In an epilogue the author discusses Kant's view of his own historicity, and of the aims of moral philosophy. In its range, in its analyses of many philosophers not discussed elsewhere, and in revealing the subtle interweaving of religious and political thought with moral philosophy, this is an unprecedented account of the evolution of Kant's ethics.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
A note on references and abbreviations xxi
Introduction 1(2)
Themes in the history of modern moral philosophy
3(12)
Moral philosophy and social change
4(1)
Morality and self-governance
5(1)
Morality and religion
6(3)
Morality, epistemology, and moral psychology
9(2)
A map of the book
11(4)
Part I The rise and fall of modern natural law 15(152)
Natural law: From intellectualism to voluntarism
17(20)
Origins of natural law theory
17(2)
St. Thomas's natural law morality
19(2)
Will and the good in voluntarism
21(5)
Luther's two kingdoms
26(1)
Luther's voluntarism
27(5)
Calvin's humanistic voluntarism
32(5)
Setting religion aside: Republicanism and skepticism
37(21)
Virtu and the manipulative prince
37(2)
The self-governing republic
39(3)
Pyrrhonism rediscovered
42(2)
Montaigne: Skepticism and faith
44(3)
Montaigne's test
47(3)
A Montaignian ethic?
50(2)
Charron: Eclectic skepticism
52(4)
War and morality
56(2)
Natural law restated: Suarez and Grotius
58(24)
Suarez: Will and intellect in law
59(3)
Suarez: The law and its promulgation
62(2)
Suarez: Motives for obedience
64(2)
Grotius and religious belief
66(4)
The Grotian problematic
70(3)
``Even if we should concede ...''
73(2)
The insufficiency of virtue
75(3)
Rights and community
78(4)
Grotianism at the limit: Hobbes
82(19)
Desire and conflict
82(6)
From psychology to morality
88(4)
Morality in practice
92(3)
Hobbesian voluntarism
95(6)
A morality of love: Cumberland
101(17)
Love as law
102(2)
The status of the law of love
104(3)
From self-love to benevolence
107(2)
God, law, and obligation
109(4)
Rationality in morality
113(3)
Ignorance and obedience
116(2)
The central synthesis: Pufendorf
118(23)
Moral entities
119(4)
Moral good and natural good
123(3)
Knowledge of natural law
126(5)
Perfect and imperfect duty
131(3)
Law and obligation
134(4)
The significance of Pufendorf's voluntarism
138(3)
The collapse of modern natural law: Locke and Thomasius
141(26)
Locke and the Grotian problematic
142(2)
Elements of a science of morality
144(3)
Morality as a science
147(2)
Locke's voluntarism
149(3)
Revelation and reason in morals
152(1)
Locke's early work on natural law
153(3)
Justice and love
156(1)
Voluntarism and empiricist morality
157(2)
Thomasius: The rejection of voluntarism
159(2)
Obligation and advice
161(2)
Separating law and morality
163(4)
Part II Perfectionism and rationality 167(94)
Origins of modern perfectionism
169(25)
Stoicism Christianized: du Vair and Lipsius
170(6)
Herbert of Cherbury: Cosmos and Common Notions
176(3)
Herbert: Common Notions, morality, and religion
179(5)
Cartesian voluntarism
184(1)
Descartes: Ignorance and virtue
185(4)
Descartes: Happiness, the passions, and love
189(5)
Paths to God: I. The Cambridge Platonists
194(21)
Whichcote: Morality as the core of religion
196(3)
John Smith: Perfection, love, and law
199(3)
More: Love's axioms
202(3)
Cudworth: A metaphysics of ethics
205(5)
Cambridge Platonism and free will
210(5)
Paths to God: II. Spinoza and Malebranche
215(21)
Spinoza: Ethics in a world without ends
216(4)
Wisdom and the good life
220(3)
Spinozistic society
223(2)
Malebranche: Evil and God's general wills
225(3)
Order, virtue, and happiness
228(3)
Acquiring merit
231(2)
Malebranchean morality
233(3)
Leibniz: Counterrevolutionary perfectionism
236(25)
The best possible world
237(4)
Freedom and determination by reasons
241(5)
Love, justice, and perfection
246(4)
Against Pufendorf: Law and will
250(4)
Against Pufendorf: Justification and motive
254(7)
Part III Toward a world on its own 261(168)
Morality without salvation
263(22)
Gassendi's rehabilitation of Epicureanism
264(5)
Free will and the incomprehensibility of God
269(3)
Morality and the hidden God
272(3)
Nicole: The ingenuity of self-interest
275(4)
Bayle: Religion and the virtuous atheist
279(6)
The recovery of virtue
285(25)
Virtue and law
286(3)
Virtue in Utopia
289(4)
Harrington's hollow citizen
293(2)
Shaftesbury's politics
295(3)
The diversity of the passions
298(2)
Moral feeling, voluntarism, and skepticism
300(6)
Virtue, happiness, and the complete citizen
306(4)
The austerity of morals: Clarke and Mandeville
310(20)
Free will and reasons for action
311(3)
Mathematical morality
314(3)
Morality and rational agency
317(2)
Morality in the best possible world
319(2)
Morality and the need for Christianity
321(2)
Mandeville: Morality naturalized
323(4)
Morality against nature
327(3)
The limits of love: Hutcheson and Butler
330(24)
Carmichael: Pufendorf in Scotland
331(2)
Hutcheson's morality of benevolence
333(3)
Morality and sentiment
336(4)
Reason, motive, and calculation
340(2)
Butler: The complexity of human nature
342(3)
Conscience
345(4)
Self-love, benevolence, and morality
349(3)
God and morality
352(2)
Hume: Virtue naturalized
354(24)
Moral philosophy as a science of sentiment
355(3)
Desire, belief, and action
358(4)
Laws of approval
362(3)
Artificial and natural virtues
365(4)
Obligation
369(3)
Hume and the classical republic
372(1)
Morality and religion
373(5)
Against a fatherless world
378(26)
Sentimentalism, skepticism, and the new rationalism
378(2)
Price's intuitionism
380(5)
Intuition and motivation
385(2)
Morality and providential care
387(1)
Adam Smith: Sentimentalism restated
388(5)
Moral philosophy dissolved
393(2)
Reid: The active powers
395(2)
Defending the obvious: The intuitive axioms
397(2)
Freedom and morality
399(3)
Reid's legacy
402(2)
The noble effects of self-love
404(25)
Association and utility
405(3)
God and the greatest happiness
408(5)
Egoism and reform: Helvetius and d'Holbach
413(6)
Bentham: Making morality in a world on its own
419(5)
De Sade: Self-love in a corrupt society
424(5)
Part IV Autonomy and divine order 429(126)
Perfection and will: Wolff and Crusius
431(26)
Wolff: The need for system
432(3)
Wolffian psychology
435(3)
Wolffian ethics
438(4)
A note on Pietism
442(3)
Crusius: The significance of free will
445(4)
Freedom and virtue
449(3)
Morality and God's will
452(5)
Religion, morality, and reform
457(26)
Voltaire and voluntarism
458(4)
La Mettrie: Atheism let loose
462(4)
Diderot: Morality without theory
466(4)
Rousseau: The origins of morality
470(4)
The transformation of human nature
474(4)
Toward the classical republic
478(2)
Providence without intervention
480(3)
The invention of autonomy
483(25)
Toward the moral law
484(3)
On Rousseau's influence
487(5)
Theodicy and morality
492(5)
Theodicy and freedom
497(4)
Reason and sentiment
501(4)
Morality and the two worlds
505(3)
Kant in the history of moral philosophy
508(25)
Equality with God
509(4)
From self-governance to autonomy
513(2)
Will and desire
515(3)
Natural law, obligation, and moral necessity
518(4)
Methods of ethics
522(3)
Virtue, love, and perfection
525(6)
Epilogue
531(2)
Pythagoras, Socrates, and Kant: Understanding the history of moral philosophy
533(22)
The Socrates story
534(2)
The Pythagoras story
536(4)
Revelation and reason
540(3)
Kant and the Pythagoras story
543(5)
Has moral philosophy a single aim?
548(2)
Continuity and change in moral philosophy
550(3)
Progress in moral philosophy
553(2)
Bibliography 555(38)
1 Sources
555(13)
2 Commentary
568(25)
Index of names 593(19)
Index of subjects 612(12)
Index of biblical citations 624

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